One-Dimensional ZnO/Gold Junction for Simultaneous and Versatile Multisensing Measurements.
ABSTRACT: The sensing capabilities of zinc oxide nano/micro-structures have been widely investigated and these structures are frequently used in the fabrication of cutting-edge sensors. However, to date, little attention has been paid to the multi-sensing abilities of this material. In this work, we present an efficient multisensor based on a single zinc oxide microwire/gold junction. The device is able to detect in real time three different stimuli, UV-VIS light, temperature and pH variations. This is thanks to three properties of zinc oxide its photoconductive response, pyroelectricity and surface functionalization with amino-propyl groups, respectively. The three stimuli can be detected either simultaneously or in a sequence/random order. A specific mathematical tool was also developed, together with a design of experiments (DoE), to predict the performances of the sensor. Our micro-device allows reliable and versatile real-time measurements of UV-VIS light, temperature and pH variations. Therefore, it shows great potential for use in the field of sensing for living cell cultures.
Project description:Zinc compounds in polyolefin films regulate the transmission of UV-VIS radiation, affect mechanical properties and antimicrobial activity. According to hypothesis, the use of zinc- containing masterbatches in polyethylene films (PE) with different chemical nature-hydrophilic zinc oxide (ZO) and hydrophobic zinc stearate (ZS)-can cause a synergistic effect, especially due to their antimicrobial properties. PE films obtained on an industrial scale containing zinc oxide and zinc stearate masterbatches were evaluated for antimicrobial activity against E. coli and S. aureus strains. The morphology of the samples (SEM), composition (EDX), UV barrier and transparency, mechanical properties and global migration level were also determined. SEM micrographs confirmed the good dispersion of zinc additives in the PE matrix. The use of both masterbatches in one material caused a synergistic effect of antimicrobial activity against both bacterial strains. The ZO masterbatch reduced the transparency of films, increased their UV-barrier ability and improved tensile strength, while the ZS masterbatch did not significantly change the tested parameters. The global migration limit was not exceeded for any of the samples. The use of ZO and ZS masterbatch mixtures enables the design of packaging with high microbiological protection with a controlled transmission for UV and VIS radiation.
Project description:We demonstrate that indium tin oxide nanowires (ITO NWs) and cationic polymer-modified ITO NWs configured in a network format can be used as high performing UV/vis photodetectors. The photovoltage response of ITO NWs is much higher than similarly constructed devices made from tin oxide, zinc tin oxide, and zinc oxide nanostructures. The ITO NW mesh-based devices exhibit a substantial photovoltage (31-100 mV under illumination with a 1.14 mW 543 nm laser) and photocurrent (225-325 μA at 3 V). The response time of the devices is fast with a rise time of 20-30 μs and a decay time of 1.5-3.7 ms when probed with a 355 nm pulsed laser. The photoresponsivity of the ITO NW devices ranges from 0.07 to 0.2 A/W at a 3 V bias, whose values are in the performance range of most commercial UV/vis photodetectors. Such useful photodetector characteristics from our ITO NW mesh devices are attained straightforwardly without the need for complicated fabrication procedures involving highly specialized lithographic tools. Therefore, our approach of ITO NW network-based photodetectors can serve as a convenient alternative to commercial or single NW-based devices.
Project description:Zinc oxide nanoparticles were successfully synthesized under precipitation processes, using ZnSO4·7H2O as a Zn2+ precursor and K2CO3 used as a basic source, and hydrozincite was obtained as an intermediary, which was treated under two procedures; first procedure involved multiple stages to get final precipitated with NaOH, and in the second procedure the hydrozincite was straightforwardly dried at 220 °C. By both processes ZnO structures were obtained, which were turned into nanoparticles by a solvothermal treatment, for four hours in ethylene glycol at 200 °C. The final products for the first procedure was conglomerate of spherical nanoparticles with sizes ranged between 5–10 nm and dispersed ellipsoidal nanoparticles for the second procedure. Apart off the two procedures mentioned above, another synthesis was carried out with the same Zn2+ precursor but now using NaOH, and the solvothermal treatment produced ZnO mixed micro-structures which under ultrasonic cavitation disaggregated on mesoporous ZnO nanoplates of hexagonal shapes with nanopore sizes of approximately 0.35 nm. All ZnOs synthesized were structurally characterized with XRD, TEM and FT–IR techniques, and electronically with UV–Vis absorption and diffuse reflectance spectroscopies. zinc oxide nanoparticles; solvothermal treatment; precipitation; alkaline media; ultrasonic cavitation; ZnO mesoporous
Project description:ZnO and TiOx are commonly used as electron extraction layers (EELs) in organic solar cells (OSCs). A general phenomenon of OSCs incorporating these metal-oxides is the requirement to illuminate the devices with UV light in order to improve device characteristics. This may cause severe problems if UV to VIS down-conversion is applied or if the UV spectral range (? < 400 nm) is blocked to achieve an improved device lifetime. In this work, silver nanoparticles (AgNP) are used to plasmonically sensitize metal-oxide based EELs in the vicinity (1-20 nm) of the metal-oxide/organic interface. We evidence that plasmonically sensitized metal-oxide layers facilitate electron extraction and afford well-behaved highly efficient OSCs, even without the typical requirement of UV exposure. It is shown that in the plasmonically sensitized metal-oxides the illumination with visible light lowers the WF due to desorption of previously ionosorbed oxygen, in analogy to the process found in neat metal oxides upon UV exposure, only. As underlying mechanism the transfer of hot holes from the metal to the oxide upon illumination with h? < Eg is verified. The general applicability of this concept to most common metal-oxides (e.g. TiOx and ZnO) in combination with different photoactive organic materials is demonstrated.
Project description:To research the relationship of micro-structures and antibacterial properties of the titanium-doped ZnO powders and probe their antibacterial mechanism, titanium-doped ZnO powders with different shapes and sizes were prepared from different zinc salts by alcohothermal method. The ZnO powders were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and selected area electron diffraction (SAED), and the antibacterial activities of titanium-doped ZnO powders on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were evaluated. Furthermore, the tested strains were characterized by SEM, and the electrical conductance variation trend of the bacterial suspension was characterized. The results indicate that the morphologies of the powders are different due to preparation from different zinc salts. The XRD results manifest that the samples synthesized from zinc acetate, zinc nitrate, and zinc chloride are zincite ZnO, and the sample synthesized from zinc sulfate is the mixture of ZnO, ZnTiO3, and ZnSO4 · 3Zn (OH)2 crystal. UV-vis spectra show that the absorption edges of the titanium-doped ZnO powders are red shifted to more than 400 nm which are prepared from zinc acetate, zinc nitrate, and zinc chloride. The antibacterial activity of titanium-doped ZnO powders synthesized from zinc chloride is optimal, and its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) are lower than 0.25 g L-1. Likewise, when the bacteria are treated by ZnO powders synthesized from zinc chloride, the bacterial cells are damaged most seriously, and the electrical conductance increment of bacterial suspension is slightly high. It can be inferred that the antibacterial properties of the titanium-doped ZnO powders are relevant to the microstructure, particle size, and the crystal. The powders can damage the cell walls; thus, the electrolyte is leaked from cells.
Project description:An ultraviolet-enhanced (UV-enhanced) nitric oxide (NO) sensor based on silver-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoflowers is developed using a low-cost hydrothermal method. The results indicate that silver (Ag) ions were doped into the ZnO nanostructure successfully, thus changing the morphology. In the high-resolution transmission electron microscopy images, we also found that some Ag ions were separated out onto the surface of the ZnO nanoflowers and that the Ag-doped and Ag nanoparticles improved the sensing property. The NO sensing property increased from 73.91 to 89.04% through the use of a UV light-emitting diode (UV-LED). The response time was approximately 120 s without the UV-LED, and the UV-enhanced Ag-doped ZnO nanoflower sensor exhibited a reduced response time (60 s). The best working temperature could be reduced from 200 to 150 °C using UV light illumination, and it was found that the NO response increased by 15.13% at 150 °C. The UV photoresponse of the Ag-doped ZnO nanoflowers and the mechanisms by which the improvement of NO sensing property occurred through the use of UV light illumination are discussed. The property of the gas sensor can be calibrated using a self-photoelectric effect under UV light illumination. These interesting UV-enhanced Ag-doped ZnO nanoflowers are viable candidates for practical applications.
Project description:This paper presents a customizable sensing system based on functionalized nanowires (NWs) assembled onto complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology. The Micro-for-Nano (M4N) chip integrates on top of the electronics an array of aluminum microelectrodes covered with gold by means of a customized electroless plating process. The NW assembly process is driven by an array of on-chip dielectrophoresis (DEP) generators, enabling a custom layout of different nanosensors on the same microelectrode array. The electrical properties of each assembled NW are singularly sensed through an in situ CMOS read-out circuit (ROC) that guarantees a low noise and reliable measurement. The M4N chip is directly connected to an external microcontroller for configuration and data processing. The processed data are then redirected to a workstation for real-time data visualization and storage during sensing experiments. As proof of concept, ZnO nanowires have been integrated onto the M4N chip to validate the approach that enables different kind of sensing experiments. The device has been then irradiated by an external UV source with adjustable power to measure the ZnO sensitivity to UV-light exposure. A maximum variation of about 80% of the ZnO-NW resistance has been detected by the M4N system when the assembled 5 ? m × 500 nm single ZnO-NW is exposed to an estimated incident radiant UV-light flux in the range of 1 nW-229 nW. The performed experiments prove the efficiency of the platform conceived for exploiting any kind of material that can change its capacitance and/or resistance due to an external stimulus.
Project description:Large-scale synthesis and release of nanomaterials in environment is a growing concern for human health and ecosystem. Therefore, we have investigated the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs), zinc oxide bulk (ZnO-Bulk), and zinc ions (Zn<sup>2+</sup>) in treated roots of Allium cepa, under hydroponic conditions. ZnO-NPs were characterized by UV-visible, XRD, FT-IR spectroscopy and TEM analyses. Bulbs of A. cepa exposed to ZnO-NPs (25.5?nm) for 12?h exhibited significant decrease (23?±?8.7%) in % mitotic index and increase in chromosomal aberrations (18?±?7.6%), in a dose-dependent manner. Transmission electron microcopy and FT-IR data suggested surface attachment, internalization and biomolecular intervention of ZnO-NPs in root cells, respectively. The levels of TBARS and antioxidant enzymes were found to be significantly greater in treated root cells vis-à-vis untreated control. Furthermore, dose-dependent increase in ROS production and alterations in ??m were observed in treated roots. FT-IR analysis of root tissues demonstrated symmetric and asymmetric P=O stretching of >PO<sub>2</sub><sup>-</sup> at 1240?cm<sup>-1</sup> and stretching of C-O ribose at 1060?cm<sup>-1</sup>, suggestive of nuclear damage. Overall, the results elucidated A. cepa, as a good model for assessment of cytotoxicity and oxidative DNA damage with ZnO-NPs and Zn<sup>2+</sup> in plants.
Project description:In this work, we report the fabrication of nonvolatile memory devices based on chemical vapor deposition-grown copper polyphthalocyanine (CuPPc) thin films. The high polymerization degree and crystallinity of the as-obtained films were confirmed by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and UV-vis studies. It was found that the device with Au/CuPPc/indium tin oxide sandwich structure exhibits good nonvolatile memory performance with a large ON/OFF current ratio of 103 and long retention time of 1.2 × 103 s.
Project description:The integration of acoustics and microfluidics (termed acoustofluidics) presents a frontier in the engineering of functional micro-/nanomaterials. Acoustofluidic techniques enable active and precise spatiotemporal control of matter, providing great potential for the design of advanced nanosystems with tunable material properties. In this work, we introduce an acoustofluidic approach for engineering multifunctional three-dimensional nanostructure arrays and demonstrate their potential in enrichment and biosensing applications. In particular, our acoustofluidic device integrates an acoustic transducer with a sharp-edge-based acoustofluidic reactor that enables uniform patterning of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoarrays with customizable lengths, densities, diameters, and other properties. The resulting ZnO nanoarray-coated glass capillaries can rapidly and efficiently capture and enrich biomolecules with sizes ranging from a few nanometers to several hundred nanometers. In order to enable the detection of these biomolecules, silver (Ag) nanoparticles are deposited onto the ZnO nanoarrays, and the integrated ZnO-Ag capillary device functions as a label-free plasmonic biosensing system for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) based detection of exosomes, DNA oligonucleotides, and E. coli bacteria. The optical sensing enhancement of ZnO-Ag capillary is further validated through finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations. These findings not only provide insights into the engineering of functional micro/nanomaterials using acoustofluidics but also shed light onto the development of portable microanalytical devices for point-of-care applications.