Defective glucose metabolism in polycystic kidney disease identifies a new therapeutic strategy.
ABSTRACT: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a common genetic disorder characterized by bilateral renal cyst formation. Recent identification of signaling cascades deregulated in ADPKD has led to the initiation of several clinical trials, but an approved therapy is still lacking. Using a metabolomic approach, we identify a pathogenic pathway in this disease that can be safely targeted for therapy. We show that mutation of PKD1 results in enhanced glycolysis in cells in a mouse model of PKD and in kidneys from humans with ADPKD. Glucose deprivation resulted in lower proliferation and higher apoptotic rates in PKD1-mutant cells than in nondeprived cells. Notably, two distinct PKD mouse models treated with 2-deoxyglucose (2DG), to inhibit glycolysis, had lower kidney weight, volume, cystic index and proliferation rates as compared to nontreated mice. These metabolic alterations depend on the extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) pathway acting in a dual manner by inhibiting the liver kinase B1 (LKB1)-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) axis on the one hand while activating the mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1)-glycolytic cascade on the other. Enhanced metabolic rates further inhibit AMPK. Forced activation of AMPK acts in a negative feedback loop, restoring normal ERK activity. Taken together, these data indicate that defective glucose metabolism is intimately involved in the pathobiology of ADPKD. Our findings provide a strong rationale for a new therapeutic strategy using existing drugs, either individually or in combination.
Project description:Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is an important cause of ESRD for which there exists no approved therapy in the United States. Defective glucose metabolism has been identified as a feature of ADPKD, and inhibition of glycolysis using glucose analogs ameliorates aggressive PKD in preclinical models. Here, we investigated the effects of chronic treatment with low doses of the glucose analog 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2DG) on ADPKD progression in orthologous and slowly progressive murine models created by inducible inactivation of the Pkd1 gene postnatally. As previously reported, early inactivation (postnatal days 11 and 12) of Pkd1 resulted in PKD developing within weeks, whereas late inactivation (postnatal days 25-28) resulted in PKD developing in months. Irrespective of the timing of Pkd1 gene inactivation, cystic kidneys showed enhanced uptake of (13)C-glucose and conversion to (13)C-lactate. Administration of 2DG restored normal renal levels of the phosphorylated forms of AMP-activated protein kinase and its target acetyl-CoA carboxylase. Furthermore, 2DG greatly retarded disease progression in both model systems, reducing the increase in total kidney volume and cystic index and markedly reducing CD45-positive cell infiltration. Notably, chronic administration of low doses (100 mg/kg 5 days per week) of 2DG did not result in any obvious sign of toxicity as assessed by analysis of brain and heart histology as well as behavioral tests. Our data provide proof of principle support for the use of 2DG as a therapeutic strategy in ADPKD.
Project description:<h4>Background and purpose</h4>The pathogenic mechanism of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is unclear. Similar to tumour cells, polycystic kidney cells are primarily dependent on aerobic glycolysis for ATP production. Compared with rodents, miniature pigs are more similar to humans. This study is the first time to investigate the effects of the combination of metformin and 2-deoxyglucose (2DG) in a pig model of chronic progressive ADPKD.<h4>Experimental approach</h4>A miniature pig ADPKD model was established by inducible deletion of the PKD1 gene. Blood, urine and kidney biopsy specimens were collected for analysis at specific times. The renal vesicle index was analysed by three-dimensional reconstruction of CT scans. Markers of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and ERK signalling pathways and associated metabolism were detected by Western blots and colorimetry.<h4>Key results</h4>The three-dimensional reconstruction of CT scans indicated a markedly lower renal vesicle index in the combination therapy group. Each drug intervention group showed a significantly lower serum creatinine and urinary protein/creatinine ratio. This treatment regimen also inhibited the activities of markers of the proliferation-related mTOR and ERK pathways, and the expression of key enzymes involved in glycolysis, as well as reducing the production of ATP and lactic acid.<h4>Conclusions and implications</h4>This study showed that the combination of metformin and 2DG blocked the formation of renal cysts and improved the renal function in ADPKD miniature pigs. Our results indicate that the combination of metformin and 2DG may be a promising therapeutic strategy in human ADPKD.
Project description:Dysregulated signaling cascades alter energy metabolism and promote cell proliferation and cyst expansion in polycystic kidney disease (PKD). Here we tested whether metabolic reprogramming towards aerobic glycolysis ("Warburg effect") plays a pathogenic role in male heterozygous Han:SPRD rats (Cy/+), a chronic progressive model of PKD. Using microarray analysis and qPCR, we found an upregulation of genes involved in glycolysis (Hk1, Hk2, Ldha) and a downregulation of genes involved in gluconeogenesis (G6pc, Lbp1) in cystic kidneys of Cy/+ rats compared with wild-type (+/+) rats. We then tested the effect of inhibiting glycolysis with 2-deoxyglucose (2DG) on renal functional loss and cyst progression in 5-week-old male Cy/+ rats. Treatment with 2DG (500 mg/kg/day) for 5 weeks resulted in significantly lower kidney weights (-27%) and 2-kidney/total-body-weight ratios (-20%) and decreased renal cyst index (-48%) compared with vehicle treatment. Cy/+ rats treated with 2DG also showed higher clearances of creatinine (1.98±0.67 vs 1.41±0.37 ml/min), BUN (0.69±0.26 vs 0.40±0.10 ml/min) and uric acid (0.38±0.20 vs 0.21±0.10 ml/min), and reduced albuminuria. Immunoblotting analysis of kidney tissues harvested from 2DG-treated Cy/+ rats showed increased phosphorylation of AMPK-?, a negative regulator of mTOR, and restoration of ERK signaling. Assessment of Ki-67 staining indicated that 2DG limits cyst progression through inhibition of epithelial cell proliferation. Taken together, our results show that targeting the glycolytic pathway may represent a promising therapeutic strategy to control cyst growth in PKD.
Project description:Heterozygous mutations in PKD1 or PKD2, which encode polycystin-1 (PC1) and polycystin-2 (PC2), respectively, cause autosomal dominant PKD (ADPKD), whereas mutations in PKHD1, which encodes fibrocystin/polyductin (FPC), cause autosomal recessive PKD (ARPKD). However, the relationship between these proteins and the pathogenesis of PKD remains unclear. To model PKD in human cells, we established induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell lines from fibroblasts of three ADPKD and two ARPKD patients. Genetic sequencing revealed unique heterozygous mutations in PKD1 of the parental ADPKD fibroblasts but no pathogenic mutations in PKD2. Undifferentiated PKD iPS cells, control iPS cells, and embryonic stem cells elaborated primary cilia and expressed PC1, PC2, and FPC at similar levels, and PKD and control iPS cells exhibited comparable rates of proliferation, apoptosis, and ciliogenesis. However, ADPKD iPS cells as well as somatic epithelial cells and hepatoblasts/biliary precursors differentiated from these cells expressed lower levels of PC2 at the cilium. Additional sequencing confirmed the retention of PKD1 heterozygous mutations in iPS cell lines from two patients but identified possible loss of heterozygosity in iPS cell lines from one patient. Furthermore, ectopic expression of wild-type PC1 in ADPKD iPS-derived hepatoblasts rescued ciliary PC2 protein expression levels, and overexpression of PC1 but not a carboxy-terminal truncation mutant increased ciliary PC2 expression levels in mouse kidney cells. Taken together, these results suggest that PC1 regulates ciliary PC2 protein expression levels and support the use of PKD iPS cells for investigating disease pathophysiology.
Project description:PURPOSE:Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) represents the most common hereditary nephropathy. Despite growing evidence for genetic heterogeneity, ADPKD diagnosis is still primarily based upon clinical imaging criteria established before discovery of additional PKD genes. This study aimed at assessing the diagnostic value of genetic verification in clinical ADPKD. METHODS:In this prospective, diagnostic trial, 100 families with clinically diagnosed ADPKD were analyzed by PKD gene panel and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA); exome sequencing (ES) was performed in panel/MLPA-negative families. RESULTS:Diagnostic PKD1/2 variants were identified in 81 families (81%), 70 of which in PKD1 and 11 in PKD2. PKD1 variants of unknown significance were detected in another 9 families (9%). Renal survival was significantly worse upon PKD1 truncation versus nontruncation and PKD2 alteration. Ten percent of the cohort were PKD1/2-negative, revealing alternative genetic diagnoses such as autosomal recessive PKD, Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome, and ALG9-associated PKD. In addition, among unsolved cases, ES yielded potential novel PKD candidates. CONCLUSION:By illustrating vast genetic heterogeneity, this study demonstrates the value of genetic testing in a real-world PKD cohort by diagnostic verification, falsification, and disease prediction. In the era of specific treatment for fast progressive ADPKD, genetic confirmation should form the basis of personalized patient care.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is the most common hereditary kidney disease. The main mutational genes causing autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) are PKD1 and PKD2 as well as some rare pathogenic genes. Unilateral PKD is rare in clinics, and its association with gene mutations is unclear. METHODS:Targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) was performed to detect the renal ciliopathy-associated genes (targeted NGS panel including 63 genes) in PKD patients. RESULTS:Forty-eight PKD1 and PKD2 mutation sites were detected in 44 bilateral PKD patients, of which 48 were PKD1 mutation sites (87.5%) and six were PKD2 mutation sites (12.5%). All of which exhibited typical ADPKD. Furthermore, we detected HNF1B heterozygous mutations in three families. Although these three patients showed HNF1B heterozygous mutations, their clinical characteristics differed and showed phenotypic heterogeneity. CONCLUSIONS:Targeted NGS panel was helpful in detecting typical ADPKD patients and even in non-typical PKD patients. Macromutation in HNF1B may lead to bilateral PKD. The 16 novel PKD gene mutation sites and two novel PKD2 gene mutation sites discovered in this study have some significance in genetic counseling for ADPKD patients, and increase the number of studied families and expand the mutation database of ADPKD.
Project description:Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is driven by mutations in PKD1 and PKD2 genes. Recent work suggests that epigenetic modulation of gene expression and protein function may play a role in ADPKD pathogenesis. In this study, we identified SMYD2, a SET and MYND domain protein with lysine methyltransferase activity, as a regulator of renal cyst growth. SMYD2 was upregulated in renal epithelial cells and tissues from Pkd1-knockout mice as well as in ADPKD patients. SMYD2 deficiency delayed renal cyst growth in postnatal kidneys from Pkd1 mutant mice. Pkd1 and Smyd2 double-knockout mice lived longer than Pkd1-knockout mice. Targeting SMYD2 with its specific inhibitor, AZ505, delayed cyst growth in both early- and later-stage Pkd1 conditional knockout mouse models. SMYD2 carried out its function via methylation and activation of STAT3 and the p65 subunit of NF-?B, leading to increased cystic renal epithelial cell proliferation and survival. We further identified two positive feedback loops that integrate epigenetic regulation and renal inflammation in cyst development: SMYD2/IL-6/STAT3/SMYD2 and SMYD2/TNF-?/NF-?B/SMYD2. These pathways provide mechanisms by which SMYD2 might be induced by cyst fluid IL-6 and TNF-? in ADPKD kidneys. The SMYD2 transcriptional target gene Ptpn13 also linked SMYD2 to other PKD-associated signaling pathways, including ERK, mTOR, and Akt signaling, via PTPN13-mediated phosphorylation.
Project description:Autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common inherited kidney disease and is characterized by progressive growth of fluid-filled cysts. Growth factors binding to receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) stimulate cell proliferation and cyst growth in PKD. Nintedanib, a triple RTK inhibitor, targets the vascular endothelial growth-factor receptor (VEGFR), platelet-derived growth-factor receptor (PDGFR), and fibroblast growth-factor receptor (FGFR), and is an approved drug for the treatment of non-small-cell lung carcinoma and idiopathic lung fibrosis. To determine if RTK inhibition using nintedanib can slow ADPKD progression, we tested its effect on human ADPKD renal cyst epithelial cells and myofibroblasts in vitro, and on Pkd1<sup>f/f</sup>Pkhd1<sup>Cre</sup> and Pkd1<sup>RC/RC</sup>, orthologous mouse models of ADPKD. Nintedanib significantly inhibited cell proliferation and in vitro cyst growth of human ADPKD renal cyst epithelial cells, and cell viability and migration of human ADPKD renal myofibroblasts. Consistently, nintedanib treatment significantly reduced kidney-to-body-weight ratio, renal cystic index, cystic epithelial cell proliferation, and blood-urea nitrogen levels in both the Pkd1<sup>f/f</sup>Pkhd1<sup>Cre</sup> and Pkd1<sup>RC/RC</sup> mice. There was a corresponding reduction in ERK, AKT, STAT3, and mTOR activity and expression of proproliferative factors, including Yes-associated protein (YAP), c-Myc, and Cyclin D1. Nintedanib treatment significantly reduced fibrosis in Pkd1<sup>RC/RC</sup> mice, but did not affect renal fibrosis in Pkd1<sup>f/f</sup>Pkhd1<sup>Cre</sup> mice. Overall, these results suggest that nintedanib may be repurposed to effectively slow cyst growth in ADPKD.
Project description:<b>Background:</b> Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is caused by mutations of the <i>PKD1</i> and <i>PKD2</i> genes. Dysregulation of the expression of PKD genes, the abnormal activation of PKD associated signaling pathways, and the expression and maturation of miRNAs regulates cyst progression. However, the upstream factors regulating these abnormal processes in ADPKD remain elusive. <b>Methods:</b> To investigate the roles of an RNA helicase, p68, in ADPKD, we performed Western blot and qRT-PCR analysis, immunostaining and ChIP assay in cystic renal epithelium cells and tissues. <b>Results:</b> We found that p68 was upregulated in cystic renal epithelial cells and tissues. p68 represses <i>Pkd1</i> gene expression via transcriptional and posttranscriptional mechanisms in renal epithelial cells, in that 1) p68 binds to the promoter of the <i>Pkd1</i> gene together with p53 to repress transcription; and 2) p68 promotes the expression and maturation of miR-17, miR-200c and miR-182 and via these miRNAs, post-transcriptionally regulates the expression of <i>Pkd1</i> mRNA. Drosha is involved in this process by forming a complex with p68. p68 also regulates the phosphorylation and activation of PKD proliferation associated signaling and the expression of fibrotic markers in <i>Pkd1</i> mutant renal epithelial cells. Silence of p68 delays cyst formation in collecting duct cell mediated 3D cultures. In addition, the expression of p68 is induced by H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>-dependent oxidative stress and DNA damage which causes downregulation of <i>Pkd1</i> transcription in cystic renal epithelial cells and tissues. <b>Conclusions:</b> p68 plays a critical role in negatively regulating the expression of the <i>PKD1</i> gene along with positively regulating the expression and maturation of miRNAs and activation of PKD associated signaling pathways to cause renal cyst progression and fibrosis in ADPKD.
Project description:Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), characterized by progressive cyst formation/expansion, results in enlarged kidneys and often end stage kidney disease. ADPKD is genetically heterogeneous; PKD1 and PKD2 are the common loci (∼78% and ∼15% of families) and GANAB, DNAJB11, and ALG9 are minor genes. PKD is a ciliary-associated disease, a ciliopathy, and many syndromic ciliopathies have a PKD phenotype. In a multi-cohort/-site collaboration, we screened ADPKD-diagnosed families that were naive to genetic testing (n = 834) or for whom no PKD1 and PKD2 pathogenic variants had been identified (n = 381) with a PKD targeted next-generation sequencing panel (tNGS; n = 1,186) or whole-exome sequencing (WES; n = 29). We identified monoallelic IFT140 loss-of-function (LoF) variants in 12 multiplex families and 26 singletons (1.9% of naive families). IFT140 is a core component of the intraflagellar transport-complex A, responsible for retrograde ciliary trafficking and ciliary entry of membrane proteins; bi-allelic IFT140 variants cause the syndromic ciliopathy, short-rib thoracic dysplasia (SRTD9). The distinctive monoallelic phenotype is mild PKD with large cysts, limited kidney insufficiency, and few liver cysts. Analyses of the cystic kidney disease probands of Genomics England 100K showed that 2.1% had IFT140 LoF variants. Analysis of the UK Biobank cystic kidney disease group showed probands with IFT140 LoF variants as the third most common group, after PKD1 and PKD2. The proximity of IFT140 to PKD1 (∼0.5 Mb) in 16p13.3 can cause diagnostic confusion, and PKD1 variants could modify the IFT140 phenotype. Importantly, our studies link a ciliary structural protein to the ADPKD spectrum.