NALP3-Inflammasome-Related Gene Polymorphisms in Patients with Prehypertension and Coronary Atherosclerosis.
ABSTRACT: Objectives. Prehypertension is an early stage of hypertension that is characterized by inflammatory factors. Inflammation also plays an essential role in the development of coronary atherosclerosis (CAS). The present study evaluated the NALP3-inflammasome and its related genes, NLRP3, NOD2, and CARD8, using SNP linkage and gene haplotypes in prehypertensive patients. Methods. A total of 576 patients with prehypertension and suspected coronary heart disease (CHD) were enrolled. According to coronary angiography, patients were divided into two groups: arterial stenosis <50% of the diameter (control) and arterial stenosis >50% of the diameter (case). Fifteen polymorphisms in the NOD2, NLRP3, and CARD8 genes were analyzed, and serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured. Results. When comparing allele frequencies, none of these 15 SNPs in NOD2, CARD8, and NLPR3 genes showed a significant difference using multiple logistic regression. However, the CTACATAA (p = 0.0064) and CCACATAG (p = 0.0126) haplotypes of the NOD2 gene SNPs were significantly different between cases and controls. Conclusions. Although our study excludes a significant association of selected SNPs in these genes with CHD in prehypertension patients, this work suggests that the CTACATAA and CCACATAG haplotypes were associated with CHD in the NOD2 locus. This work suggests that the CTACATAA and CCACATAG haplotypes were associated with CHD in prehypertension patients in the NOD2 locus.
Project description:The objective of this study is to investigate the potential association of the NLRP3 rs10754558 and CARD8 rs2043211 polymorphisms with the occurrence and prognosis of CAD. Gene polymorphisms were analyzed using the ABI PRISM-Snapshot multiplex method in 515 CAD patients and 401 control subjects. The serum level of IL-1? was investigated by ELISA assays. The clinical endpoints were evaluated during a median follow-up period of 32 months. The NLRP3 rs10754558 gene polymorphism was significantly associated with the occurrence of CAD, while the CARD8 rs2043211 gene polymorphism was not involved. Patients carrying G allele of NLRP3 rs10754558 had more severe coronary artery stenosis. Multivariable analysis revealed a significant association of the G allele with major adverse cardiac event. The serum IL-1? concentrations in patients with GG genotype were significantly increased compared with those in the patients with CC genotype. Our findings for the first time show that the NLRP3 rs10754558 polymorphism is involved in the occurrence of CAD in the Chinese Han population; and G allele can effectively predict clinical outcome of CAD. The G allele susceptibility to CAD is maybe associated with the increased level of serum IL-1?.
Project description:NLRP3 inflammasome has been widely implicated in the development and progression of various hematological diseases. However, how NLRP3 inflammasome contributes to the pathogenesis and clinical features of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is still unknown. Here, in ALL patients' bone marrow, we investigated the single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and expression of NLRP3 inflammasome related genes, NF-?B, NLRP3, IL-1?, IL-18, Caspase-1, and ASC. A total of 308 ALL patients and 300 healthy participants were included in this study. D allele and DD genotype under codominant model of NF-?B-94ins/del ATTG were showed as a protective factor in susceptibility of ALL. As for CARD8 (rs2043211), AT/TT genotype under dominant model and TT genotype under codominant model greatly increased the ALL susceptibility. We further studied the relationship between NLRP3 inflammasome genetic polymorphisms and clinical relevance. The results showed that DD genotype of NF-?B-94 ins/del ATTG and AT/TT genotype of CARD8 (rs2043211) contributed to lower WBC count and T-cell immunophenotype, respectively. Moreover, we also found that AT and TT genotypes of CARD8 (rs2043211), GT and TT genotypes of IL-1? (rs16944), and TT genotype of IL-18 (rs1946518) were associated with higher mRNA expression of NLRP3 inflammasome related genes and secretion of downstream cytokines. In conclusion, NF-?B-94 ins/del ATTG and CARD8 (rs2043211) genotypes might serve as novel biomarkers and potential targets for ALL.
Project description:Members of the Nod-like receptor (NLR) family recognize intracellular pathogens and recruit a variety of effector molecules, including pro-caspases and kinases, which in turn are implicated in cytokine processing and NF-kappaB activation.In order to elucidate the intricate network of NLR signaling, which is still fragmentary in molecular terms, we applied comprehensive yeast two-hybrid analysis for unbiased evaluation of physical interactions between NLRs and their adaptors (ASC, CARD8) as well as kinase RIPK2 and inflammatory caspases (C1, C2, C4, C5) under identical conditions. Our results confirmed the interaction of NOD1 and NOD2 with RIPK2, and between NLRP3 and ASC, but most importantly, our studies revealed hitherto unrecognized interactions of NOD2 with members of the NLRP subfamily. We found that NOD2 specifically and directly interacts with NLRP1, NLRP3 and NLRP12. Furthermore, we observed homodimerization of the RIPK2 CARD domains and identified residues in NOD2 critical for interaction with RIPK2.In conclusion, our work provides further evidence for the complex network of protein-protein interactions underlying NLR function.
Project description:Caspase activating and recruitment domain 8 (CARD8) has been implicated as a co-regulator of several pro-inflammatory and apoptotic signaling pathways. In the present study, we demonstrate a specific modulation of NOD2-induced signaling by CARD8 in intestinal epithelial cells. We show that CARD8 physically interacts with NOD2 and inhibits nodosome assembly and subsequent signaling upon muramyl-dipeptide stimulation. Furthermore, CARD8 inhibits the direct bactericidal effect of NOD2 against intracellular infection by Listeria monocytogenes. Thus, CARD8 represents a novel molecular switch involved in the endogenous regulation of NOD2-dependent inflammatory processes in epithelial cells.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Bacterial DNA has been repeatedly detected in atheromatous lesions of coronary heart disease (CHD) patients. Phylogenetic signatures in the atheroma lesions that are similar to those of bacterial biofilms on human barrier organs, including the respiratory or gastrointestinal tract, raise the question of a defective barrier function in CHD. NOD2 plays a major role in defense against bacterial invasion. Genetic variation in the CARD15 gene, which encodes NOD2, was previously shown to result in a barrier defect that causes chronic inflammatory disorders (e.g. Crohn disease). In the present study, we investigated the possible involvement of NOD2/CARD15 in the pathology of CHD by i) analyzing the local expression of NOD2 in atherectomy versus healthy tissue (n = 5 each) using histochemical immunofluorescence and ii) by testing the three major functional CARD15 variants (R702W, G908R and 1007fs) for association with early-onset CHD in 900 German patients and 632 healthy controls. RESULTS: In atherectomy tissue of CHD patients, NOD2 was detected in inflammatory cells at the luminal sides of the lesions. However, the allele and genotype frequencies of the three major CARD15 polymorphisms did not differ between CHD patients and controls. CONCLUSION: The NOD2 up-regulation in atheroma lesions indicates an involvement of this protein in the pathology of CHD. Although NOD2 could be important in local immune response mechanisms, none of the analyzed CARD15 variants seem to play a significant role in the etiology of CHD.
Project description:This study aimed to detect the association of the MADD-FOLH1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and their haplotypes with the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) and ischemic stroke (IS) in a Chinese Han population. Six SNPs of rs7395662, rs326214, rs326217, rs1051006, rs3736101, and rs7120118 were genotyped in 584 CHD and 555 IS patients, and 596 healthy controls. The genotypic and allelic frequencies of the rs7395662 SNP were different between controls and patients, and the genotypes of the rs7395662 SNP were associated with the risk of CHD and IS in different genetic models. Six main haplotypes among the rs1051006, rs326214, rs326217, rs3736101, and rs7120118 SNPs were detected in our study population, the haplotypes of G-G-T-G-C and G-A-T-G-T were associated with an increased risk of CHD and IS, respectively. The subjects with rs7395662GG genotype in controls had higher triglyceride (TG) and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels than the subjects with AA/AG genotypes. Several SNPs interacted with alcohol consumption to influence serum TG (rs326214, rs326217, and rs7120118) and HDL-C (rs7395662) levels. The SNP of rs3736101 interacted with cigarette smoking to modify serum HDL-C levels. The SNP of rs1051006 interacted with body mass index ?24 kg/m² to modulate serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. The interactions of several haplotypes and alcohol consumption on the risk of CHD and IS were also observed.
Project description:Inflammasome innate immune response activation has been demonstrated in various inflammatory diseases and microbial infections. However, to our knowledge, no study has examined the inflammasome-dependent pathways in patients with urinary tract infection. Defective or variant genes associated with innate immunity are believed to alter the host's susceptibility to microbial infection. This study investigated genetic polymorphisms in genes encoding inflammasomes and the subsequent released cytokines in pediatric patients with severe renal parenchymal infections.This study included patients diagnosed with acute pyelonephritis (APN) and acute lobar nephronia (ALN) who had no underlying disease or structural anomalies other than vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping was performed in the genes associated with inflammasome formation and activation (NLRP3, CARD8) and subsequent IL-1? cytokine generation (IL-1?).A total of 40 SNPs were selected for initial genotyping. Analysis of samples from 48 patients each and 96 controls revealed that only nine SNPs (five SNPs in NLRP3; three SNPs in CARD8; one SNP in IL-1?) had heterozygosity rates >0.01. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was satisfied for the observed genotype frequencies of these SNPs. Analysis excluding patients with VUR, a well-known risk factor for severe UTIs, revealed a lower frequency of the CC genotype in NLRP3 (rs4612666) in patients with APN and ALN than in controls. Correction for multiple-SNP testing showed that the non-VUR subgroup of the APN+ALN combined patient groups remained significantly different from the control group (P < 0.0055).This study is the first to suggest that the inflammasome-dependent innate immunity pathway is associated with the pathogenesis of pediatric severe renal parenchymal infections. Further investigation is warranted to clarify its pathogenic mechanism.
Project description:In these studies, we evaluated the contribution of the NLRP3 inflammasome to Crohn's disease (CD) in a kindred containing individuals having a missense mutation in CARD8, a protein known to inhibit this inflammasome. Whole exome sequencing and PCR studies identified the affected individuals as having a V44I mutation in a single allele of the T60 isoform of CARD8. The serum levels of IL-1? in the affected individuals were increased compared with those in healthy controls, and their peripheral monocytes produced increased amounts of IL-1? when stimulated by NLRP3 activators. Immunoblot studies probing the basis of these findings showed that mutated T60 CARD8 failed to downregulate the NLRP3 inflammasome because it did not bind to NLRP3 and inhibit its oligomerization. In addition, these studies showed that mutated T60 CARD8 exerted a dominant-negative effect by its capacity to bind to and form oligomers with unmutated T60 or T48 CARD8 that impeded their binding to NLRP3. Finally, inflammasome activation studies revealed that intact but not mutated CARD8 prevented NLRP3 deubiquitination and serine dephosphorylation. CD due to a CARD8 mutation was not effectively treated by anti-TNF-?, but did respond to IL-1? inhibitors. Thus, patients with anti-TNF-?-resistant CD may respond to this treatment option.
Project description:NLRP3 plays a role in sensing various pathogen components or stresses in the innate immune system. Once activated, NLRP3 associates with apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC) and procaspase-1 to form a large protein complex termed inflammasome. Although some investigators have proposed a model of NLRP3-inflammasome containing an adaptor protein caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 8 (CARD8), the role of this molecule remains obscure. This study aimed to clarify the interaction between CARD8 and wild-type NLRP3 as well as mutant forms of NLRP3 linked with cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes (CAPS).In here HEK293 expression system, cells were transfected with the cDNAs for inflammasome components. Also used were peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and human monocyte-derived macrophages (HMDMs) from healthy volunteers. The interaction of CARD8 and NLRP3 was studied by immunoprecipitation. The effect of CARD8 expression on IL-1? secretion was assessed by ELISA. CARD8 knockdown experiments were carried out by transfection of the specific siRNA into HMDMs.In HEK293 cells, CARD8 interacted with wild-type NLRP3, but not with CAPS-associated mutant NLRP3. CARD8 significantly reduced IL-1? secretion from cells transfected with wild-type NLRP3, but not if they were transfected with mutant NLRP3. In addition, association of endogenously expressed CARD8 with NLRP3 was confirmed in resting PBMCs, and CARD8 knockdown resulted in higher amount of IL-1? secretion from HMDMs.Until specific stimuli activate NLRP3, CARD8 holds NLRP3, and is supposed to prevent activation by subtle stimuli. However, CAPS-associated mutant NLRP3 is unable to bind with CARD8, which might be relevant to the pathogenesis of CAPS.
Project description:The pathogenesis of multiple myeloma (MM) remains unclear and the NLRP3 inflammasome has been more and more recognized in the progression of many diseases. To investigate the role of the NLRP3 inflammasome in MM, we determined the genetic polymorphisms and expression of NLRP3 inflammasome-related genes (IL-1β, IL-18, CARD8, and NF-κB) in MM patients, and explored their clinical relevance. Furthermore, we investigated the relationship of the NLRP3 inflammasome with Th cells in MM. Our study showed that the CARD8-C10X (rs2043211) AT genotype contributed to the susceptibility of MM. CARD8-C10X TT patients had earlier clinical stage. The WBC count in the three CARD8 genotypes showed an increasing trend (AA<AT<TT). Compared with patients with NF-κB-94 ins/del ATTG ins/ins and ins/del, patients with del/del had the highest myeloma cell ratio. Patients with IL-18 (rs16944) TT had the highest hemoglobin concentration (GG<GT<TT). Furthermore, we found that the genotype of CARD8-C10X (rs2043211) or NF-κB-94 ins/del ATTG was closely related to the frequency of Th1. Therefore, the genetic polymorphisms of the NLRP3 inflammasome associated with Th cells might be involved in the pathogenesis of multiple myeloma.