Prognostic Impact of Combined Contrast-Induced Acute Kidney Injury and Hypoxic Liver Injury in Patients with ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction Undergoing Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: Results from INTERSTELLAR Registry.
ABSTRACT: Besides contrast-induced acute kidney injury(CI-AKI), adscititious vital organ damage such as hypoxic liver injury(HLI) may affect the survival in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). We sought to evaluate the prognostic impact of CI-AKI and HLI in STEMI patients who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).A total of 668 consecutive patients (77.2% male, mean age 61.3±13.3 years) from the INTERSTELLAR STEMI registry who underwent primary PCI were analyzed. CI-AKI was defined as an increase of ?0.5 mg/dL in serum creatinine level or 25% relative increase, within 48h after the index procedure. HLI was defined as ?2-fold increase in serum aspartate transaminase above the upper normal limit on admission. Patients were divided into four groups according to their CI-AKI and HLI states. Major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) defined as a composite of all-cause mortality, non-fatal MI, non-fatal stroke, ischemia-driven target lesion revascularization and target vessel revascularization were recorded.Over a mean follow-up period of 2.2±1.6 years, 94 MACCEs occurred with an event rate of 14.1%. The rates of MACCE and all-cause mortality were 9.7% and 5.2%, respectively, in the no organ damage group; 21.3% and 21.3% in CI-AKI group; 18.5% and 14.6% in HLI group; and 57.7% and 50.0% in combined CI-AKI and HLI group. Survival probability plots of composite MACCE and all-cause mortality revealed that the combined CI-AKI and HLI group was associated with the worst prognosis (p<0.0001 for both).Combined CI-AKI after index procedure and HLI on admission is associated with poor clinical outcomes in patients with STEMI who underwent primary PCI. (INTERSTELLAR ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02800421.).
Project description:BACKGROUND:Elevated serum transaminase or alkaline phosphatase (ALP) has been proposed as a novel prognosticator for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). We evaluated the combined prognostic impact of elevated serum transaminases and ALP on admission in STEMI patients who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). METHODS:A total of 1176 patients with STEMI undergoing primary PCI were retrospectively enrolled from the INTERSTELLAR registry. Hypoxic liver injury (HLI) was defined as serum transaminase > twice the upper limit of normal. The cut-off value of high ALP was set at the median level (73 IU/L). Patients were divided into four groups according to their serum transaminase and ALP levels. The primary endpoint was major adverse cardiac or cerebrovascular events (MACCE), defined as the composite of all-cause death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke, and ischemia-driven revascularization. RESULTS:Median follow-up duration was 25 months (interquartile range, 10-39 months). The rate of MACCE was highest in patients with HLI (+) and high ALP (25.9%), compared to those in the other groups (8.2% in HLI [-] and low ALP, 11.8% in HLI [-] and high ALP, and 15.0% in HLI [+] and low ALP). Each of HLI or high ALP was an independent predictor for MACCE (HR 1.807, 95% CI 1.191-2.741; HR 1.721, 95% CI 1.179-2.512, respectively). Combined HLI and high ALP was associated with the worst prognosis (HR 3.145, 95% CI 1.794-5.514). CONCLUSIONS:Combined HLI and high ALP on admission is associated with poor clinical outcomes in patients with STEMI who have undergone primary PCI.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) has been shown to be a prognostic factor in several subgroups of patients due to its promotion of vascular calcification. However, the prognostic impact of serum ALP level in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients with a relatively low calcification burden has not been determined. We aimed to investigate the association of ALP level measured at time of presentation on clinical outcomes in patients with STEMI requiring primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). METHODS:A total of 1178 patients with STEMI undergoing primary PCI between 2007 and 2014 were retrospectively enrolled from the INTERSTELLAR registry and classified into tertiles by ALP level (<64, 65-82, or >83 IU/L). The primary study outcome was a major adverse cardiac or cerebrovascular event (MACCE), defined as the composite of all-cause death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke, and ischemia-driven revascularization. RESULTS:Median follow-up duration was 25 months (interquartile range, 10-39 months). The incidence of MACCE significantly increased as ALP level increased, that is, for the <64, 65-82, and >83 IU/L tertiles incidences were 8.7%, 11.7%, and 15.7%, respectively; p for trend = 0.003). After adjustment for potential confounders, the adjusted hazard ratios for MACCE in the middle and highest tertiles were 1.69 (95% CI 1.01-2.81) and 2.46 (95% CI 1.48-4.09), respectively, as compared with the lowest ALP tertile. CONCLUSIONS:Elevated ALP level at presentation, but within the higher limit of normal, was found to be independently associated with higher risk of MACCE after primary PCI in patients with STEMI.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Recently, several randomized trials have noted improved outcomes with staged percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of nonculprit vessels in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and multivessel disease. However, it remains unclear whether diabetes status affects the outcomes after different revascularization strategies. This study thus compared the impact of diabetes status on long-term outcomes after staged complete revascularization with that after culprit-only PCI.<h4>Methods</h4>From January 2006 to December 2015, 371 diabetic patients (staged PCI: 164, culprit-only PCI: 207) and 834 nondiabetic patients (staged PCI: 412, culprit-only PCI: 422) with STEMI and multivessel disease were enrolled. The primary endpoint was 5-year major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular event (MACCE), defined as a composite of all-cause death, myocardial infarction (MI), stroke or unplanned revascularization.<h4>Results</h4>The rate of the 5-year composite primary endpoint for diabetic patients was close to that for nondiabetic patients (34.5% vs. 33.7%; adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.012, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.815-1.255). In nondiabetic patients, the 5-year risks of MACCE (31.8% vs. 35.5%; adjusted HR 0.638, 95% CI 0.500-0.816), MI (4.6% vs. 9.2%; adjusted HR 0.358, 95% CI 0.200-0.641), unplanned revascularization (19.9% vs. 24.9%; adjusted HR 0.532, 95% CI 0.393-0.720), and the composite of cardiac death, MI or stroke (11.4% vs. 15.2%; adjusted HR 0.621, 95% CI 0.419-0.921) were significantly lower after staged PCI than after culprit-only PCI. In contrast, no significant difference was found between the two groups with respect to MACCE, MI, unplanned revascularization, and the composite of cardiac death, MI or stroke in diabetic patients. Significant interactions were found between diabetes status and revascularization assignment for the composite of cardiac death, MI or stroke (P<sub>interaction</sub>?=?0.013), MI (P<sub>interaction</sub>?=?0.005), and unplanned revascularization (P<sub>interaction</sub>?=?0.013) at 5 years. In addition, the interaction tended to be significant for the primary endpoint of MACCE (P<sub>interaction</sub>?=?0.053). Moreover, the results of propensity score-matching analysis were concordant with the overall analysis in both diabetic and nondiabetic population.<h4>Conclusions</h4>In patients with STEMI and multivessel disease, diabetes is not an independent predictor of adverse cardiovascular events at 5 years. In nondiabetic patients, an approach of staged complete revascularization is superior to culprit-only PCI, whereas the advantage of staged PCI is attenuated in diabetic patients. Trial registration This study was not registered in an open access database.
Project description:Background:In patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) who undergo primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), approximately 10% are concomitant with a chronic total occlusion (CTO) in a non-culprit vessel. However, the impact of staged CTO recanalization on prognosis in this cohort remains disputable. This study aimed to compare the long-term outcomes of staged CTO recanalization versus medical therapy in patients with STEMI after primary PCI. Methods:Between January 2005 and December 2016, a total of 287 patients were treated with staged CTO-PCI (n = 91) or medical therapy (n = 196) after primary PCI in our center. The primary endpoint was major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular event (MACCE), defined as a composite of all-cause death, nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI), stroke or unplanned revascularization. After propensity-score matching, 77 pairs of well-balanced patients were identified. Results:The mean follow-up period was 6.06 years. Overall, the incidence of the primary endpoint of MACCE was significantly lower in staged CTO-PCI group than that in medical therapy group in both overall population (22.0% vs. 46.9%; hazard ratio (HR) = 0.48, 95% CI: 0.29-0.77) and propensity-matched cohorts (22.1% vs. 42.9%; HR: 0.48, 95% CI: 0.27-0.86). In addition, staged CTO-PCI was also associated with reduced risk of the composite of cardiac death, nonfatal MI or stroke compared with medical therapy in both overall population (9.9% vs. 26.5%; hazard ratio (HR) = 0.39, 95% CI: 0.19-0.79) and propensity-matched cohorts (9.1% vs. 22.1%; HR: 0.40, 95% CI: 0.16-0.96). After correction of the possible confounders, staged CTO-PCI was independently associated with reduced risks of MACCE (adjusted HR: 0.46, 95% CI: 0.28-0.75), the composite of cardiac death, nonfatal MI or stroke (adjusted HR: 0.45, 95% CI: 0.22-0.94) and all-cause mortality (adjusted HR: 0.32, 95% CI: 0.13-0.83). Moreover, the results of sensitivity analysis were almost concordant with the overall analysis. Conclusions:In patients with STEMI and a concurrent CTO who undergo primary PCI, successful staged recanalization of CTO in the non-culprit vessels is associated with better clinical outcomes during long-term follow-up.
Project description:Aims:The optimal revascularization strategy for left main coronary artery disease (LMD) remains controversial, especially with two recent randomized controlled trials showing conflicting results. We sought to address this controversy with our analysis. Methods and results:Comprehensive literature search was performed. We compared percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) for LMD revascularization using standard meta-analytic techniques. A 21% higher risk of long-term major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular event [MACCE; composite of death, myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and repeat revascularization] was observed in patients undergoing PCI in comparison with CABG [risk ratio (RR) 1.21, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05-1.40]. This risk was driven by higher rate of repeat revascularization in those undergoing PCI (RR 1.61, 95% CI 1.34-1.95). On the contrary, MACCE rates at 30 days were lower in PCI when compared with CABG (RR 0.55, 95% CI 0.39-0.76), which was driven by lower rates of stroke in the PCI arm (RR 0.41, 95% CI 0.17-0.98). At 1 year, lower stroke rates (RR 0.21, 95% CI 0.08-0.59) in the PCI arm were balanced by higher repeat revascularization rates in those undergoing PCI (RR 1.78, 95% CI 1.33-2.37), resulting in a clinical equipoise in MACCE rates between the two revascularization strategies. There was no difference in death or MI between PCI when compared with CABG at any time point. Conclusion:Outcomes of CABG vs. PCI for LMD revascularization vary over time. Therefore, individualized decisions need to be made for LMD revascularization using the heart team approach.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:Although complete revascularization is known superior to incomplete revascularization in ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients with multi-vessel coronary artery disease (MVCD), there are no definite instructions on the optimal timing of non-culprit lesions percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We compared 1-year clinical outcomes between 2 different complete multi-vessel revascularization strategies. METHODS:From the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry-National Institute of Health, 606 patients with STEMI and MVCD who underwent complete revascularization were enrolled from November 2011 to December 2015. The patients were assigned to multi-vessel single-staged PCI (SS PCI) group (n=254) or multi-vessel multi-staged PCI (MS PCI) group (n=352). Propensity score matched 1-year clinical outcomes were compared between the groups. RESULTS:At one year, MS PCI showed a significantly lower rate of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 0.42; 95% confidential interval [CI], 0.19-0.92; p=0.030) compared with SS PCI. In subgroup analysis, all-cause mortality increased in SS PCI with cardiogenic shock (HR, 4.60; 95% CI, 1.54-13.77; p=0.006), age ?65 years (HR, 4.00; 95% CI, 1.67-9.58, p=0.002), Killip class III/IV (HR, 7.32; 95% CI, 1.68-31.87; p=0.008), and creatinine clearance ?60 mL/min (HR, 2.81; 95% CI, 1.10-7.18; p=0.031). After propensity score-matching, MS PCI showed a significantly lower risk of major adverse cardiovascular event than SS PCI. CONCLUSIONS:SS PCI was associated with worse clinical outcomes compared with MS PCI. MS PCI for non-infarct-related artery could be a better option for patients with STEMI and MVCD, especially high-risk patients.
Project description:Objective:We aim to evaluate the long-term prognosis of non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) patients with high-risk coronary anatomy (HRCA). Background:Coronary disease severity is important for therapeutic decision-making and prognostication among patients presenting with NSTE-ACS. However, long-term outcome in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with HRCA is still unknown. Method:NSTE-ACS patients undergoing PCI in Fuwai Hospital in 2013 were prospectively enrolled and subsequently divided into HRCA and low-risk coronary anatomy (LRCA) groups according to whether angiography complies with the HRCA definition. HRCA was defined as left main disease >50%, proximal LAD lesion >70%, or 2- to 3- vessel disease involving the LAD. Prognosis impact on 2-year and 5-year major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) is analyzed. Results:Out of 4,984 enrolled patients with NSTE-ACS, 3,752 patients belonged to the HRCA group, while 1,232 patients belonged to the LRCA group. Compared with the LRCA group, patients in the HRCA group had worse baseline characteristics including higher age, more comorbidities, and worse angiographic findings. Patients in the HRCA group had higher incidence of unplanned revascularization (2 years: 9.7% vs. 5.1%, p < 0.001; 5 years: 15.4% vs. 10.3%, p < 0.001), 2-year MACCE (13.1% vs. 8.8%, p < 0.001), and 5-year death/MI/revascularization/stroke (23.0% vs. 18.4%, p = 0.001). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed similar results. After adjusting for confounding factors, HRCA is independently associated with higher risk of revascularization (2 years: HR?=?1.636, 95% CI: 1.225-2.186; 5 years: HR?=?1.460, 95% CI: 1.186-1.798), 2-year MACCE (HR?=?1.275, 95% CI?=?1.019-1.596) and 5-year death/MI/revascularization/stroke (HR?=?1.183, 95% CI: 1.010-1.385). Conclusion:In our large cohort of Chinese patients, HRCA is an independent risk factor for long-term unplanned revascularization and MACCE.
Project description:Although soluble suppression of tumorigenicity 2 (sST2) in serum is known to be associated with ischemic heart disease and heart failure, data regarding its prognostic impact in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is limited. We evaluated the prognostic impacts of serum sST2 and other serum biomarkers in STEMI patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).Consecutive all 323 patients with STEMI that underwent primary PCI were enrolled. Blood tests and samples were obtained in an emergency room. The primary endpoint was 1-year major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCEs), defined as a composite of cardiovascular death, non-fatal MI, non-fatal stroke, and ischemia-driven revascularization.Mean age was 59.1±13.1 years (men 84%). MACCE (20 cardiovascular deaths, 7 non-fatal MI, 4 non-fatal stroke, 7 ischemia-driven revascularizations) occurred in 38 patients (12%). After adjusting for confounding factors, Cox regression analysis revealed that high serum sST2 (>75.8 ng/mL mean value, adjusted hazard ratio 2.098, 95% CI 1.008-4.367, p = 0.048) and high serum NT-proBNP level (>400 pg/mL, adjusted hazard ratio 2.606, 95% CI 1.086-6.257, p = 0.032) at the time of presentation independently predicted MACCE within a year of primary PCI. Furthermore, when high serum sST2 level was combined with high serum NT-proBNP level, the hazard ratio of MACCE was highest (adjusted hazard ratio 7.93, 95% CI 2.97-20.38, p<0.001).Elevated serum levels of sST2 or NT-proBNP at the time of presentation were found to predict 1-year MACCE independently and elevated serum levels of sST2 plus NT-proBNP were associated with even poorer prognosis in patients with STEMI undergoing primary PCI.
Project description:Background:The safety and efficacy of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) versus coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) for stable left main coronary artery disease (LMCAD) remains controversial. Methods:Digital databases were searched to compare the major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) and its components. A random effect model was used to compute an unadjusted odds ratio (OR). Results:A total of 43 studies (37 observational and 6 RCTs) consisting of 29,187 patients (PCI 13,709 and CABG 15,478) were identified. The 30-day rate of MACCE (OR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.42-0.76; p?=?0.0002) and all-cause mortality (OR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.30-0.91; p?=?0.02) was significantly lower in the PCI group. There was no significant difference in the rate of myocardial infarction (MI) (p?=?0.17) and revascularization (p?=?0.12). At 5 years, CABG was favored due to a significantly lower rate of MACCE (OR, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.18-2.36; p?=?<0.04), MI (OR, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.35-2.06; p?=?<0.00001), and revascularization (OR, 2.80; 95% CI, 2.18-3.60; p?=?<0.00001), respectively. PCI was associated with a lower overall rate of a stroke, while the risk of all-cause mortality was not significantly different between the two groups at 1- (p?=?0.75), 5- (p?=?0.72), and 10-years (p?=?0.20). The Kaplan-Meier curve reconstruction revealed substantial variations over time; the 5-year incidence of MACCE was 38% with CABG, significantly lower than 45% with PCI (p?=?<0.00001). Conclusion:PCI might offer early safety advantages, while CABG provides greater durability in terms of lower long-term risk of ischemic events. There appears to be an equivalent risk for all-cause mortality.
Project description:Results on the safety and long-term efficacy of drug-eluting stent placement in unprotected left main coronary artery disease (ULMCAD) compared with those of coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) remain inconsistent across randomized clinical trials and recent meta-analysis studies. We aimed to compare the clinical outcomes and safety over short- and long-term follow-ups by conducting a meta-analysis of large pooled data from randomized controlled trials and up-to-date observational studies.A systematic review of PubMed, Google Scholar, Medline, and reference lists of related articles was performed for studies conducted in the drug-eluting stent era, to compare percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with CABG in ULMCAD. The primary outcome was major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE), myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, all-cause mortality, and revascularization after at least 1-year follow-up. In-hospital and 30-day clinical outcomes were considered secondary outcomes. Furthermore, a subgroup analysis of studies with ?5 years follow-up was performed to test the sustainability of clinical outcomes.A total of 29 studies were extracted with 21,832 patients (10,424 in PCI vs 11,408 in CABG). Pooled analysis demonstrated remarkable differences in long-term follow-up (?1 year) MACCE (odds ratio [OR] 1.42, 95% CI 1.27-1.59), P?<?.00001), repeat revascularization (OR 3.00, 95% CI 2.41-3.73, P?<?.00001), and MI (OR 1.32, 95% CI 1.14-1.53, P?=?.0002), favoring CABG over PCI. However, stroke risk was significantly lower in the PCI group. Subgroup analysis of studies with ?5 years follow-up showed similar outcomes except for the noninferiority outcome of MACCE in the PCI arm. However, the PCI group proved good safety profile after a minimum of 30-day follow-up with lower MACCE outcome.PCI for ULMCAD can be applied with attentiveness in carefully selected patients. MI and the need for revascularization remain drawbacks and areas of concern among previous studies. Nonetheless, it has been proven safe during short-term follow-up.