Impact of purification conditions and history on A2A adenosine receptor activity: The role of CHAPS and lipids.
ABSTRACT: The adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) is a much-studied class A G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). For biophysical studies, A2AR is commonly purified in a detergent mixture of dodecylmaltoside (DDM), 3-(3-cholamidopropyl) dimethylammoniopropane sulfonate (CHAPS), and cholesteryl hemisuccinate (CHS). Here we studied the effects of CHAPS on the ligand binding activity and stability of wild type, full-length human A2AR. We also tested the cholesterol requirement for maintaining the active conformation of the receptor when solubilized in detergent micelles. To this end, the receptor was purified using DDM, DDM/CHAPS, or the short hydrocarbon chain lipid 1,2-dihexanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DHPC, di-6:0PC). After solubilization in DDM, DDM/CHAPS, or DHPC micelles, although A2AR was found to retain its native-like fold, its binding ability was significantly compromised compared to DDM or DDM/CHAPS with CHS. It therefore appears that although cholesterol is not needed for A2AR to retain a native-like, ?-helical conformation, it may be a critical component for high affinity ligand binding. Further, this result suggests that the conformational differences between the active and inactive protein may be so subtle that commonly used spectroscopic methods are unable to differentiate between the two forms, highlighting the need for activity measurements. The studies presented in this paper also underline the importance of the protein's purification history; i.e., detergents that interact with the protein during purification affect the ligand binding properties of the receptor in an irreversible manner.
Project description:Elucidation of the molecular mechanisms of activation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) is among the most challenging tasks for modern membrane biology. For studies by high resolution analytical methods, these integral membrane receptors have to be expressed in large quantities, solubilized from cell membranes and purified in detergent micelles, which may result in a severe destabilization and a loss of function. Here, we report insights into differential effects of detergents, lipids and cannabinoid ligands on stability of the recombinant cannabinoid receptor CB(2), and provide guidelines for preparation and handling of the fully functional receptor suitable for a wide array of downstream applications. While we previously described the expression in Escherichia coli, purification and liposome-reconstitution of multi-milligram quantities of CB(2), here we report an efficient stabilization of the recombinant receptor in micelles - crucial for functional and structural characterization. The effects of detergents, lipids and specific ligands on structural stability of CB(2) were assessed by studying activation of G proteins by the purified receptor reconstituted into liposomes. Functional structure of the ligand binding pocket of the receptor was confirmed by binding of (2)H-labeled ligand measured by solid-state NMR. We demonstrate that a concerted action of an anionic cholesterol derivative, cholesteryl hemisuccinate (CHS) and high affinity cannabinoid ligands CP-55,940 or SR-144,528 are required for efficient stabilization of the functional fold of CB(2) in dodecyl maltoside (DDM)/CHAPS detergent solutions. Similar to CHS, the negatively charged phospholipids with the serine headgroup (PS) exerted significant stabilizing effects in micelles while uncharged phospholipids were not effective. The purified CB(2) reconstituted into lipid bilayers retained functionality for up to several weeks enabling high resolution structural studies of this GPCR at physiologically relevant conditions.
Project description:Structural studies of membrane proteins have highlighted the likely influence of membrane mimetic environments (i.e., lipid bilayers versus detergent micelles) on the conformation and dynamics of small ?-helical membrane proteins. We have used molecular dynamics simulations to compare the conformational dynamics of BM2 (a small ?-helical protein from the membrane of influenza B) in a model phospholipid bilayer environment with its behavior in protein-detergent complexes with either the zwitterionic detergent dihexanoylphosphatidylcholine (DHPC) or the nonionic detergent dodecylmaltoside (DDM). We find that DDM more closely resembles the lipid bilayer in terms of its interaction with the protein, while the short-tailed DHPC molecule forms "nonphysiological" interactions with the protein termini. We find that the intrinsic micelle properties of each detergent are conserved upon formation of the protein-detergent complex. This implies that simulations of detergent micelles may be used to help select optimal conditions for experimental studies of membrane proteins.
Project description:RANTES (CCL5) is a chemokine that recruits immune cells to inflammatory sites by interacting with the G-protein coupled receptor CCR5, which is also the primary coreceptor used together with CD4 by HIV to enter and infect target cells. Ligands of CCR5, including chemokines and chemokine analogs, are capable of blocking HIV entry, and studies of their structures and interactions with CCR5 will be key to understanding and optimizing HIV inhibition. The RANTES derivative 5P12-RANTES is a highly potent HIV entry inhibitor that is being developed as a topical HIV prevention agent (microbicide). We have characterized the structure and dynamics of 5P12-RANTES by solution NMR. With the exception of the nine flexible N-terminal residues, 5P12-RANTES has the same structure as wild-type RANTES but unlike the wild-type, does not dimerize via its N-terminus. To prepare the ground for interaction studies with detergent-solubilized CCR5, we have also investigated the interaction of RANTES and 5P12-RANTES with various commonly used detergents. Both RANTES variants are stable in Cymal-5, DHPC, Anzergent-3-12, dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride, and a DDM/CHAPS/CHS mixture. Fos-Cholines, dodecyldimethylglycine, and sodium dodecyl-sulfate denature both RANTES variants at low pH, whereas at neutral pH the stability is considerably higher. The onset of Fos-Choline-12-induced denaturation and the denatured state were characterized by circular dichroism and NMR. The detergent interaction starts below the critical micelle concentration at a well-defined mixed hydrophobic/positive surface region of the chemokine, which overlaps with the dimer interface. An increase of Fos-Choline-12 concentration above the critical micelle concentration causes a transition to a denatured state with a high ?-helical content.
Project description:The structural and functional properties of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are often studied in a detergent micellar environment, but many GPCRs tend to denature or aggregate in short alkyl chain detergents. In our previous work [Lee, S., et al. (2016) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 138, 15425-15433], we showed that GPCRs in alkyl glucosides were highly dynamic, resulting in the penetration of detergent molecules between transmembrane ?-helices, which is the initial step in receptor denaturation. Although this was not observed for GPCRs in dodecyl maltoside (DDM, also known as lauryl maltoside), even this detergent is not mild enough to preserve the integrity of many GPCRs during purification. Lauryl maltose neopentylglycol (LMNG) detergents have been found to have significant advantages for purifying GPCRs in a native state as they impart more stability to the receptor than DDM. To gain insights into how they stabilize GPCRs, we used atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of wild type adenosine A2A receptor (WT-A2AR), thermostabilized A2AR (tA2AR), and wild type ?2-adrenoceptor (?2AR) in a variety of detergents (LMNG, DMNG, OGNG, and DDM). Analysis of molecular dynamics simulations of tA2AR in LMNG, DMNG, and OGNG showed that this series of detergents exhibited behavior very similar to that of an analogous series of detergents DDM, DM, and OG in our previous study. However, there was a striking difference upon comparison of the behavior of LMNG to that of DDM. LMNG showed considerably less motion than DDM, which resulted in the enhanced density of the aliphatic chains around the hydrophobic regions of the receptor and considerably more hydrogen bond formation between the head groups. This contributed to enhanced interaction energies between both detergent molecules and between the receptor and detergent, explaining the enhanced stability of GPCRs purified in this detergent. Branched detergents occlude between transmembrane helices and reduce their flexibility. Our results provide a rational foundation to develop detergent variants for stabilizing membrane proteins.
Project description:Stability of detergent-solubilized G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) is crucial for their purification in a biologically relevant state, and it is well-known that short chain detergents such as octylglucoside are more denaturing than long chain detergents such as dodecylmaltoside. However, the molecular basis for this phenomenon is poorly understood. To gain insights into the mechanism of detergent destabilization of GPCRs, we used atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of thermostabilized adenosine receptor (A2AR) mutants embedded in either a lipid bilayer or detergent micelles of alkylmaltosides and alkylglucosides. A2AR mutants in dodecylmaltoside or phospholipid showed low flexibility and good interhelical packing. In contrast, A2AR mutants in either octylglucoside or nonylglucoside showed decreased ?-helicity in transmembrane regions, decreased ?-helical packing, and the interpenetration of detergent molecules between transmembrane ?-helices. This was not observed in octylglucoside containing phospholipid. Cholesteryl hemisuccinate in dodecylmaltoside increased the energetic stability of the receptor by wedging into crevices on the hydrophobic surface of A2AR, increasing packing interactions within the receptor and stiffening the detergent micelle. The data suggest a three-stage process for the initial events in the destabilization of GPCRs by octylglucoside: (i) highly mobile detergent molecules form small micelles around the receptor; (ii) loss of ?-helicity and decreased interhelical packing interactions in transmembrane regions are promoted by increased receptor thermal motion; (iii) transient separation of transmembrane helices allowed penetration of detergent molecules into the core of the receptor. The relative hydration of the headgroup and alkyl chain correlates with detergent harshness and suggests new avenues to develop milder versions of octylglucoside for receptor crystallization.
Project description:The adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) has long been implicated in cardiovascular disorders. As more selective A2AR ligands are being identified, its roles in other disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, are starting to emerge, and A2AR antagonists are important drug candidates for nondopaminergic anti-Parkinson treatment. Here we report the crystal structure of A2A receptor bound to compound 1 (Cmpd-1), a novel A2AR/N-methyl d-aspartate receptor subtype 2B (NR2B) dual antagonist and potential anti-Parkinson candidate compound, at 3.5 Å resolution. The A2A receptor with a cytochrome b562-RIL (BRIL) fusion (A2AR-BRIL) in the intracellular loop 3 (ICL3) was crystallized in detergent micelles using vapor-phase diffusion. Whereas A2AR-BRIL bound to the antagonist ZM241385 has previously been crystallized in lipidic cubic phase (LCP), structural differences in the Cmpd-1-bound A2AR-BRIL prevented formation of the lattice observed with the ZM241385-bound receptor. The crystals grew with a type II crystal lattice in contrast to the typical type I packing seen from membrane protein structures crystallized in LCP. Cmpd-1 binds in a position that overlaps with the native ligand adenosine, but its methoxyphenyl group extends to an exosite not previously observed in other A2AR structures. Structural analysis revealed that Cmpd-1 binding results in the unique conformations of two tyrosine residues, Tyr91.35 and Tyr2717.36, which are critical for the formation of the exosite. The structure reveals insights into antagonist binding that are not observed in other A2AR structures, highlighting flexibility in the binding pocket that may facilitate the development of A2AR-selective compounds for the treatment of Parkinson's disease.
Project description:Intermolecular nuclear Overhauser effects (NOEs) between the integral outer membrane protein OmpX from Escherichia coli and dihexanoylphosphatidylcholine (DHPC) provided a detailed description of protein-detergent interactions. The NOEs were measured in 3D (15)N- and (13)C-resolved [(1)H,(1)H]-NOESY spectra recorded with selectively methyl-protonated and otherwise uniformly (2)H,(13)C,(15)N-labeled OmpX in micelles of DHPC at natural isotope abundance. In these mixed micelles the NMR structure of OmpX consists of an eight-stranded antiparallel beta-barrel. The OmpX surface area covered with intermolecular NOEs to the DHPC hydrophobic tails forms a continuous cylinder jacket of approximately 28 A in height, which is centered about the middle of the long axis through the beta-barrel. In addition, some intermolecular NOEs with methyl groups of the DHPC polar head were identified along both boundaries of this cylinder jacket. The experimental data suggest that the hydrophobic surface areas of OmpX are covered with a monolayer of DHPC molecules, which appears to mimic quite faithfully the embedding of the beta-barrel in a double-layer lipid membrane.
Project description:Amphipols are a class of novel surfactants that are capable of stabilizing the native state of membrane proteins. They have been shown to be highly effective, in some cases more so than detergent micelles, at maintaining the structural integrity of membrane proteins in solution, and have shown promise as vehicles for delivering native membrane proteins into the gas phase for structural interrogation. Here, we use fast photochemical oxidation of proteins (FPOP), which irreversibly labels the side chains of solvent-accessible residues with hydroxyl radicals generated by laser photolysis of hydrogen peroxide, to compare the solvent accessibility of the outer membrane protein OmpT when solubilized with the amphipol A8-35 or with n-dodecyl-β-maltoside (DDM) detergent micelles. Using quantitative mass spectrometry analyses, we show that fast photochemical oxidation reveals differences in the extent of solvent accessibility of residues between the A8-35 and DDM solubilized states, providing a rationale for the increased stability of membrane proteins solubilized with amphipol compared with detergent micelles, as a result of additional intermolecular contacts. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.
Project description:Human cannabinoid type 2 (CB(2)) receptor expressed in Escherichia coli was purified and successfully reconstituted in the functional form into lipid bilayers composed of POPC, 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-L-serine (POPS), and cholesteryl hemisuccinate (CHS). Reconstitution was performed by detergent removal from the protein/lipid/detergent mixed micelles either on an adsorbent column, or by rapid dilution to below the critical micelle concentration of detergent followed by removal of detergent monomers on a concentrator. Proteoliposomes prepared at a protein/phospholipid/CHS molar ratio of 1/620-650/210-220 are free of detergent as shown by (1)H NMR, have a homogeneous protein/lipid ratio shown by isopycnic gradient ultracentrifugation, and are small in size with a mean diameter of 150-200 nm as measured by dynamic light scattering. Functional integrity of the reconstituted receptor was confirmed by quantitative binding of (2)H-labeled agonist CP-55,940-d(6) measured by (2)H magic angle spinning NMR, as well as by activation of G protein. The efficiency of G protein activation by agonist-bound CB(2) receptor was affected by negative electric surface potentials of proteoliposomes controlled by the content of anionic CHS or POPS. The activation was highest at an anionic lipid content of about 50 mol %. There was no correlation between the efficiency of G protein activation and an increase of hydrocarbon chain order induced by CHS or cholesterol. The results suggest the importance of anionic lipids in regulating signal transduction by CB(2) receptor and other class A GPCR. The successful reconstitution of milligram quantities of pure, functional CB(2) receptor enables a wide variety of structural studies.
Project description:Ligand binding plays a fundamental role in stimulating the downstream signaling of membrane receptors. Here, ligand-binding kinetics of the full-length human adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) reconstituted in detergent micelles were measured using a fluorescently labeled ligand via fluorescence anisotropy. Importantly, to optimize the signal-to-noise ratio, these experiments were conducted in the ligand depletion regime. In the ligand depletion regime, the assumptions used to determine analytical solutions for one-site binding models for either one or two ligands in competition are no longer valid. We therefore implemented a numerical solution approach to analyze kinetic binding data as experimental conditions approach the ligand depletion regime. By comparing the results from the numerical and the analytical solutions, we highlight the ligand-receptor ratios at which the analytical solution begins to lose predictive accuracy. Using the numerical solution approach, we determined the kinetic rate constants of the fluorescent ligand, FITC-APEC, and those for three unlabeled ligands using competitive association experiments. The association and dissociation rate constants of the unlabeled ligands determined from the competitive association experiments were then independently validated using competitive dissociation data. Based on this study, a numerical solution is recommended to determine kinetic ligand-binding parameters for experiments conducted in the ligand-depletion regime.