Sirtuin 1 Stimulation Attenuates Ischemic Liver Injury and Enhances Mitochondrial Recovery and Autophagy.
ABSTRACT: Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion is a major clinical problem with limited treatment options. The pathophysiology of hepatic ischemia-reperfusion is characterized by mitochondrial dysfunction and cellular energy deficits. Sirtuin 1 is an energy-sensing enzyme known to modulate mitochondrial biogenesis. We hypothesized that pharmacologic activation of sirtuin 1 is protective after hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury.Animal study.University-based experimental laboratory.Wild-type C57BL/6 mice.C57BL/6 mice were subjected to 60-minute partial hepatic ischemia-reperfusion and posttreated with sirtuin 1 activator, SRT1720 (20?mg/kg), or vehicle. Blood and liver were collected at 24 hours after ischemia-reperfusion for analyses of hepatic injury, adenosine triphosphate levels, mitochondrial mass, autophagy, inflammation, and oxidative stress. H4IIE hepatoma cells and rat primary hepatocytes were incubated with oxyrase to induce hypoxia followed by reoxygenation in the presence or absence of SRT1720 for assessment of mitochondrial mass, mitochondrial membrane potential, and autophagy.SRT1720 restored the reduction in mitochondrial mass, enhanced autophagy, and preserved adenosine triphosphate levels in the liver after ischemia-reperfusion, which was associated with a decrease in ischemia-reperfusion-induced hepatic injury, apoptosis, and necrosis. Ischemia-reperfusion-induced inflammation was also significantly reduced by SRT1720 as measured by systemic and hepatic cytokine and chemokine levels, as well as a decrease in neutrophil infiltration to the liver. Furthermore, oxidative stress was markedly attenuated in the SRT1720-treated mice compared with the vehicle. SRT1720 treatment increased adenosine triphosphate levels and survival of cultured hepatocytes after hypoxia-reoxygenation. SRT1720 not only increased the mitochondrial mass but also increased mitochondrial membrane potential per cell in cultured hepatocytes after hypoxia-reoxygenation. Moreover, SRT1720 prevented the hypoxia-reoxygenation-induced mitochondrial depolarization and resulted in an enhancement of autophagy in cultured hepatocytes after hypoxia-reoxygenation.Pharmacologic stimulation of sirtuin 1 attenuates liver injury after hepatic ischemia-reperfusion by restoring mitochondrial mass and membrane potential, which is associated with the enhancement of autophagy.
Project description:Sirtuin 2 (Sirt2) is known to negatively regulate anoxia-reoxygenation injury in myoblasts. Because protein levels of Sirt2 are increased in ischemia-reperfusion (I/R)-injured liver tissues, we examined whether Sirt2 is protective or detrimental against hepatic I/R injury. We overexpressed Sirt2 in the liver of C57BL/6 mice using a Sirt2 adenovirus. Wild-type and Sirt2 knockout mice were subjected to a partial (70%) hepatic ischemia for 45 minutes, followed by various periods of reperfusion. In another set of experiments, wild-type mice were pretreated intraperitoneally with AGK2, a Sirt2 inhibitor. Isolated hepatocytes and Kupffer cells from wild-type and Sirt2 knockout mice were subjected to hypoxia-reoxygenation injury to determine the in vitro effects of Sirt2. Mice subjected to I/R injury showed typical patterns of hepatocellular damage. Prior injection with Sirt2 adenovirus aggravated liver injury, as demonstrated by increases in serum aminotransferases, prothrombin time, proinflammatory cytokines, hepatocellular necrosis and apoptosis, and neutrophil infiltration relative to control virus-injected mice. Pretreatment with AGK2 resulted in significant improvements in serum aminotransferase levels and histopathologic findings. Similarly, experiments with Sirt2 knockout mice also revealed reduced hepatocellular injury. The molecular mechanism of Sirt2's involvement in this aggravation of hepatic I/R injury includes the deacetylation and inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 and consequent activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases.Sirt2 is an aggravating factor during hepatic I/R injury. (Hepatology 2017;65:225-236).
Project description:Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is a causative factor contributing to morbidity and mortality during liver resection and transplantation. Livers from elderly patients have a poorer recovery from these surgeries, indicating reduced reparative capacity with aging. Mechanisms underlying this age-mediated hypersensitivity to I/R injury remain poorly understood. Here, we investigated how sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and mitofusin 2 (MFN2) are affected by I/R in aged livers. Young (3 months) and old (23-26 months) male C57/BL6 mice were subjected to hepatic I/R in vivo. Primary hepatocytes isolated from each age group were also exposed to simulated in vitro I/R. Biochemical, genetic, and imaging analyses were performed to assess cell death, autophagy flux, mitophagy, and mitochondrial function. Compared to young mice, old livers showed accelerated liver injury following mild I/R. Reperfusion of old hepatocytes also showed necrosis, accompanied with defective autophagy, onset of the mitochondrial permeability transition, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Biochemical analysis indicated a near-complete loss of both SIRT1 and MFN2 after I/R in old hepatocytes, which did not occur in young cells. Overexpression of either SIRT1 or MFN2 alone in old hepatocytes failed to mitigate I/R injury, while co-overexpression of both proteins promoted autophagy and prevented mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death after reperfusion. Genetic approaches with deletion and point mutants revealed that SIRT1 deacetylated K655 and K662 residues in the C-terminus of MFN2, leading to autophagy activation. The SIRT1-MFN2 axis is pivotal during I/R recovery and may be a novel therapeutic target to reduce I/R injury in aged livers.
Project description:BACKGROUND & AIMS: Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) can cause hepatic failure after liver surgery or transplantation. IRI causes oxidative stress, which injures sinusoidal endothelial cells (SECs), leading to recruitment and activation of Kupffer cells, platelets and microcirculatory impairment. We investigated whether injured SECs and other cell types release microparticles during post-ischemic reperfusion, and whether such microparticles have pro-inflammatory, platelet-activating and pro-injurious effects that could contribute to IRI pathogenesis. METHODS: C57BL6 mice underwent 60 min of partial hepatic ischemia followed by 15 min-24 hrs of reperfusion. We collected blood and liver samples, isolated circulating microparticles, and determined protein and lipid content. To establish mechanism for microparticle production, we subjected murine primary hepatocytes to hypoxia-reoxygenation. Because microparticles express everted phosphatidylserine residues that are the target of annexin V, we analyzed the effects of an annexin V-homodimer (Diannexin or ASP8597) on post-ischemia microparticle production and function. RESULTS: Microparticles were detected in the circulation 15-30 min after post-ischemic reperfusion, and contained markers of SECs, platelets, natural killer T cells, and CD8+ cells; 4 hrs later, they contained markers of macrophages. Microparticles contained F2-isoprostanes, indicating oxidative damage to membrane lipids. Injection of mice with TNF-? increased microparticle formation, whereas Diannexin substantially reduced microparticle release and prevented IRI. Hypoxia-re-oxygenation generated microparticles from primary hepatocytes by processes that involved oxidative stress. Exposing cultured hepatocytes to preparations of microparticles isolated from the circulation during IRI caused injury involving mitochondrial membrane permeability transition. Microparticles also activated platelets and induced neutrophil migration in vitro. The inflammatory properties of microparticles involved activation of NF-?B and JNK, increased expression of E-selectin, P-selectin, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1. All these processes were blocked by coating microparticles with Diannexin. CONCLUSIONS: Following hepatic IRI, microparticles circulate and can be taken up by hepatocytes, where they activate signaling pathways that mediate inflammation and hepatocyte injury. Diannexin prevents microparticle formation and subsequent inflammation.
Project description:BACKGROUND:AMP-activated Protein Kinase (AMPK) is a stress-activated kinase that protects against cardiomyocyte injury during ischemia and reperfusion. c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), a mitogen activated protein kinase, is activated by ischemia and reperfusion. NF-?B is an important transcription factor involved in ischemia and reperfusion injury. METHODS AND RESULTS:The intrinsic activation of AMPK attenuates the inflammation which occurred during ischemia/reperfusion through the modulation of the JNK mediated NF-?B signaling pathway. Rat cardiac myoblast H9c2 cells were subjected to hypoxia and/or reoxygenation to investigate the signal transduction that occurred during myocardial ischemia/reperfusion. Mitochondrial function was measured by the Seahorse XF24 V7 PS system. Hypoxia treatment triggered AMPK activation in H9c2 cells in a time dependent manner. The inhibition of hypoxic AMPK activation through a pharmacological approach (Compound C) or siRNA knockdown of AMPK ? catalytic subunits caused dramatic augmentation in JNK activation, inflammatory NF-?B phosphorylation, and apoptosis during hypoxia and reoxygenation. Inhibition of AMPK activation significantly impaired mitochondrial function and increased the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during hypoxia and reoxygenation. In contrast, pharmacological activation of AMPK by metformin significantly inhibited mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening and ROS generation. Moreover, AMPK activation significantly attenuated the JNK-NF-?B signaling cascade and inhibited mRNA and protein levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-? and IL-6, during hyopoxia/reoxygenation in H9c2 cells. Intriguingly, both pharmacologic inhibition of JNK by JNK-IN-8 and siRNA knockdown of JNK signaling pathway attenuated NF-?B phosphorylation and apoptosis but did not affect AMPK activation in response to hypoxia and reoxygenation. CONCLUSIONS:AMPK activation modulates JNK-NF-?B signaling cascade during hypoxia and reoxygenation stress conditions. Cardiac AMPK activation plays a critical role in maintaining mitochondrial function and inhibiting the inflammatory response caused by ischemic insults.
Project description:Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is a major challenge in liver transplantation. The mitochondrial pathway plays a pivotal role in hepatic IRI. Levosimendan, a calcium channel sensitizer, was shown to attenuate apoptosis after IRI in animal livers. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of levosimendan on apoptosis in human hepatocytes.Primary human hepatocytes were either exposed to hypoxia or cultured under normoxic conditions. After the hypoxic phase, reoxygenation was implemented and cells were treated with different concentrations of levosimendan (10ng/ml, 100ng/ml, 1000ng/ml). The overall metabolic activity of the cells was measured using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels were determined in order to quantify hepatic injury. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis was applied to measure necrosis and apoptosis. Finally, Western blotting was performed to analyze apoptotic pathway proteins.Administration of levosimendan during reperfusion increases the metabolic activity of human hepatocytes and decreases AST levels. Moreover, apoptosis after IRI is reduced in treated vs. untreated hepatocytes, and levosimendan prevents down-regulation of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 as well as up-regulation of the pro-apoptotic protein BAX.The present study suggests a protective effect of levosimendan on human hepatocytes. Our findings suggest that treatment with levosimendan during reperfusion attenuates apoptosis of human hepatocytes by influencing BAX and Bcl-2 levels.
Project description:Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is a major cause of morbidity and mortality after liver surgery. The role of Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) in hepatic I/R injury remains elusive. Using human and mouse livers, we investigated the effects of I/R on hepatocellular SIRT1. SIRT1 expression was significantly decreased after I/R. Genetic overexpression or pharmacological activation of SIRT1 markedly suppressed defective autophagy, onset of the mitochondrial permeability transition, and hepatocyte death after I/R, whereas SIRT1-null hepatocytes exhibited increased sensitivity to I/R injury. Biochemical approaches revealed that SIRT1 interacts with mitofusin-2 (MFN2). Furthermore, MFN2, but not MFN1, was deacetylated by SIRT1. Moreover, SIRT1 overexpression substantially increased autophagy in wild-type cells, but not in MFN2-deficient cells. Thus, our results demonstrate that the loss of SIRT1 causes a sequential chain of defective autophagy, mitochondrial dysfunction, and hepatocyte death after I/R.
Project description:Scutellarin is a natural flavonoid that has been found to exhibit anti-ischemic effect. However, the effect of scutellarin on hepatic hypoxia/reoxygenation (ischemia-reperfusion (I/R)) injury remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to explore the protective effect of scutellarin on I/R-induced injury in hepatocytes. Our results showed that scutellarin improved cell viability in hepatocytes exposed to hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R). Scutellarin treatment resulted in decreased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA), and increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in H/R-induced hepatocytes. In addition, scutellarin reduced cell apoptosis in H/R-stimulated hepatocytes, as proved by the decreased apoptotic rate. Moreover, scutellarin significantly up-regulated bcl-2 expression and down-regulated bax expression in hepatocytes exposed to H/R. Furthermore, scutellarin treatment caused significant decrease in Keap1 expression and increase in nuclear Nrf2 expression. Besides, scutellarin induced the mRNA expressions of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1). Inhibition of Nrf2 significantly reversed the protective effects of scutellarin on H/R-stimulated hepatocytes. In conclusion, these findings demonstrated that scutellarin protected hepatocytes from H/R-induced oxidative injury through regulating the Keap1/Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway, indicating a potential relevance of scutellarin in attenuating hepatic I/R injury.
Project description:In cardiac ischemia-reperfusion injury, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and upregulation of the hypoxia-inducible protein BNIP3 result in mitochondrial permeabilization, but impairment in autophagic removal of damaged mitochondria provokes programmed cardiomyocyte death. BNIP3 expression and ROS generation result in upregulation of beclin-1, a protein associated with transcriptional suppression of autophagy-lysosome proteins and reduced activation of transcription factor EB (TFEB), a master regulator of the autophagy-lysosome machinery. Partial beclin-1 knockdown transcriptionally stimulates lysosome biogenesis and autophagy via mTOR inhibition and activation of TFEB, enhancing removal of depolarized mitochondria. TFEB activation concomitantly stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis via PGC1α induction to restore normally polarized mitochondria and attenuate BNIP3- and hypoxia-reoxygenation-induced cell death. Conversely, overexpression of beclin-1 activates mTOR to inhibit TFEB, resulting in declines in lysosome numbers and suppression of PGC1α transcription. Importantly, knockdown of endogenous TFEB or PGC1α results in a complete or partial loss, respectively, of the cytoprotective effects of partial beclin-1 knockdown, indicating a critical role for both mitochondrial autophagy and biogenesis in ensuring cellular viability. These studies uncover a transcriptional feedback loop for beclin-1-mediated regulation of TFEB activation and implicate a central role for TFEB in coordinating mitochondrial autophagy with biogenesis to restore normally polarized mitochondria and prevent ischemia-reperfusion-induced cardiomyocyte death.
Project description:In myocardial ischemia, induction of autophagy via the AMP-induced protein kinase pathway is protective, whereas reperfusion stimulates autophagy with BECLIN-1 upregulation and is implicated in causing cell death. We examined flux through the macroautophagy pathway as a determinant of the discrepant outcomes in cardiomyocyte cell death in this setting.Reversible left anterior descending coronary artery ligation was performed in mice with cardiomyocyte-restricted expression of green fluorescent protein-tagged microtubule-associated protein light chain-3 to induce ischemia (120 minutes) or ischemia/reperfusion (30-90 minutes) with saline or chloroquine pretreatment (n=4 per group). Autophagosome clearance, assessed as the ratio of punctate light chain-3 abundance in saline to chloroquine-treated samples, was markedly impaired with ischemia/reperfusion compared with sham controls. Reoxygenation increased cell death in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes compared with hypoxia alone, markedly increased autophagosomes but not autolysosomes (assessed as punctate dual fluorescent mCherry-green fluorescent protein tandem-tagged light chain-3 expression), and impaired clearance of polyglutamine aggregates, indicating impaired autophagic flux. The resultant autophagosome accumulation was associated with increased reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial permeabilization, leading to cell death, which was attenuated by cyclosporine A pretreatment. Hypoxia-reoxygenation injury was accompanied by reactive oxygen species-mediated BECLIN-1 upregulation and a reduction in lysosome-associated membrane protein-2, a critical determinant of autophagosome-lysosome fusion. Restoration of lysosome-associated membrane protein-2 levels synergizes with partial BECLIN-1 knockdown to restore autophagosome processing and to attenuate cell death after hypoxia-reoxygenation.Ischemia/reperfusion injury impairs autophagosome clearance mediated in part by reactive oxygen species-induced decline in lysosome-associated membrane protein-2 and upregulation of BECLIN-1, contributing to increased cardiomyocyte death.
Project description:Cardiomyocyte autophagy plays an important role in myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury (MIRI). P300/CBP-associated factor (PCAF) was involved in the regulation of autophagy. However, the role of PCAF in MIRI is currently unknown. This study was to investigate whether downregulation of PCAF attenuate MIRI. The results showed that the expression of PCAF was significantly increased in MIRI in vivo and in vitro. Downregulation of PCAF not only inhibited autophagy and damage of H9c2 cells induced by hypoxia-reoxygenation, but also reduced autophagy and myocardial infarct size during myocardial ischemia-reperfusion in rats. In addition, downregulation of PCAF promoted activation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway in cardiomyocytes during hypoxia-reoxygenation. Wortmannin, a PI3K/Akt inhibitor, could abrogate the effects of downregulation of PCAF on cardiomyocytes autophagy. These results demonstrated that downregulation of PCAF alleviated MIRI by inhibiting cardiomyocyte autophagy through PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. Thus, PCAF may be a potential target for prevention and treatment of MIRI.