MACC1 mediates acetylcholine-induced invasion and migration by human gastric cancer cells.
ABSTRACT: The neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) promotes the growth and metastasis of several cancers via its M3 muscarinic receptor (M3R). Metastasis-associated in colon cancer-1 (MACC1) is an oncogene that is overexpressed in gastric cancer (GC) and plays an important role in GC progression, though it is unclear how MACC1 activity is regulated in GC. In this study, we demonstrated that ACh acts via M3Rs to promote GC cell invasion and migration as well as expression of several markers of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The M3R antagonist darifenacin inhibited GC cell activity in both the presence and absence of exogenous ACh, suggesting GC cells secrete endogenous ACh, which then acts in an autocrine fashion to promote GC cell migration/invasion. ACh up-regulated MACC1 in GC cells, and MACC1 knockdown using siRNA attenuated the effects of ACh on GC cells. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) served as an intermediate signal between ACh and MACC1. These findings suggest that ACh acts via a M3R/AMPK/MACC1 signaling pathway to promote GC cell invasion/migration, which provides insight into the mechanisms underlying GC growth and metastasis and may shed light on new targets for GC treatment.
Project description:Metabolic plasticity has been increasingly thought to be a determinant of tumor growth and metastasis. MACC1, a transcriptional regulator of MET, was recognized as an oncogene in gastric cancer (GC); however, its transcriptional or post-translational regulation was not clear. We previously reported the metabolic role of MACC1 in glycolysis to promote GC progression. MACC1-AS1 is the antisense lncRNA of MACC1, yet its function was previously unknown.We profiled and analyzed the expression of MACC1-AS1 utilizing the TCGA database as well as in situ hybridization using 123 pairs of GC tissues and matched adjacent normal gastric mucosa tissues (ANTs). The biological role of MACC1-AS1 in cell growth and metastasis was determined by performing in vitro and in vivo functional experiments. Glycolysis and antioxidant capabilities were assayed to examine its metabolic function. Further, the specific regulatory effect of MACC1-AS1 on MACC1 was explored transcriptionally and post-transcriptionally.MACC1-AS1 was shown to be expressed significantly higher in GC tissues than in ANTs, which predicted poor prognosis in GC patients. MACC1-AS1 promoted GC cell proliferation and inhibited cell apoptosis under metabolic stress. Mechanistically, MACC1-AS1 stabilized MACC1 mRNA and post-transcriptionally augmented MACC1 expression. Further, MACC1-AS1 was shown to mediate metabolic plasticity through MACC1 upregulation and subsequent enhanced glycolysis and anti-oxidative capabilities, and this was suggested to be coordinated by the AMPK/Lin28 pathway.Elevated expression of MACC1-AS1 in gastric cancer tissues is linked to poor prognosis and promotes malignant phenotype upon cancer cells. MACC1-AS1 is elevated under metabolic stress and facilitates metabolic plasticity by promoting MACC1 expression through mRNA stabilization. Our study implicates lncRNA MACC1-AS1 as a valuable biomarker for GC diagnosis and prognosis.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process and are associated with metastasis in gastric cancer (GC). MiR-338-3p has been reported to be aberrantly expressed in GC. In the present study, we show that miR-338-3p inhibited the migration and invasion of GC cells in vitro. Knocking down miR-338-3p in GC cells led to mesenchymal-like changes. MiR-338-3p influenced the expression of the EMT-associated proteins by upregulating the epithelial marker E-cadherin and downregulating the mesenchymal markers, N-cadherin, fibronectin, and vimentin. In terms of mechanism, miR-338-3p directly targeted zinc finger E-box-binding protein 2 (ZEB2) and metastasis-associated in colon cancer-1 (MACC1). MiR-338-3p repressed the Met/Akt pathway after MACC1 inhibition. Reintroduction of ZEB2 and MACC1 reversed miR-338-3p-induced EMT suppression. Consistently, inverse correlations were also observed between the expression of miR-338-3p and ZEB2 or MACC1 in human GC tissue samples. In conclusion, miR-338-3p inhibited the EMT progression in GC cells by targeting ZEB2 and MACC1/Met/Akt signaling.
Project description:Metabolic stress usually occurs in rapidly growing gastric cancer (GC) when the energy demand exceeds the supply. Interestingly, cancer cells can somehow escape this stress. Some small Rho GTPases regulating cell migration can be activated by metabolic stress. DLC3 is a RhoA-specific GTPase-activating protein of unclear function in cancer. We hypothesized that it participated in metabolic stress escape. Methods: Metabolic stress in GC cells was induced by glucose deprivation, and DLC3 expression was detected. Based on the prognostic value, cell viability, motility and glycolysis were detected in DLC3 differently expressed GC cells in vitro and in vivo. DLC3 downstream targets were screened and verified. Chemotactic ability was evaluated to study DLC3 and its downstream signaling on metabolic stress escape. In addition, therapeutic strategies targeting DLC3 were explored. Results: DLC3 expression was lowered by metabolic stress in GC cells. DLC3 downregulation indicated poor cancer prognosis, and silencing DLC3 promoted GC cell proliferation and invasion. MACC1, an oncogene promoting GC growth and metastasis, was proved to be the downstream target of DLC3. Low DLC3 expression and high MACC1 expression indicated high recurrence rate after GC resection. DLC3 transcriptionally inhibited MACC1 expression via RhoA/JNK/AP-1 signaling, and subsequently suppressed GC cell glycolysis and survival under metabolic stress. The DLC3/MACC1 axis modulated the chemotaxis of GC cells from energy deficient area to glucose abundant area. Finally, lovastatin was found to be a promising therapeutic drug targeting the DLC3/MACC1 axis. Conclusions: The DLC3/MACC1 axis modulates GC glycolysis and chemotaxis to escape glucose deprivation. Lovastatin may inhibit GC by targeting the DLC3/MACC1 axis.
Project description:M3 muscarinic receptor (M3R) expression is increased in colon cancer; M3R activation stimulates colon cancer cell invasion via cross-talk with epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR), post-EGFR activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), and induction of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP1) expression. MMP1 expression is strongly associated with tumor metastasis and adverse outcomes. Here, we asked whether other MAPKs regulate M3R agonist-induced MMP1 expression. In addition to activating ERK1/2, we found that treating colon cancer cells with acetylcholine (ACh) stimulated robust time- and dose-dependent phosphorylation of p38 MAPK. Unlike ERK1/2 activation, ACh-induced p38 phosphorylation was EGFR-independent and blocked by inhibiting protein kinase C-? (PKC-?). Inhibiting activation of PKC-?, EGFR, ERK1/2, or p38-?/? alone attenuated, but did not abolish ACh-induced MMP1 expression, a finding that predicted potentiating interactions between these pathways. Indeed, ACh-induced MMP1 expression was abolished by incubating cells with either an EGFR or MEK/ERK1/2 inhibitor combined with a p38-?/? inhibitor. Activating PKC-? and EGFR directly with the combination of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and EGF potentiated MMP1 gene and protein expression, and cell invasion. PMA- and ACh-induced MMP1 expression were strongly diminished by inhibiting Src and abolished by concurrently inhibiting both p38-?/? and Src, indicating that Src mediates the cross-talk between PKC-? and EGFR signaling. Using siRNA knockdown, we identified p38-? as the relevant p38 isoform. Collectively, these studies uncover novel functional interactions between post-muscarinic receptor signaling pathways that augment MMP1 expression and drive colon cancer cell invasion; targeting these potentiating interactions has therapeutic potential.
Project description:Metastasis-associated in colon cancer 1 (MACC1) has been reported to promote tumor cell invasion and metastasis. Cancer stem cells and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) have also been reported to promote tumor cell proliferation, invasion, and metastasis. KiSS-1, a known suppressor of metastasis, has been reported to be down-regulated in various tumors. However, the associations of MACC1, CD44, Twist1, and KiSS-1 in colonic adenocarcinoma (CAC) invasion and metastasis remain unclear. The purpose of this study is to investigate the roles of MACC1, CD44, Twist1, and KiSS-1 in CAC invasion and metastasis and their associations with each other and with the clinicopathological characteristics of CAC patients.Immunohistochemistry and multivariate analysis were carried out to explore the expression of MACC1, CD44, Twist1, and KiSS-1 in 212 whole-CAC-tissue specimens and the corresponding normal colon mucosa tissues. Demographic, clinicopathological, and follow-up data were also collected.The results of this study showed MACC1, CD44, and Twist1 expression to be up-regulated, and KiSS-1 expression was down-regulated in CAC tissues. Positive expression of MACC1, CD44, and Twist1 was found to be positively correlated with invasion, tumor grades, and lymph- node-metastasis (LNM) stages and tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stages for patients with CAC. Positive expression of KiSS-1 was inversely associated with invasion, tumor size, LNM stage, and TNM stage. The KiSS-1-positive expression group had significantly more favorable OS than did the KiSS-1-negative group. Univariate analysis indicated that overexpression of MACC1, CD44, and Twists1 was negatively associated with longer overall survival (OS) time, and there was a positive relationship between KiSS-1-positive expression and OS time for patients with CAC. Multivariate Cox analysis demonstrated that overexpression of MACC1, CD44, Twist1, and low expression of KiSS-1 and LNM and TNM stages were independent predictors of prognosis in patients with CAC.The results in this study indicated that levels of expression of MACC1, CD44, Twist1, and KiSS-1 are related to the duration of OS in patients with CAC. MACC1, CD44, Twist1, and KiSS-1 may be suitable for use as biomarkers and therapeutic targets in CAC.
Project description:Long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) has been implicated in cancer, but little is known about the role of lncRNAs as regulators of tumor metastasis. In the present study, we demonstrate that lncRNA TRERNA1 acts like an enhancer of SNAI1 to promote cell invasion and migration and to contribute to metastasis of gastric cancer (GC). TRERNA1 is significantly unregulated in GCs and GC cell lines. Increased TRERNA1 is positively correlated with lymph node metastasis of GCs. RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP) and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays revealed that TRERNA1 functions as a scaffold to recruit EZH2 to epigenetically silence epithelial-mesenchymal transition marker CDH1 by H3K27me3 of its promoter region. TRERNA1 knockdown markedly reduced GC cell migration, invasion, tumorigenicity, and metastasis. Depletion of TRERNA1 reduced cell metastasis of GCs in vivo. Taken together, our findings indicated that TRERNA1 serves as a critical effector in GC progression by regulating CDH1 at the transcription level. It is implied that TRERNA1/CDH1 is a new potential target for GC therapy.
Project description:Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most fatal cancers. In almost all populations, males have a higher HCC rate than females. Here we sought to explore the roles and mechanisms of acetylcholine (Ach) and androgen receptor (AR) on regulating the fate determinations of HCC. Ach activated AR and promoted its expression in HCC cells. Ach enhanced HCC cell migration and invasion but inhibited their apoptosis. Ach had no obvious effects on the migration, invasion, or apoptosis in AR-negative HCC cells. Elevation of migration and invasion induced by Ach was eliminated in AR-knockdown HCC cells. In contrast, Ach stimulated the migration and invasion but suppressed apoptosis in AR over-expressed HCC cells. Additionally, AR agonist R1881 promoted the migration and invasion but reduced the apoptosis of SNU-449 cells, whereas AR antagonist casodex inhibited the migration and invasion but stimulated the apoptosis of SNU-449 cells. STAT3 and AKT phosphorylation was activated by Ach in HCC cells. Collectively, these data suggest that Ach activates STAT3 and AKT pathways and acts on AR to promote the migration and invasion but inhibit the apoptosis of HCC cells. This study thus provides novel insights into carcinogenesis of liver cancer by local interaction between neurotransmitter Ach and hormone receptor AR in HCC.
Project description:Aberrant overexpression of the transcription/translation factor Y-box-binding protein (YB-1) is associated with poor prognosis of lung adenocarcinoma, however the underlying mechanism by which YB-1 acts has not been fully elucidated. Here, we reported that inhibition of YB-1 diminished proliferation, migration and invasion of lung adenocarcinoma cells. Interestingly, we identified metastasis associated in colon cancer-1 (MACC1) as a target of YB-1. Depletion of YB-1 markedly decreased MACC1 promoter activity and suppressed the MACC1/c-Met signaling pathway in lung adenocarcinoma cells. Additionally, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay demonstrated that YB-1 bound to the MACC1 promoter. Moreover, YB-1 was positively correlated with MACC1, and both proteins were over-expressed in lung adenocarcinoma tissues. The Cox-regression analysis indicated that high YB-1 expression was an independent risk factor for prognosis in enrolled patients. Furthermore, depletion of YB-1 attenuated tumorigenesis in a xenograft mouse model and reduced MACC1 expression in tumor tissues. Collectively, our data suggested that targeting YB-1 suppressed lung adenocarcinoma progression through the MACC1/c-Met pathway and that the high expression of YB-1/MACC1 is a potential prognostic marker in lung adenocarcinoma.
Project description:Metastasis is a multistep molecular network process, which is lethal for more than 90% of the cancer patients. Understanding the regulatory functions of metastasis-inducing molecules is in high demand for improved therapeutic cancer approaches. Thus, we studied the post-transcriptional regulation of the crucial carcinogenic and metastasis-mediating molecule metastasis associated in colon cancer 1 (MACC1). In silico analysis revealed MACC1 as a potential target of miR-218, a tumor suppressor miRNA. Expression of these two molecules inversely correlated in colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines. In a cohort of CRC patient tissues (n = 59), miR-218 is significantly downregulated and MACC1 is upregulated compared with normal mucosa. Luciferase reporter assays with a construct of the MACC1-3'-UTR harboring either the wild type or the mutated miR-218 seed sequence confirmed the specificity of the targeting. miR-218 inhibited significantly MACC1 protein expression, and consistently, MACC1-mediated migration, invasion and colony formation in CRC cells. Anti-miR-218 enhanced the MACC1-mediated migration, invasion and colony formation. Similar findings were observed in the gastric cancer cell line MKN-45. Further, we performed methylation-specific PCR of the SLIT2 and SLIT3 promoter, where miR-218 is encoded in intronic regions. The SLIT2 and SLIT3 promoters are hypermethylated in CRC cell lines. miR-218 and SLIT2 expressions correlated positively. Methyltransferase inhibitor 5-Azacytidine induced miR-218 expression and inhibited the expression of its target MACC1. We also determined that MACC1 has alternative polyadenylation (APA) sites, which results in different lengths of 3'-UTR variants in a CRC cell line. Taken together, miR-218 is post-transcriptionally inhibiting the MACC1 expression and its metastasis-inducing abilities.
Project description:Acetylcholine (ACh), known as a neurotransmitter, regulates the functions of numerous fundamental central and peripheral nervous system. Recently, emerging evidences indicate that ACh also plays an important role in tumorigenesis. However, little is known about the role of ACh in gastric cancer. Here, we reported that ACh could be auto-synthesized and released from MKN45 and BGC823 gastric cancer cells. Exogenous ACh promoted cell proliferation in a does-dependent manner. The M3R antagonist 4-DAMP, but not M1R antagonist trihexyphenidyl and M2/4?R antagonist AFDX-116, could reverse the ACh-induced cell proliferation. Moreover, ACh, via M3R, activated the EGFR signaling to induce the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and AKT, and blocking EGFR pathway by specific inhibitor AG1478 suppressed the ACh induced cell proliferation. Furthermore, the M3R antagonist 4-DAMP and darifenacin could markedly inhibit gastric tumor formation in vivo. 4-DAMP could also significantly enhance the cytotoxic activity of 5-Fu against the MKN45 and BGC823 cells, and induce the expression of apoptosis-related proteins such as Bax and Caspase-3. Together, these findings indicated that the autocrine ACh could act through M3R and the EGFR signaling to promote gastric cancer cells proliferation, targeting M3R or EGFR may provide us a potential therapeutic strategy for gastric cancer treatment.