Antibody blockade of IL-17 family cytokines in immunity to acute murine oral mucosal candidiasis.
ABSTRACT: Antibodies targeting IL-17A or its receptor, IL-17RA, are approved to treat psoriasis and are being evaluated for other autoimmune conditions. Conversely, IL-17 signaling is critical for immunity to opportunistic mucosal infections caused by the commensal fungus Candida albicans, as mice and humans lacking the IL-17R experience chronic mucosal candidiasis. IL-17A, IL-17F, and IL-17AF bind the IL-17RA-IL-17RC heterodimeric complex and deliver qualitatively similar signals through the adaptor Act1. Here, we used a mouse model of acute oropharyngeal candidiasis to assess the impact of blocking IL-17 family cytokines compared with specific IL-17 cytokine gene knockout mice. Anti-IL-17A antibodies, which neutralize IL-17A and IL-17AF, caused elevated oral fungal loads, whereas anti-IL-17AF and anti-IL-17F antibodies did not. Notably, there was a cooperative effect of blocking IL-17A, IL-17AF, and IL-17F together. Termination of anti-IL-17A treatment was associated with rapid C. albicans clearance. IL-17F-deficient mice were fully resistant to oropharyngeal candidiasis, consistent with antibody blockade. However, IL-17A-deficient mice had lower fungal burdens than anti-IL-17A-treated mice. Act1-deficient mice were much more susceptible to oropharyngeal candidiasis than anti-IL-17A antibody-treated mice, yet anti-IL-17A and anti-IL-17RA treatment caused equivalent susceptibilities. Based on microarray analyses of the oral mucosa during infection, only a limited number of genes were associated with oropharyngeal candidiasis susceptibility. In sum, we conclude that IL-17A is the main cytokine mediator of immunity in murine oropharyngeal candidiasis, but a cooperative relationship among IL-17A, IL-17AF, and IL-17F exists in vivo. Susceptibility displays the following hierarchy: IL-17RA- or Act1-deficiency > anti-IL-17A + anti-IL-17F antibodies > anti-IL-17A or anti-IL-17RA antibodies > IL-17A deficiency.
Project description:Oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) is an opportunistic infection of the oral mucosa caused by the commensal fungus <i>Candida albicans</i> IL-17R signaling is essential to prevent OPC in mice and humans, but the individual roles of its ligands, IL-17A, IL-17F, and IL-17AF, are less clear. A homozygous IL-17F deficiency in mice does not cause OPC susceptibility, whereas mice lacking IL-17A are moderately susceptible. In humans, a rare heterozygous mutation in IL-17F (IL-17F.S65L) was identified that causes chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, suggesting the existence of essential antifungal pathways mediated by IL-17F and/or IL-17AF. To investigate the role of IL-17F and IL-17AF in more detail, we exploited this "experiment of nature" by creating a mouse line bearing the homologous mutation in IL-17F (Ser65Leu) by CRISPR/Cas9. Unlike <i>Il17f<sup>-/-</sup></i> mice that are resistant to OPC, <i>Il17f<sup>S65L/S65L</sup></i> mice showed increased oral fungal burdens similar to <i>Il17a</i> <sup>-/-</sup> mice. In contrast to humans, however, disease was only evident in homozygous, not heterozygous, mutant mice. The mutation was linked to modestly impaired CXC chemokine expression and neutrophil recruitment to the infected tongue but not to alterations in oral antimicrobial peptide expression. These findings suggest mechanisms by which the enigmatic cytokine IL-17F contributes to host defense against fungi. Moreover, because these mice do not phenocopy <i>Il17f<sup>-/-</sup></i> mice, they may provide a valuable tool to interrogate IL-17F and IL-17AF function in vivo in other settings.
Project description:Patients with inborn errors of interleukin-17F (IL-17F) or IL-17RA display chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC). We report a biallelic missense mutation (T536I) in the adaptor molecule ACT1 in two siblings with CMC. The mutation, located in the SEFIR domain, abolished the homotypic interaction of ACT1 with IL-17 receptors, with no effect on homodimerization. The patients' fibroblasts failed to respond to IL-17A and IL-17F, and their T cells to IL-17E. By contrast, healthy individuals homozygous for the common variant D10N, located in the ACT1 tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor-interacting domain and previously associated with psoriasis, had impaired, but not abolished, responses to IL-17 cytokines. SEFIR-independent interactions of ACT1 with other proteins, such as CD40, heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and HSP90, were not affected by the T536I mutation. Overall, human IL-17A and IL-17F depend on ACT1 to mediate protective mucocutaneous immunity. Moreover, other ACT1-dependent IL-17 cytokines seem to be largely redundant in host defense.
Project description:Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC) is characterized by recurrent or persistent infections of the skin, nail, oral, and genital mucosae with Candida species, mainly C. albicans. Autosomal-recessive (AR) IL-17RA and ACT1 deficiencies and autosomal-dominant IL-17F deficiency, each reported in a single kindred, underlie CMC in otherwise healthy patients. We report three patients from unrelated kindreds, aged 8, 12, and 37 yr with isolated CMC, who display AR IL-17RC deficiency. The patients are homozygous for different nonsense alleles that prevent the expression of IL-17RC on the cell surface. The defect is complete, abolishing cellular responses to IL-17A and IL-17F homo- and heterodimers. However, in contrast to what is observed for the IL-17RA- and ACT1-deficient patients tested, the response to IL-17E (IL-25) is maintained in these IL-17RC-deficient patients. These experiments of nature indicate that human IL-17RC is essential for mucocutaneous immunity to C. albicans but is otherwise largely redundant.
Project description:Increased interleukin (IL)-17A has been identified in joints affected by osteoarthritis (OA), but it is unclear how IL-17A, and its family members IL-17AF and IL-17F, can contribute to human OA pathophysiology. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the gene expression and signalling pathway activation effects of the different IL-17 family members in chondrocytes and synovial fibroblasts derived from cartilage and synovium of patients with end-stage knee OA. Immunohistochemistry staining confirmed that IL-17 receptor A (IL-17RA) and IL-17RC are expressed in end-stage OA-derived cartilage and synovium. Chondrocytes and synovial fibroblasts derived from end-stage OA patients were treated with IL-17A, IL-17AF, or IL-17F, and gene expression was assessed with bulk RNA-Seq. Hallmark pathway analysis showed that IL-17 cytokines regulated several OA pathophysiology-related pathways including immune-, angiogenesis-, and complement-pathways in both chondrocytes and synovial fibroblasts derived from end-stage OA patients. While overall IL-17A induced the strongest transcriptional response, followed by IL-17AF and IL-17F, not all genes followed this pattern. Disease-Gene Network analysis revealed that IL-17A-related changes in gene expression in these cells are associated with experimental arthritis, knee arthritis, and musculoskeletal disease gene-sets. Western blot analysis confirmed that IL-17A significantly activates p38 and p65 NF-κB. Incubation of chondrocytes and synovial fibroblasts with anti-IL-17A monoclonal antibody secukinumab significantly inhibited IL-17A-induced gene expression. In conclusion, the association of IL-17-induced transcriptional changes with arthritic gene-sets supports a role for IL-17A in OA pathophysiology. Future studies should further investigate the role of IL-17A in the OA joint to establish whether anti-IL-17 treatment could be a potential therapeutic option in OA patients with an inflammatory phenotype.
Project description:Interleukin (IL)-17A, a pro-inflammatory cytokine that is linked to the pathology of several inflammatory diseases, has been shown to be upregulated in early human tendinopathy and to mediate inflammatory and tissue remodelling events. However, it remains unclear which cells in tendons can respond to IL-17A, and how IL-17A, and its family members IL-17F and IL-17AF, can affect intracellular signalling activation and mRNA expression in healthy and diseased tendon-derived fibroblasts. Using well-phenotyped human tendon samples, we show that IL-17A and its receptors IL-17RA and IL-17RC are present in healthy hamstring, and tendinopathic and torn supraspinatus tendon tissue. Next, we investigated the effects of IL-17A, IL-17F, or IL-17AF on cultured patient-derived healthy and diseased tendon-derived fibroblasts. In these experiments, IL-17A treatment significantly upregulated <i>IL6</i>, <i>MMP3</i>, and <i>PDPN</i> mRNA expression in diseased tendon-derived fibroblasts. IL-17AF treatment induced moderate increases in these target genes, while little change was observed with IL-17F. These trends were reflected in the activation of intracellular signalling proteins p38 and NF- κ B p65, which were significantly increased by IL-17A, modestly increased by IL-17AF, and not increased by IL-17F. In combination with TNF-α, all three IL-17 cytokines induced <i>IL6</i> and <i>MMP3</i> mRNA expression to similar levels. Therefore, this study confirms that healthy and diseased tendon-derived fibroblasts are responsive to IL-17 cytokines and that IL-17A induces the most profound intracellular signalling activation and mRNA expression of inflammatory genes, followed by IL-17AF, and finally IL-17F. The ability of IL-17 cytokines to induce a direct response and activate diverse pro-inflammatory signalling pathways through synergy with other inflammatory mediators suggests a role for IL-17 family members as amplifiers of tendon inflammation and as potential therapeutic targets in tendinopathy.
Project description:The IL-17 family is structurally distinct from other cytokine subclasses. IL-17A and IL-17F, the most closely related of this family, form homodimers and an IL-17AF heterodimer. While IL-17A and IL-17F exhibit similar activities in many settings, in others their functions are divergent. To better understand the function of IL-17F in vivo, we created mice harboring a mutation in Il17f originally described in humans with unexplained chronic mucosal candidiasis (Ser-65-Leu). We evaluated Il17f<sup>S65L/S65L</sup> mice in DSS-colitis, as this is one of the few settings where IL-17A and IL-17F exhibit opposing activities. Specifically, IL-17A is protective of the gut epithelium, a finding that was revealed when trials of anti-IL-17A biologics in Crohn's disease failed and recapitulated in many mouse models of colitis. In contrast, mice lacking IL-17F are resistant to DSS-colitis, partly attributable to alterations in intestinal microbiota that mobilize Tregs. Here we report that Il17f<sup>S65L/S65L</sup> mice do not phenocopy Il17f<sup>-/-</sup> mice in DSS colitis, but rather exhibited a worsening disease phenotype much like Il17a<sup>-/-</sup> mice. Gut inflammation in Il17f<sup>S65L/S65L</sup> mice correlated with reduced Treg accumulation and lowered intestinal levels of Clostridium cluster XIV. Unexpectedly, the protective DSS-colitis phenotype in Il17f<sup>-/-</sup> mice could be reversed upon co-housing with Il17f<sup>S65L/S65L</sup> mice, also correlating with Clostridium cluster XIV levels in gut. Thus, the Il17f<sup>S65L/S65L</sup> phenotype resembles an IL-17A deficiency more closely than IL-17F deficiency in the setting of DSS colitis.
Project description:Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis disease (CMCD) is characterized by recurrent or persistent infections of the skin, nails, and oral and genital mucosae caused by Candida albicans and, to a lesser extent, Staphylococcus aureus, in patients with no other infectious or autoimmune manifestations. We report two genetic etiologies of CMCD: autosomal recessive deficiency in the cytokine receptor, interleukin-17 receptor A (IL-17RA), and autosomal dominant deficiency of the cytokine interleukin-17F (IL-17F). IL-17RA deficiency is complete, abolishing cellular responses to IL-17A and IL-17F homo- and heterodimers. By contrast, IL-17F deficiency is partial, with mutant IL-17F-containing homo- and heterodimers displaying impaired, but not abolished, activity. These experiments of nature indicate that human IL-17A and IL-17F are essential for mucocutaneous immunity against C. albicans, but otherwise largely redundant.
Project description:IL-17 cytokine family, though still young since discovery, has recently emerged as critical players in immunity and inflammatory diseases. The prototype cytokine, IL-17A, plays essential roles in promoting inflammation and host defense. IL-17RA, a member of the IL-17 receptor family, forms a complex with another member, IL-17RC, to mediate effective signaling for IL-17A as well as IL-17F, which is most similar to IL-17A, via Act1 and TRAF6 factors. On the other hand, IL-17RA appears to interact with IL-17RB to regulate signaling by another cytokine IL-25. IL-25, the most distant from IL-17A in the IL-17 family, is involved in allergic disease and defense against helminthic parasites. In this review, we discuss recent advancements on signaling mechanisms and biological functions of IL-17A, IL-17F and IL-25, which will shed light on the remaining IL-17 family cytokines and help understand and treat inflammatory diseases.
Project description:G-CSF, its receptor, and IL-17 receptor A (IL-17RA) are all required to maintain baseline neutrophil counts in mice. In this study, we tested whether IL-17F could compensate and maintain baseline neutrophil counts in the absence of IL-17A. Unlike the reduced neutrophil counts found in IL-17RA-deficient mice, neutrophil counts were mildly increased in IL-17A-deficient (Il17a(-/-)) animals. There was no evidence for infection or altered neutrophil function. Plasma G-CSF and IL-17F levels were elevated in Il17a(-/-) compared with wild-type mice. IL-17F was mainly produced in the spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes, but IL-23 was unaltered in Il17a(-/-) mice. Instead, Il17a(-/-) splenocytes differentiated with IL-6, TGF-beta, and IL-23 ex vivo produced significantly more IL-17F in response to IL-23 than wild-type cells. Adding rIL-17A to Il17a(-/-) splenocyte cultures reduced IL-17F mRNA and protein secretion. These effects were also observed in wild-type but not IL-17RA-deficient cells. We conclude that IL-17A mediated suppression of IL-17F production and secretion requires IL-17RA and is relevant to maintain the normal set point of blood neutrophil counts in vivo.
Project description:TICAM-1 (also called TRIF) is the sole adaptor of TLR3 that recognizes double-stranded RNA. Here, we report that TICAM-1 is involved not only in TLR3 signaling but also in the cytokine receptor IL-17RA signaling. We found that TICAM-1 bound to IL-17R adaptor Act1 to inhibit the interaction between IL-17RA and Act1. Interestingly, <i>TICAM-1</i> knockout promoted IL-17RA/Act1 interaction and increased IL-17A-mediated activation of NF-κB and MAP kinases, leading to enhanced expression of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines upon IL-17A stimulation. Moreover, <i>Ticam-1</i> knockout augmented IL-17A-mediated CXCL1 and CXCL2 expression in vivo, resulting in accumulation of myeloid cells. Furthermore, <i>Ticam-1</i> knockout enhanced delayed type hypersensitivity and exacerbated experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. <i>Ticam-1</i> knockout promoted accumulation of myeloid and lymphoid cells in the spinal cord of EAE-induced mice. Collectively, these data indicate that TICAM-1 inhibits the interaction between IL-17RA and Act1 and functions as a negative regulator in IL-17A-mediated inflammatory responses.