Multicenter prospective longitudinal study of magnetic resonance biomarkers in a large duchenne muscular dystrophy cohort.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to describe Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) disease progression in the lower extremity muscles over 12 months using quantitative magnetic resonance (MR) biomarkers, collected across three sites in a large cohort. METHODS:A total of 109 ambulatory boys with DMD (8.7 ± 2.0 years; range, 5.0-12.9) completed baseline and 1-year follow-up quantitative MR imaging (transverse relaxation time constant; MRI-T2 ), MR spectroscopy (fat fraction and (1) H2 O T2 ), and 6-minute walk test (6MWT) measurements. A subset of boys completed additional measurements after 3 or 6 months. RESULTS:MRI-T2 and fat fraction increased significantly over 12 months in all age groups, including in 5- to 6.9-year-old boys. Significant increases in vastus lateralis (VL) fat fraction were observed in 3 and 6 months. Even in boys whose 6MWT performance improved or remained stable over 1 year, significant increases in MRI-T2 and fat fraction were found. Of all the muscles examined, the VL and biceps femoris long head were the most responsive to disease progression in boys with DMD. INTERPRETATION:MR biomarkers are responsive to disease progression in 5- to 12.9-year-old boys with DMD and able to detect subclinical disease progression in DMD, even within short (3-6 months) time periods. The measured sensitivity of MR biomarkers in this multicenter study may be critically important to future clinical trials, allowing for smaller sample sizes and/or shorter study windows in this fatal rare disease.
Project description:To evaluate the effects of corticosteroids on the lower extremity muscles in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) using MRI and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS).Transverse relaxation time (T2) and fat fraction were measured by MRI/MRS in lower extremity muscles of 15 boys with DMD (age 5.0-6.9 years) taking corticosteroids and 15 corticosteroid-naive boys. Subsequently, fat fraction was measured in a subset of these boys at 1 year. Finally, MRI/MRS data were collected from 16 corticosteroid-naive boys with DMD (age 5-8.9 years) at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months. Five boys were treated with corticosteroids after baseline and the remaining 11 served as corticosteroid-naive controls.Cross-sectional comparisons demonstrated lower muscle T2 and less intramuscular (IM) fat deposition in boys with DMD on corticosteroids, suggesting reduced inflammation/damage and fat infiltration with treatment. Boys on corticosteroids demonstrated less increase in IM fat infiltration at 1 year. Finally, T2 by MRI/MRS detected effects of corticosteroids on leg muscles as early as 3 months after drug initiation.These results demonstrate the ability of MRI/MRS to detect therapeutic effects of corticosteroids in reducing inflammatory processes in skeletal muscles of boys with DMD. Our work highlights the potential of MRI/MRS as a biomarker in evaluating therapeutic interventions in DMD.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked recessive disorder that results in functional deficits. However, these functional declines are often not able to be quantified in clinical trials for DMD until after age 7. In this study, we hypothesized that (1)H2O T2 derived using (1)H-MRS and MRI-T2 will be sensitive to muscle involvement at a young age (5-7 years) consistent with increased inflammation and muscle damage in a large cohort of DMD subjects compared to controls. METHODS:MR data were acquired from 123 boys with DMD (ages 5-14 years; mean 8.6 SD 2.2 years) and 31 healthy controls (age 9.7 SD 2.3 years) using 3-Tesla MRI instruments at three institutions (University of Florida, Oregon Health & Science University, and Children's Hospital of Philadelphia). T2-weighted multi-slice spin echo (SE) axial images and single voxel 1H-MRS were acquired from the lower leg and thigh to measure lipid fraction and (1)H2O T2. RESULTS:MRI-T2, (1)H2O T2, and lipid fraction were greater (p<0.05) in DMD compared to controls. In the youngest age group, DMD values were different (p<0.05) than controls for the soleus MRI-T2, (1)H2O T2 and lipid fraction and vastus lateralis MRI-T2 and (1)H2O T2. In the boys with DMD, MRI-T2 and lipid fraction were greater (p<0.05) in the oldest age group (11-14 years) than the youngest age group (5-6.9 years), while 1H2O T2 was lower in the oldest age group compared to the young age group. DISCUSSION:Overall, MR measures of T2 and lipid fraction revealed differences between DMD and Controls. Furthermore, MRI-T2 was greater in the older age group compared to the young age group, which was associated with higher lipid fractions. Overall, MR measures of T2 and lipid fraction show excellent sensitivity to DMD disease pathologies and potential therapeutic interventions in DMD, even in the younger boys.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To investigate the potential of lower extremity magnetic resonance (MR) biomarkers to serve as endpoints in clinical trials of therapeutics for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) by characterizing the longitudinal progression of MR biomarkers over 48 months and assessing their relationship to changes in ambulatory clinical function. METHODS:One hundred sixty participants with DMD were enrolled in this longitudinal, natural history study and underwent MR data acquisition of the lower extremity muscles to determine muscle fat fraction (FF) and MRI T2 biomarkers of disease progression. In addition, 4 tests of ambulatory function were performed. Participants returned for follow-up data collection at 12, 24, 36, and 48 months. RESULTS:Longitudinal analysis of the MR biomarkers revealed that vastus lateralis FF, vastus lateralis MRI T2, and biceps femoris long head MRI T2 biomarkers were the fastest progressing biomarkers over time in this primarily ambulatory cohort. Biomarker values tended to demonstrate a nonlinear, sigmoidal trajectory over time. The lower extremity biomarkers predicted functional performance 12 and 24 months later, and the magnitude of change in an MR biomarker over time was related to the magnitude of change in function. Vastus lateralis FF, soleus FF, vastus lateralis MRI T2, and biceps femoris long head MRI T2 were the strongest predictors of future loss of function, including loss of ambulation. CONCLUSIONS:This study supports the strong relationship between lower extremity MR biomarkers and measures of clinical function, as well as the ability of MR biomarkers, particularly those from proximal muscles, to predict future ambulatory function and important clinical milestones. CLINICALTRIALSGOV IDENTIFIER:NCT01484678.
Project description:A number of promising experimental therapies for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) are emerging. Clinical trials currently rely on invasive biopsies or motivation-dependent functional tests to assess outcome. Quantitative muscle magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could offer a valuable alternative and permit inclusion of non-ambulant DMD subjects. The aims of our study were to explore the responsiveness of upper-limb MRI muscle-fat measurement as a non-invasive objective endpoint for clinical trials in non-ambulant DMD, and to investigate the relationship of these MRI measures to those of muscle force and function.15 non-ambulant DMD boys (mean age 13.3 y) and 10 age-gender matched healthy controls (mean age 14.6 y) were recruited. 3-Tesla MRI fat-water quantification was used to measure forearm muscle fat transformation in non-ambulant DMD boys compared with healthy controls. DMD boys were assessed at 4 time-points over 12 months, using 3-point Dixon MRI to measure muscle fat-fraction (f.f.). Images from ten forearm muscles were segmented and mean f.f. and cross-sectional area recorded. DMD subjects also underwent comprehensive upper limb function and force evaluation.Overall mean baseline forearm f.f. was higher in DMD than in healthy controls (p<0.001). A progressive f.f. increase was observed in DMD over 12 months, reaching significance from 6 months (p<0.001, n = 7), accompanied by a significant loss in pinch strength at 6 months (p<0.001, n = 9) and a loss of upper limb function and grip force observed over 12 months (p<0.001, n = 8).These results support the use of MRI muscle f.f. as a biomarker to monitor disease progression in the upper limb in non-ambulant DMD, with sensitivity adequate to detect group-level change over time intervals practical for use in clinical trials. Clinical validity is supported by the association of the progressive fat transformation of muscle with loss of muscle force and function.
Project description:The purpose of this study was to explore the use of iterative decomposition of water and fat with echo asymmetry and least-squares estimation Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (IDEAL-CPMG) to simultaneously measure skeletal muscle apparent fat fraction and water T2 (T2,w) in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). In twenty healthy volunteer boys and thirteen subjects with DMD, thigh muscle apparent fat fraction was measured by Dixon and IDEAL-CPMG, with the IDEAL-CPMG also providing T2,w as a measure of muscle inflammatory activity. A subset of subjects with DMD was followed up during a 48-week clinical study. The study was in compliance with the Patient Privacy Act and approved by the Institutional Review Board. Apparent fat fraction in the thigh muscles of subjects with DMD was significantly increased compared to healthy volunteer boys (p?<0.001). There was a strong correlation between Dixon and IDEAL-CPMG apparent fat fraction. Muscle T2,w measured by IDEAL-CPMG was independent of changes in apparent fat fraction. Muscle T2,w was higher in the biceps femoris and vastus lateralis muscles of subjects with DMD (p?<0.05). There was a strong correlation (p?<0.004) between apparent fat fraction in all thigh muscles and six-minute walk distance (6MWD) in subjects with DMD. IDEAL-CPMG allowed independent and simultaneous quantification of skeletal muscle fatty degeneration and disease activity in DMD. IDEAL-CPMG apparent fat fraction and T2,w may be useful as biomarkers in clinical trials of DMD as the technique disentangles two competing biological processes.
Project description:To validate a multicenter protocol that examines lower extremity skeletal muscles of children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) by using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and MR spectroscopy in terms of reproducibility of these measurements within and across centers.This HIPAA-compliant study was approved by the institutional review boards of all participating centers, and informed consent was obtained from each participant or a guardian. Standardized procedures with MR operator training and quality assurance assessments were implemented, and data were acquired at three centers by using different 3-T MR imaging instruments. Measures of maximal cross-sectional area (CSAmax), transverse relaxation time constant (T2), and lipid fraction were compared among centers in two-compartment coaxial phantoms and in two unaffected adult subjects who visited each center. Also, repeat MR measures were acquired twice on separate days in 30 boys with DMD (10 per center) and 10 unaffected boys. Coefficients of variation (CVs) were computed to examine the repeated-measure variabilities within and across centers.CSAmax, T2 from MR imaging and MR spectroscopy, and lipid fraction were consistent across centers in the phantom (CV, <3%) and in the adult subjects who traveled to each site (CV, 2%-7%). High day-to-day reproducibility in MR measures was observed in boys with DMD (CSAmax, CV = 3.7% [25th percentile, 1.3%; 75th percentile, 5.1%]; contractile area, CV = 4.2% [25th percentile, 0.8%; 75th percentile, 4.9%]; MR imaging T2, CV = 3.1% [25th percentile, 1.2%; 75th percentile, 4.7%]; MR spectroscopy T2, CV = 3.9% [25th percentile, 1.5%; 75th percentile, 5.1%]; and lipid fraction, CV = 4.7% [25th percentile, 1.0%; 75th percentile, 5.3%]).The MR protocol implemented in this multicenter study achieved highly reproducible measures of lower extremity muscles across centers and from day to day in ambulatory boys with DMD.
Project description:Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), an inherited recessive X chromosome-linked disease, is the most severe childhood form of muscular dystrophy. Boys with DMD experience muscle loss, with infiltration of intramuscular fat into muscles.This case series describes the progression of DMD in boys using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Magnetic resonance results are then compared with an established functional timed test.Four boys with DMD and 4 healthy age-matched controls were chosen from a larger cohort. Boys with DMD were assessed at 4 time points over 2 years, with controls assessed at baseline only. Progression of the disease was documented by assessing the plantar flexors using MRI and MRS techniques and by assessing ambulation using the 30-Foot Fast Walk Test.Transverse relaxation time (T2) values were elevated in all boys with DMD at baseline. The lipid ratio increased rapidly as the disease progressed in 2 boys. Discrete changes in T2 in the other 2 boys with DMD indicated a slower disease progression. Magnetic resonance imaging and MRS allowed monitoring of the disease over all time periods regardless of ambulation status.The magnetic resonance data were collected with 2 different magnets at 2 different field strengths (1.5 and 3.0 T). Although we corrected for this difference, care must be taken in interpreting data when different image collection systems are used. This was a case series of 4 boys with DMD taken from a larger cohort study.Magnetic resonance imaging and MRS are objective, noninvasive techniques for measuring muscle pathology and can be used to detect discrete changes in both people who are ambulatory and those who are nonambulatory. These techniques should be considered when monitoring DMD progression and assessing efficacy of therapeutic interventions.
Project description:Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal inherited genetic disorder that results in progressive muscle weakness and ultimately loss of ambulation, respiratory failure and heart failure. Cardiac MRI (MRI) plays an increasingly important role in the diagnosis and clinical care of boys with DMD and associated cardiomyopathies. Conventional cardiac MRI biomarkers permit measurements of global cardiac function and presence of fibrosis, but changes in these measures are late manifestations. Emerging MRI biomarkers of myocardial function and structure include the estimation of rotational mechanics and regional strain using MRI tagging; T1-mapping; and T2-mapping, a marker of inflammation, edema and fat. These emerging biomarkers provide earlier insights into cardiac involvement in DMD, improving patient care and aiding the evaluation of emerging therapies.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Tests of ambulatory function are common clinical trial endpoints in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Using these tests, the ImagingDMD study has generated a large data set that can describe the contemporary natural history of DMD in 5-12.9-year-olds. METHODS:Ninety-two corticosteroid-treated boys with DMD and 45 controls participated in this longitudinal study. Participants performed the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) and timed function tests (TFT: 10-m walk/run, climbing 4 stairs, supine to stand). RESULTS:Boys with DMD had impaired functional performance even at 5-6.9 years old. Boys older than 7 had significant declines in function over 1 year for 10-m walk/run and 6MWT. Eighty percent of participants could perform all functional tests at 9 years old. TFTs appear to be slightly more responsive and predictive of disease progression than the 6MWT in 7-12.9 year olds. DISCUSSION:This study provides insight into the contemporary natural history of key functional endpoints in DMD. Muscle Nerve 58: 631-638, 2018.
Project description:Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) is a neuromuscular disorder allelic to Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), caused by in-frame mutations in the dystrophin gene, and characterized by a clinical progression that is both milder and more heterogeneous than DMD. Muscle magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been proposed as biomarker of disease progression in dystrophinopathies. Correlation with clinically meaningful outcome measures such as North Star Ambulatory Assessment (NSAA) and 6?minute walk test (6MWT) is paramount for biomarker qualification. In this study, 51 molecularly confirmed BMD patients (aged 7-69 years) underwent muscle MRI and were evaluated with functional measures (NSAA and 6MWT) at the time of the MRI, and subsequently after one year. We confirmed a pattern of fatty substitution involving mainly the hip extensors and most thigh muscles. Severity of muscle fatty substitution was significantly correlated with specific DMD mutations: in particular, patients with an isolated deletion of exon 48, or deletions bordering exon 51, showed milder involvement. Fat infiltration scores correlated with baseline functional measures, and predicted changes after 1 year. We conclude that in BMD, skeletal muscle MRI not only strongly correlates with motor function, but also helps in predicting functional deterioration within a 12-month time frame.