Circulating Blood Monocyte Subclasses and Lipid-Laden Adipose Tissue Macrophages in Human Obesity.
ABSTRACT: Visceral adipose tissue foam cells are increased in human obesity, and were implicated in adipose dysfunction and increased cardio-metabolic risk. In the circulation, non-classical monocytes (NCM) are elevated in obesity and associate with atherosclerosis and type 2 diabetes. We hypothesized that circulating NCM correlate and/or are functionally linked to visceral adipose tissue foam cells in obesity, potentially providing an approach to estimate visceral adipose tissue status in the non-surgical obese patient.We preformed ex-vivo functional studies utilizing sorted monocyte subclasses from healthy donors. Moreover, we assessed circulating blood monocyte subclasses and visceral fat adipose tissue macrophage (ATM) lipid content by flow-cytometry in paired blood and omental-fat samples collected from patients (n = 65) undergoing elective abdominal surgery.Ex-vivo, NCM and NCM-derived macrophages exhibited lower lipid accumulation capacity compared to classical or intermediate monocytes/-derived macrophages. Moreover, of the three subclasses, NCM exhibited the lowest migration towards adipose tissue conditioned-media. In a cohort of n = 65, increased %NCM associated with higher BMI (r = 0.250,p<0.05) and ATM lipid content (r = 0.303,p<0.05). Among patients with BMI?25Kg/m2, linear regression models adjusted for age, sex or BMI revealed that NCM independently associate with ATM lipid content, particularly in men.Collectively, although circulating blood NCM are unlikely direct functional precursor cells for adipose tissue foam cells, their increased percentage in the circulation may clinically reflect higher lipid content in visceral ATMs.
Project description:Obesity-related changes in adipose tissue leukocytes, in particular adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) and dendritic cells (ATDCs), are implicated in metabolic inflammation, insulin resistance, and altered regulation of adipocyte function. We evaluated stromal cell and white adipose tissue (WAT) expansion dynamics with high fat diet (HFD) feeding for 3-56 days, quantifying ATMs, ATDCs, endothelial cells (ECs), and preadipocytes (PAs) in visceral epididymal WAT and subcutaneous inguinal WAT. To better understand mechanisms of the early response to obesity, we evaluated ATM proliferation and lipid accumulation. ATMs, ATDCs, and ECs increased with rapid WAT expansion, with ATMs derived primarily from a CCR2-independent resident population. WAT expansion stimulated proliferation in resident ATMs and ECs, but not CD11c+ ATMs or ATDCs. ATM proliferation was unperturbed in Csf2- and Rag1-deficient mice with WAT expansion. Additionally, ATM apoptosis decreased with WAT expansion, and proliferation and apoptosis reverted to baseline with weight loss. Adipocytes reached maximal hypertrophy at 28 days of HFD, coinciding with a plateau in resident ATM accumulation and the appearance of lipid-laden CD11c+ ATMs in visceral epididymal WAT. ATM increases were proportional to tissue expansion and adipocyte hypertrophy, supporting adipocyte-mediated regulation of resident ATMs. The appearance of lipid-laden CD11c+ ATMs at peak adipocyte size supports a role in responding to ectopic lipid accumulation within adipose tissue. In contrast, ATDCs increase independently of proliferation and may be derived from circulating precursors. These changes precede and establish the setting in which large-scale adipose tissue infiltration of CD11c+ ATMs, inflammation, and adipose tissue dysfunction contributes to insulin resistance.
Project description:Obesity-associated insulin resistance is characterized by a state of chronic, low-grade inflammation that is associated with the accumulation of M1 proinflammatory macrophages in adipose tissue. Although different evidence explains the mechanisms linking the expansion of adipose tissue and adipose tissue macrophage (ATM) polarization, in the current study we investigated the concept of lipid-induced toxicity as the pathogenic link that could explain the trigger of this response.We addressed this question using isolated ATMs and adipocytes from genetic and diet-induced murine models of obesity. Through transcriptomic and lipidomic analysis, we created a model integrating transcript and lipid species networks simultaneously occurring in adipocytes and ATMs and their reversibility by thiazolidinedione treatment.We show that polarization of ATMs is associated with lipid accumulation and the consequent formation of foam cell-like cells in adipose tissue. Our study reveals that early stages of adipose tissue expansion are characterized by M2-polarized ATMs and that progressive lipid accumulation within ATMs heralds the M1 polarization, a macrophage phenotype associated with severe obesity and insulin resistance. Furthermore, rosiglitazone treatment, which promotes redistribution of lipids toward adipocytes and extends the M2 ATM polarization state, prevents the lipid alterations associated with M1 ATM polarization.Our data indicate that the M1 ATM polarization in obesity might be a macrophage-specific manifestation of a more general lipotoxic pathogenic mechanism. This indicates that strategies to optimize fat deposition and repartitioning toward adipocytes might improve insulin sensitivity by preventing ATM lipotoxicity and M1 polarization.
Project description:Adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) accumulate in fat during obesity and resemble foam cells in atherosclerotic lesions, suggesting that common mechanisms underlie both inflammatory conditions. CX(3)CR1 and its ligand fractalkine/CX(3)CL1 contribute to macrophage recruitment and inflammation in atherosclerosis, but their role in obesity-induced adipose tissue inflammation is unknown. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that CX(3)CR1 regulates ATM trafficking to epididymal fat and contributes to the development of adipose tissue inflammation during diet-induced obesity. Cx(3)cl1 and Cx(3)cr1 expression was induced specifically in epididymal fat from mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). CX(3)CR1 was detected on multiple myeloid cells within epididymal fat from obese mice. To test the requirement of CX(3)CR1 for ATM trafficking and obesity-induced inflammation, Cx(3)cr1(+/GFP) and Cx(3)cr1(GFP/GFP) mice were fed a HFD. Ly-6c(Low) monocytes were reduced in lean Cx(3)cr1(GFP/GFP) mice; however, HFD-induced monocytosis was comparable between strains. Total ATM content, the ratio of type 1 (CD11c(+)) to type 2 (CD206(+)) ATMs, expression of inflammatory markers, and T-cell content were similar in epididymal fat from obese Cx(3)cr1(+/GFP) and Cx(3)cr1(GFP/GFP) mice. Cx(3)cr1 deficiency did not prevent the development of obesity-induced insulin resistance or hepatic steatosis. In summary, our data indicate that CX(3)CR1 is not required for the recruitment or retention of ATMs in epididymal adipose tissue of mice with HFD-induced obesity even though CX(3)CR1 promotes foam cell formation. This highlights an important point of divergence between the mechanisms regulating monocyte trafficking to fat with obesity and those that contribute to foam cell formation in atherogenesis.
Project description:Obesity elicits an immune response characterized by myeloid cell recruitment to key metabolic organs, including adipose tissue. However, the response of immune cells to nonpathologic metabolic stimuli has been less well studied, and the factors that regulate the metabolic-dependent accumulation of immune cells are incompletely understood. Here we characterized the response of adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) to weight loss and fasting in mice and identified a role for lipolysis in ATM recruitment and accumulation. We found that the immune response to weight loss was dynamic; caloric restriction of high-fat diet-fed mice led to an initial increase in ATM recruitment, whereas ATM content decreased following an extended period of weight loss. The peak in ATM number coincided with the peak in the circulating concentrations of FFA and adipose tissue lipolysis, suggesting that lipolysis drives ATM accumulation. Indeed, fasting or pharmacologically induced lipolysis rapidly increased ATM accumulation, adipose tissue chemoattractant activity, and lipid uptake by ATMs. Conversely, dietary and genetic manipulations that reduced lipolysis decreased ATM accumulation. Depletion of macrophages in adipose tissue cultures increased expression of adipose triglyceride lipase and genes regulated by FFA, and increased lipolysis. These data suggest that local lipid fluxes are central regulators of ATM recruitment and that once recruited, ATMs form lipid-laden macrophages that can buffer local increases in lipid concentration.
Project description:CONTEXT:Adipose tissue inflammation and dysregulated energy homeostasis are key mechanisms linking obesity and cancer. Distinct adipose tissue depots strongly differ in their metabolic profiles; however, comprehensive studies of depot-specific perturbations among patients with cancer are lacking. OBJECTIVE:We compared transcriptome profiles of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) from patients with colorectal cancer and assessed the associations of different anthropometric measures with depot-specific gene expression. DESIGN:Whole transcriptomes of VAT and SAT were measured in 233 patients from the ColoCare Study, and visceral and subcutaneous fat area were quantified via CT. RESULTS:VAT compared with SAT showed elevated gene expression of cytokines, cell adhesion molecules, and key regulators of metabolic homeostasis. Increased fat area was associated with downregulated lipid and small molecule metabolism and upregulated inflammatory pathways in both compartments. Comparing these patterns between depots proved specific and more pronounced gene expression alterations in SAT and identified unique associations of integrins and lipid metabolism-related enzymes. VAT gene expression patterns that were associated with visceral fat area poorly overlapped with patterns associated with self-reported body mass index (BMI). However, subcutaneous fat area and BMI showed similar associations with SAT gene expression. CONCLUSIONS:This large-scale human study demonstrates pronounced disparities between distinct adipose tissue depots and reveals that BMI poorly correlates with fat mass-associated changes in VAT. Taken together, these results provide crucial evidence for the necessity to differentiate between distinct adipose tissue depots for a correct characterization of gene expression profiles that may affect metabolic health of patients with colorectal cancer.
Project description:Occurrence of oxidative stress in white adipose tissues contributes to its dysfunction and the development of obesity-related metabolic complications. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is the single lipophilic antioxidant synthesized in humans and is essential for electron transport during mitochondrial respiration. To understand the role of CoQ10 in adipose tissue physiology and dysfunction, the abundance of the oxidized and reduced (CoQ10red) isoforms of the CoQ10 were quantified in subcutaneous and omental adipose tissues of women covering the full range of BMI (from 21.5 to 53.2 kg/m(2)). Lean women displayed regional variations of CoQ10 redox state between the omental and subcutaneous depot, despite similar total content. Obese women had reduced CoQ10red concentrations in the omental depot, leading to increased CoQ10 redox state and higher levels of lipid hydroperoxide. Women with low omental CoQ10 content had greater visceral and subcutaneous adiposity, increased omental adipocyte diameter, and higher circulating interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein levels and were more insulin resistant. The associations between abdominal obesity-related cardiometabolic risk factors and CoQ10 content in the omental depot were abolished after adjustment for omental adipocyte diameter. This study shows that hypertrophic remodeling of visceral fat closely relates to depletion of CoQ10, lipid peroxidation, and inflammation.
Project description:Obesity-associated insulin resistance is characterized by a state of chronic, low-grade inflammation that is associated with the accumulation of M1 proinflammatory macrophages in adipose tissue. Although different evidence explains the mechanisms linking the expansion of adipose tissue and adipose tissue macrophage (ATM) polarization, in the current study we investigated the concept of lipid-induced toxicity as the pathogenic link that could explain the trigger of this response. We addressed this question using isolated ATMs and adipocytes from genetic and diet-induced murine models of obesity. Through transcriptomic and lipidomic analysis, we created a model integrating transcript and lipid species networks simultaneously occurring in adipocytes and ATMs and their reversibility by thiazolidinedione treatment. We show that polarization of ATMs is associated with lipid accumulation and the consequent formation of foam cell–like cells in adipose tissue. Our study reveals that early stages of adipose tissue expansion are characterized by M2-polarized ATMs and that progressive lipid accumulation within ATMs heralds the M1 polarization, a macrophage phenotype associated with severe obesity and insulin resistance. Furthermore, rosiglitazone treatment, which promotes redistribution of lipids toward adipocytes and extends the M2 ATM polarization state, prevents the lipid alterations associated with M1 ATM polarization. Our data indicate that the M1 ATM polarization in obesity might be a macrophage-specific manifestation of a more general lipotoxic pathogenic mechanism. This indicates that strategies to optimize fat deposition and repartitioning toward adipocytes might improve insulin sensitivity by preventing ATM lipotoxicity and M1 polarization. 15 samples; 2 genotypes and 2 time points
Project description:To investigate the relation between primary chronic insomnia and insulin sensitivity, visceral adiposity, non alcoholic fatty liver disease and neuroendocrine hormones.In a case-controlled, prospective clinical trial 13 women with primary chronic insomnia according to DSM-IV criteria were compared to 12 healthy controls matched for age, sex, BMI, body composition and menopausal status. All participants had a sleep assessment including polysomnographic studies and neuropsychiatric evaluation. Insulin sensitivity was evaluated using the euglycaemic hyperinsulinemic clamp. Hepatic fat content, visceral adipose tissue and intramyocellular lipid accumulation were assessed using magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy. The hormonal stress axis was evaluated by measurements of midnight and early morning salivary cortisol, urinary catecholamines and plasma metanephrines. Body composition was determined using body impedance analysis and indirect calorimetry.Although the diagnosis of primary chronic insomnia was made by established clinical criteria, standard polysomongraphic studies failed to identify altered sleep continuity and architecture when compared to matched controls. However, women with primary chronic insomnia showed significantly higher midnight salivary cortisol concentrations (1.46 vs. 0.76 nmol/l, p?=?0.02), indicating dysregulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Plasma glucose and lipid concentrations, insulin sensitivity, hepatic and intramyocellular fat content, visceral adipose tissue mass and body composition did not differ between the two groups.Healthy women with clinically diagnosed primary chronic insomnia demonstrate a dysregulation of circadian cortisol secretion despite normal sleep continuity and architecture. Increased midnight cortisol levels, however, were not associated with impaired metabolism of glucose and lipids.
Project description:Accumulating evidence suggests that subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues are differentially associated with metabolic disorders. In obesity, subcutaneous adipose tissue is beneficial for metabolic homeostasis because of repressed inflammation. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) sensitivity is crucial in determining fat depot-selective adipose tissue macrophage (ATM) infiltration in obesity. In diet-induced obesity, GABA reduced monocyte migration in subcutaneous inguinal adipose tissue (IAT), but not in visceral epididymal adipose tissue (EAT). Pharmacological modulation of the GABAB receptor affected the levels of ATM infiltration and adipose tissue inflammation in IAT, but not in EAT, and GABA administration ameliorated systemic insulin resistance and enhanced insulin-dependent glucose uptake in IAT, accompanied by lower inflammatory responses. Intriguingly, compared with adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) from EAT, IAT-ADSCs played key roles in mediating GABA responses that repressed ATM infiltration in high-fat diet-fed mice. These data suggest that selective GABA responses in IAT contribute to fat depot-selective suppression of inflammatory responses and protection from insulin resistance in obesity.
Project description:Obesity induces accumulation of adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) and ATM-driven inflammatory responses that promote the development of glucose and lipid metabolism disorders. ClC-3 chloride channel/antiporter, encoded by the Clcn3, is critical for some basic cellular functions. Our previous work has shown significant alleviation of type 2 diabetes in Clcn3 knockout (Clcn3-/-) mice. In the present study we investigated the role of Clcn3 in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity and ATM inflammation. To establish the mouse obesity model, both Clcn3-/- mice and wild-type mice were fed a HFD for 4 or 16 weeks. The metabolic parameters were assessed and the abdominal total adipose tissue was scanned using computed tomography. Their epididymal fat pad tissue and adipose tissue stromal vascular fraction (SVF) cells were isolated for analyses. We found that the HFD-fed Clcn3-/- mice displayed a significant decrease in obesity-induced body weight gain and abdominal visceral fat accumulation as well as an improvement of glucose and lipid metabolism as compared with HFD-fed wild-type mice. Furthermore, the Clcn3 deficiency significantly attenuated HFD-induced ATM accumulation, HFD-increased F4/80+ CD11c+ CD206- SVF cells as well as HFD-activated TLR-4/NF-?B signaling in epididymal fat tissue. In cultured human THP-1 macrophages, adenovirus-mediated transfer of Clcn3 specific shRNA inhibited, whereas adenovirus-mediated cDNA overexpression of Clcn3 enhanced lipopolysaccharide-induced activation of NF-?B and TLR-4. These results demonstrate a novel role for Clcn3 in HFD-induced obesity and ATM inflammation.