Phylogeography of Libanotis buchtormensis (Umbelliferae) in Disjunct Populations along the Deserts in Northwest China.
ABSTRACT: In Northwest China, aridification and desert expansion play significant roles in promoting desert plant diversification and speciation. However, to date, little is known about the effects of the desert barrier on the population structure of montane, non-desert species in the area. In this study, we sequenced chloroplast DNA regions (trnL-trnF and trnS-trnG) and a nuclear gene (rpb2) to investigate the population differentiation and phylogeographical history of Libanotis buchtormensis, a perennial montane species possessing a disjunct distribution at the periphery of the central desert. In total, 23 chloroplast haplotypes and 24 nuclear haplotypes were recovered from the 21 natural populations and six hebarium specimens. Phylogenetic analysis based on the combined plastid and nuclear dataset revealed two distinct lineages of L. buchtormensis, which inhabit the disjunct areas on both sides of the desert zone. The molecular dating analysis indicated that the divergence between the southeastern and the northwestern populations occurred in the middle Pleistocene, concomitantly with the desert expansion. The geographical vicariance likely contributed to the present disjunct distribution of L. buchtormensis across the deserts in Northwest China. Populations in the southeastern region may have migrated from the northwestern region, and seem to be a peripheral distribution of L. buchtormensis.
Project description:Climatic fluctuations during the Quaternary significantly affect many species in their intraspecific divergence and population structure across northwest China. In order to investigate the impact of climate change on herbaceous plants, we studied Panzerina lanata (Lamiaceae), a widely distributed species. Sequences of two chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) intergenic spacers (trnH-psbA and rpoB-trnC) and a nuclear ribosomal region (nrDNA, ITS) were generated from 27 populations of Panzerina lanata and resulted in the identification of seven chloroplast haplotypes and thirty-two nuclear haplotypes. We applied AMOVA, neutrality test and mismatch distribution analysis to estimate genetic differentiation and demographic characteristics. The divergence times of the seven cpDNA haplotypes were estimated using BEAST. Our results revealed high levels of genetic diversity (cpDNA: Hcp = 0.6691, H T = 0.673; nrDNA: Hnr = 0.5668, H T = 0.577). High level of genetic differentiation (G ST = 0.950) among populations was observed in the cpDNA sequences, while the genetic differentiation values (G ST = 0.348) were low in nuclear sequences. AMOVA results revealed major genetic variation among the three groups: northern, central, and eastern group. However, the genetic differentiation in ITS data was not found. The species distribution modeling and demographic analysis indicated that P. lanata had not experienced recent range expansion. The occurrence of divergence between seven cpDNA haplotypes, probably during Pleistocene, coincides with aridification and expansion of the desert across northwest China that resulted in species diversification and habitat fragmentation. In addition, we discovered that the deserts and the Helan Mountains acted as effective geographic barriers that promoting the intraspecific diversity of P. lanata.
Project description:Spatial patterns of genetic variation can reveal otherwise cryptic evolutionary and landscape processes. In northwestern Costa Rica, an approximately concordant genetic discontinuity occurs among populations of several plant species. We conducted phylogeographic analyses of an epiphytic orchid, Brassavola nodosa, to test for genetic discontinuity and to explore its underlying causes. We genotyped 18 populations with 19 nuclear loci and two non-coding chloroplast sequence regions. We estimated genetic diversity and structure, relative importance of pollen and seed dispersal, and divergence time to understand how genetic diversity was spatially partitioned. Nuclear genetic diversity was high with little differentiation among populations (G<sub>STn</sub>?=?0.065). In contrast, chloroplast haplotypes were highly structured (G<sub>STc</sub>?=?0.570) and reveal a discontinuity between northwestern and southeastern populations within Costa Rica. Haplotype differences suggest two formerly isolated lineages that diverged ~10,000-100,000 YBP. Haplotype mixing and greater genetic diversity occur in an intermediate transition zone. Patterns of nuclear and chloroplast data were consistent. Different levels of genetic differentiation for the two genomes reflect the relative effectiveness of biotic versus abiotic dispersers of pollen and seeds, respectively. Isolation of the two lineages likely resulted from the complex environmental and geophysical history of the region. Our results suggest a recent cryptic seed dispersal barrier and/or zone of secondary contact. We hypothesize that powerful northeasterly trade winds hinder movement of wind-borne seeds between the two regions, while the multi-directional dispersal of pollen by strong-flying sphinx moths resulted in lower differentiation of nuclear loci.
Project description:Northwestern China has a wealth of endemic species, which has been hypothesized to be affected by the complex paleoclimatic and paleogeographic history during Quaternary. In this paper, we used Gymnocarpos przewalskii as a model to address the evolutionary history and current population genetic structure of species in northwestern China. We employed two chloroplast DNA fragments (rps16 and psbB-psbI), one nuclear DNA fragment (ITS), and simple sequence repeat (SSRs) to investigate the spatial genetic pattern of G. przewalskii. High genetic diversity (cpDNA: h S = 0.330, h T = 0.866; ITS: h S = 0.458, h T = 0.872) was identified in almost all populations, and most of the population have private haplotypes. Moreover, multimodal mismatch distributions were observed and estimates of Tajima's D and Fu's FS tests did not identify significantly departures from neutrality, indicating that recent expansion of G. przewalskii was rejected. Thus, we inferred that G. przewalskii survived generally in northwestern China during the Pleistocene. All data together support the genotypes of G. przewalskii into three groups, consistent with their respective geographical distributions in the western regions-Tarim Basin, the central regions-Hami Basin and Hexi Corridor, and the eastern regions-Alxa Desert and Wulate Prairie. Divergence among most lineages of G. przewalskii occurred in the Pleistocene, and the range of potential distributions is associated with glacial cycles. We concluded that climate oscillation during Pleistocene significantly affected the distribution of the species.
Project description:The complex interactions of historical, geological and climatic events on plant evolution have been an important research focus for many years. However, the role of desert formation and expansion in shaping the genetic structures and demographic histories of plants occurring in arid areas has not been well explored. In the present study, we investigated the phylogeography of <i>Arnebia szechenyi</i>, a desert herb showing a near-circular distribution surrounding the Tengger Desert in Northwest China. We measured genetic diversity of populations using three maternally inherited chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) fragments and seven bi-paternally inherited nuclear DNA (nDNA) loci that were sequenced from individuals collected from 16 natural populations across its range and modelled current and historical potential habitats of the species. Our data indicated a considerably high level of genetic variation within <i>A. szechenyi</i> and noteworthy asymmetry in historical migration from the east to the west. Moreover, two nuclear genetic groups of populations were revealed, corresponding to the two geographic regions separated by the Tengger Desert. However, analysis of cpDNA data did not show significant geographic structure. The most plausible explanation for the discrepancy between our findings based on cpDNA and nDNA data is that <i>A. szechenyi</i> populations experienced long periods of geographic isolation followed by range expansion, which would have promoted generalized recombination of the nuclear genome. Our findings further highlight the important role that the Tengger Desert, together with the Helan Mountains, has played in the evolution of desert plants and the preservation of biodiversity in arid Northwest China.
Project description:Climactic oscillations during the Quaternary played a significant role in the formation of genetic diversity and historical demography of numerous plant species in northwestern China. In this study, we used 11 simple sequence repeats derived from expressed sequence tag (EST-SSR), two chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) fragments, and ecological niche modeling (ENM) to investigate the population structure and the phylogeographic history of Lycium ruthenicum, a plant species adapted to the climate in northwestern China. We identified 20 chloroplast haplotypes of which two were dominant and widely distributed in almost all populations. The species has high haplotype diversity and low nucleotide diversity based on the cpDNA data. The EST-SSR results showed a high percentage of total genetic variation within populations. Both the cpDNA and EST-SSR results indicated no significant differentiation among populations. By combining the evidence from ENM and demographic analysis, we confirmed that both the last interglacial (LIG) and late-glacial maximum (LGM) climatic fluctuations, aridification might have substantially narrowed the distribution range of this desert species, the southern parts of the Junggar Basin, the Tarim Basin, and the eastern Pamir Plateau were the potential glacial refugia for L. ruthenicum during the late middle Pleistocene to late Pleistocene Period. During the early Holocene, the warm, and humid climate promoted its demographic expansion in northwestern China. This work may provide new insights into the mechanism of formation of plant diversity in this arid region.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND AIMS:Lychnophora ericoides (Asteraceae) presents disjunct geographical distribution in cerrado rupestre in the south-east and central Brazil. The phylogeography of the species was investigated to understand the origin of the disjunct geographical distribution. METHODS:Populations in the south and centre of Serra do Espinhaço, south-east Brazil and on ten other localities in Federal District and Goiás in central Brazil were sampled. Analyses were based on the polymorphisms at chloroplast (trnL intron and psbA-trnH intergenic spacer) and nuclear (ITS nrDNA) genomes. From 12 populations, 192 individuals were sequenced. Network analysis, AMOVA and the Mantel test were performed to understand the relationships among haplotypes and population genetic structure. To understand better the origin of disjunct distribution, demographic parameters and time to most recent common ancestor (T(MRCA)) were estimated using coalescent analyses. KEY RESULTS:A remarkable differentiation between populations from the south-east and central Brazil was found and no haplotype was shared between these two regions. No significant effect of isolation by distance was detected. Coalescent analyses showed that some populations are shrinking and others are expanding and that gene flow between populations from the south-east and central Brazil was probably negligible. CONCLUSIONS:The results strongly support that the disjunct distribution of L. ericoides may represent a climatic relict and that long-distance gene flow is unlikely. With an estimated time to most recent common ancestor (T(MRCA)) dated from approx. 790,655 +/- 36,551 years bp (chloroplast) and approx. 623,555 +/- 55,769 years bp (ITS), it was hypothesized that the disjunct distribution may be a consequence of an expansion of the geographical distribution favoured by the drier and colder conditions that prevailed in much of Brazil during the Kansan glaciation, followed by the retraction of the distribution due to the extinction of populations in some areas as climate became warmer and moister.
Project description:Population genetic studies provide a foundation for conservation planning, especially for endangered species. Three chloroplast SSRs (mtrnSf-trnGr, mtrnL2-trnF, and mtrnL5-trnL3) and the internal transcribed spacer were used to examine the population structure of Helianthemum in northwestern China. A total of 15 populations of the genus were collected. Nine chloroplast haplotypes and two nuclear genotypes were detected. Both the nuclear and chloroplast data showed two lineages in Helianthemum songaricum, respectively, distributed in Yili Valley and western Ordos Plateau. A total of 66.81% (p < 0.001) of the genetic variation was supported by this lineage split. A Mantel test showed a significant correlation between genetic distance and geographical distance (r = 0.937, p < 0.001). Based on genetic analyses, cpSSRs data support strong genetic divergence between regions. We speculate that the climate change during the late Tertiary and early Quaternary isolated H. songaricum into their current distribution, resulting in interruption of gene flow, leading to isolation and genetic divergence between the two regions. Meanwhile, possible selfing would increase genetic drift in small fragmented populations, that might account for the observed genetic divergence in both regions. Given the loss of genetic diversity and genetic divergence in small populations of Helianthemum in northwestern China immediate conservation management steps should be taken on the species.
Project description:Ampelocalamus actinotrichus (Merrill & Chun) S. L. Chen, T. H. Wen & G. Y. Sheng and Neomicrocalamus prainii (Gamble) P. C. Keng are reported with new distribution records in southern and southeastern Yunnan, China, respectively. Ampelocalamus actinotrichus was previously recorded to be endemic to Hainan, China, and Neomicrocalamus prainii to be distributed in southern Tibet and western Yunnan in China, northeastern India, and Burma. The identities of individuals collected in southern and southeastern Yunnan of these two species are confirmed by molecular evidence. The new distribution record of Ampelocalamus actinotrichus provides a case at the species level for confirming floristic affinities of southern Yunnan and Hainan Island in south China. The disjunct distribution of Neomicrocalamus prainii in Yunnan is concordant with the ecogeographical diagonal line from northwestern Yunnan to southeastern Yunnan and this may imply a tropical origin of this species. In addition, the inflorescence of Melocalamus yunnanensis (T. H. Wen) T. P. Yi is described.
Project description:This study documents the first detailed phylogenetic analysis of an Australian paradoxosomatid millipede genus. Two mitochondrial genes (partial COI and 16S) as well as partial nuclear 28S rDNA were amplified and sequenced for 41 individuals of the southeastern Australian genus Pogonosternum Jeekel, 1965. The analysis indicates that five species groups of Pogonosternum occur across New South Wales, Victoria and Tasmania: Pogonosternum nigrovirgatum (Carl, 1912), Pogonosternum adrianae Jeekel, 1982, Pogonosternum laetificum Jeekel, 1982 and two undescribed species. Pogonosternum coniferum (Jeekel, 1965) specimens cluster within Pogonosternum nigrovirgatum. Most of these five species groups exhibit a pattern of high intraspecific genetic variability and highly localized haplotypes, suggesting that they were confined to multiple Pleistocene refugia on the southeastern Australian mainland. The phylogenetic data also show that northwestern Tasmania was colonized by Pogonosternum nigrovirgatum, probably from central Victoria, and northeastern Tasmania by an as yet undescribed species from eastern Victoria.
Project description:Effects of Pleistocene climatic oscillations on plant phylogeographic patterns are relatively well studied in forest, savanna and grassland biomes, but such impacts remain less explored on desert regions of the world, especially in South America. Here, we performed a phylogeographical study of Monttea aphylla, an endemic species of the Monte Desert, to understand the evolutionary history of vegetation communities inhabiting the South American Arid Diagonal. We obtained sequences of three chloroplast (trnS-trnfM, trnH-psbA and trnQ-rps16) and one nuclear (ITS) intergenic spacers from 272 individuals of 34 localities throughout the range of the species. Population genetic and Bayesian coalescent analyses were performed to infer genealogical relationships among haplotypes, population genetic structure, and demographic history of the study species. Timing of demographic events was inferred using Bayesian Skyline Plot and the spatio-temporal patterns of lineage diversification was reconstructed using Bayesian relaxed diffusion models. Palaeo-distribution models (PDM) were performed through three different timescales to validate phylogeographical patterns. Twenty-five and 22 haplotypes were identified in the cpDNA and nDNA data, respectively. that clustered into two main genealogical lineages following a latitudinal pattern, the northern and the southern Monte (south of 35° S). The northern Monte showed two lineages of high genetic structure, and more relative stable demography than the southern Monte that retrieved three groups with little phylogenetic structure and a strong signal of demographic expansion that would have started during the Last Interglacial period (ca. 120 Ka). The PDM and diffusion models analyses agreed in the southeast direction of the range expansion. Differential effect of climatic oscillations across the Monte phytogeographic province was observed in Monttea aphylla lineages. In northern Monte, greater genetic structure and more relative stable demography resulted from a more stable climate than in the southern Monte. Pleistocene glaciations drastically decreased the species area in the southern Monte, which expanded in a southeastern direction to the new available areas during the interglacial periods.