Degradation Pathways of 2- and 4-Nitrobenzoates in Cupriavidus sp. Strain ST-14 and Construction of a Recombinant Strain, ST-14::3NBA, Capable of Degrading 3-Nitrobenzoate.
ABSTRACT: Strain ST-14, characterized as a member of the genus Cupriavidus, was capable of utilizing 2- and 4-nitrobenzoates individually as sole sources of carbon and energy. Biochemical studies revealed the assimilation of 2- and 4-nitrobenzoates via 3-hydroxyanthranilate and protocatechuate, respectively. Screening of a genomic fosmid library of strain ST-14 constructed in Escherichia coli identified two gene clusters, onb and pob-pca, to be responsible for the complete degradation of 2-nitrobenzoate and protocatechuate, respectively. Additionally, a gene segment (pnb) harboring the genes for the conversion of 4-nitrobenzoate to protocatechuate was unveiled by transposome mutagenesis. Reverse transcription-PCR analysis showed the polycistronic nature of the gene clusters, and their importance in the degradation of 2- and 4-nitrobenzoates was ascertained by gene knockout analysis. Cloning and expression of the relevant pathway genes revealed the transformation of 2-nitrobenzoate to 3-hydroxyanthranilate and of 4-nitrobenzoate to protocatechuate. Finally, incorporation of functional 3-nitrobenzoate dioxygenase into strain ST-14 allowed the recombinant strain to utilize 3-nitrobenzoate via the existing protocatechuate metabolic pathway, thereby allowing the degradation of all three isomers of mononitrobenzoate by a single bacterial strain.Mononitrobenzoates are toxic chemicals largely used for the production of various value-added products and enter the ecosystem through industrial wastes. Bacteria capable of degrading mononitrobenzoates are relatively limited. Unlike other contaminants, these man-made chemicals have entered the environment since the last century, and it is believed that bacteria in nature evolved not quite efficiently to assimilate these compounds; as a consequence, to date, there are only a few reports on the bacterial degradation of one or more isomers of mononitrobenzoate. In the present study, fortunately, we have been able to isolate a Cupriavidus sp. strain capable of assimilating both 2- and 4-nitrobenzoates as the sole carbon source. Results of the biochemical and molecular characterization of catabolic genes responsible for the degradation of mononitrobenzoates led us to manipulate a single enzymatic step, allowing the recombinant host organism to expand its catabolic potential to assimilate 3-nitrobenzoate.
Project description:1. Halogen analogues of benzoate and p-nitrobenzoate did not support growth of Nocardia erythropolis. 2. These analogues, when present together with the parent compounds, inhibited growth of the organism. 3. The halogen analogues similarly inhibited oxidation of benzoate or p-nitrobenzoate by competent cells. 4. Fluoroacetate and 2-fluoro-4-nitrobenzoate caused comparable inhibition of growth on p-nitrobenzoate and both led to some citrate accumulation. 5. The induction of the p-nitrobenzoate-oxidation system was strongly inhibited by all the 2-halogeno-4-nitrobenzoates although the 2-fluoro and 2-chloro derivatives also acted as inducers. 6. Halogen analogues of benzoate also induced the benzoate-oxidation system.
Project description:Synthetic pyrethroid-fenvalerate-is one of the most widespread toxic pollutants and has adverse effect on living systems. However, little is known about its biotransformation mechanism in different microorganisms. To elucidate the pathway that might be involved in the catabolism of fenvalerate, we used Bacillus flexus strain XJU-4 (3-nitrobenzoate degrading organism) as an ideal fenvalerate degrading bacterium. Thin layer chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis results revealed that 3-phenoxybenzoate, protocatechuate, and catechol are the three main by-products of fenvalerate metabolism. Additionally, the bacterial cell-free enzymes showed the activities of fenvalerate hydrolyzing esterase, 3-phenoxybenzaldehyde dehydrogenase, 3-phenoxybenzoate dioxygenase, phenol hydroxylase, protocatechuate 2,3-dioxygenase and catechol-2,3-dioxygenase. Thus, in strain XJU-4, protocatechuate and catechol were further metabolized through meta-cleavage pathway. Moreover, laboratory-scale soil experiments results suggest that B. flexus strain XJU-4 is a suitable contender for bioremediation of pyrethroid fenvalerate-contaminated sites.
Project description:Based on the sole information of structural genes of the 2-nitrobenzoate (2NBA) utilizing catabolic gene cluster (onbX1X2FCAR1EHJIGDBX3), 2NBA-sensing bioreporters were constructed by incorporating egfp into the onb gene cluster of Cupriavidus sp. strain ST-14. Incorporation of reporter gene in proximal to the hypothesized promoter region in conjunction with the disruption of the gene encoding inducer-metabolizing enzyme was turned out to be advantageous in reporter gene expression at low inducer concentration. The bioreporter strain was capable of expressing EGFP from the very 1st hour of induction and could detect 2NBA at (sub) nanomolar level exhibiting a strict specificity toward 2NBA, displaying no response to EGFP expression from its meta- and para-isomers as well as from a number of structurally related compounds. The present study is a successful demonstration of the development of a 2NBA-sensing bioreporter with respect to ease of construction, inducer specificity, and sensitivity, without prior knowledge of the associated inducer-responsive promoter-regulator elements. The present approach can be used as a model for the development of bioreporters for other environmental pollutants.
Project description:Sphingomonas (Pseudomonas) paucimobilis SYK-6 is able to grow on 5,5'-dehydrodivanillic acid (DDVA), syringate, vanillate, and other dimeric model compounds of lignin as a sole carbon source. Nitrosoguanidine mutagenesis of S. paucimobilis SYK-6 was performed, and two mutants with altered DDVA degradation pathways were isolated. The mutant strain NT-1 could not degrade DDVA, but could degrade syringate, vanillate, and 2,2',3'-trihydroxy-3-methoxy-5,5'-dicarboxybiphenyl (OH-DDVA). Strain DC-49 could slowly assimilate DDVA, but could degrade neither vanillate nor syringate, although it could degrade protocatechuate and 3-O-methylgallate. A complementing DNA fragment of strain DC-49 was isolated from the cosmid library of strain SYK-6. The minimum DNA fragment complementing DC-49 was determined to be the 1.8-kbp insert of pKEX2.0. Sequencing analysis showed an open reading frame of 1,671 bp in this fragment, and a similarity search indicated that the deduced amino acid sequence of this open reading frame had significant similarity (60%) to the formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase of Clostridium thermoaceticum.
Project description:Pseudomonas fluorescens strain KU-7 is a prototype microorganism that metabolizes 2-nitrobenzoate (2-NBA) via the formation of 3-hydroxyanthranilate (3-HAA), a known antioxidant and reductant. The initial two steps leading to the sequential formation of 2-hydroxy/aminobenzoate and 3-HAA are catalyzed by a NADPH-dependent 2-NBA nitroreductase (NbaA) and 2-hydroxylaminobenzoate mutase (NbaB), respectively. The 216-amino-acid protein NbaA is 78% identical to a plasmid-encoded hypothetical conserved protein of Polaromonas strain JS666; structurally, it belongs to the homodimeric NADH:flavin mononucleotide (FMN) oxidoreductase-like fold family. Structural modeling of complexes with the flavin, coenzyme, and substrate suggested specific residues contributing to the NbaA catalytic activity, assuming a ping-pong reaction mechanism. Mutational analysis supports the roles of Asn40, Asp76, and Glu113, which are predicted to form the binding site for a divalent metal ion implicated in FMN binding, and a role in NADPH binding for the 10-residue insertion in the beta5-alpha2 loop. The 181-amino-acid sequence of NbaB is 35% identical to the 4-hydroxylaminobenzoate lyases (PnbBs) of various 4-nitrobenzoate-assimilating bacteria, e.g., Pseudomonas putida strain TW3. Coexpression of nbaB with nbaA in Escherichia coli produced a small amount of 3-HAA from 2-NBA, supporting the functionality of the nbaB gene. We also showed by gene knockout and chemotaxis assays that nbaY, a chemoreceptor NahY homolog located downstream of the nbaA gene, is responsible for strain KU-7 being attracted to 2-NBA. NbaY is the first chemoreceptor in nitroaromatic metabolism to be identified, and this study completes the gene elucidation of 2-NBA metabolism that is localized within a 24-kb chromosomal locus of strain KU-7.
Project description:In Comamonas sp. strain JS46, 3-nitrobenzoate (3Nba) is initially oxidized at the 3,4 position by a dioxygenase, which results in release of nitrite and production of protocatechuate. The locus coding for the 3Nba dioxygenase (designated mnb, for m-nitrobenzoate) was mobilized from strain JS46 using a plasmid capture method, cloned, and sequenced. The 3Nba dioxygenase (MnbA) is a member of the phthalate family of aromatic oxygenases. An open reading frame designated mnbB that codes for an NAD(P)H-dependent class IA aromatic oxidoreductase is downstream of mnbA. MnbB is tentatively identified as the oxidoreductase that transfers reducing equivalents to MnbA in strain JS46. The mnb locus is flanked by IS1071 elements. The upstream element is interrupted by a novel insertion sequence designated ISCsp1, and the transposase genes of the flanking insertion elements are transcribed in the direction opposite the direction of mnbA transcription. Spontaneous deletion of mnb occurs because of homologous recombination between the directly repeated flanking IS1071 elements. In addition, in approximately 0.007 to 0.2% of any population of JS46 cells growing on 3Nba, alternative orientations of mnb relative to the flanking IS1071 elements are detected. These alternative forms are the result of inversions of mnb and the flanking IS1071 elements. Inversions appear to occur because of homologous recombination between the inverted repeats that flank the IS1071 elements.
Project description:The 2-nitrobenzoic acid degradation pathway of Pseudomonas fluorescens strain KU-7 proceeds via a novel 3-hydroxyanthranilate intermediate. In this study, we cloned and sequenced a 19-kb DNA locus of strain KU-7 that encompasses the 3-hydroxyanthranilate meta-cleavage pathway genes. The gene cluster, designated nbaEXHJIGFCDR, is organized tightly and in the same direction. The nbaC and nbaD gene products were found to be novel homologs of the eukaryotic 3-hydroxyanthranilate 3,4-dioxygenase and 2-amino-3-carboxymuconate-6-semialdehyde decarboxylase, respectively. The NbaC enzyme carries out the oxidation of 3-hydroxyanthranilate to 2-amino-3-carboxymuconate-6-semialdehyde, while the NbaD enzyme catalyzes the decarboxylation of the latter compound to 2-aminomuconate-6-semialdehyde. The NbaC and NbaD proteins were overexpressed in Escherichia coli and characterized. The substrate specificity of the 23.8-kDa NbaC protein was found to be restricted to 3-hydroxyanthranilate. In E. coli, this enzyme oxidizes 3-hydroxyanthranilate with a specific activity of 8 U/mg of protein. Site-directed mutagenesis experiments revealed the essential role of two conserved histidine residues (His52 and His96) in the NbaC sequence. The NbaC activity is also dependent on the presence of Fe(2+) but is inhibited by other metal ions, such as Zn(2+), Cu(2+), and Cd(2+). The NbaD protein was overproduced as a 38.7-kDa protein, and its specific activity towards 2-amino-3-carboxymuconate-6-semialdehyde was 195 U/mg of protein. Further processing of 2-aminomuconate-6-semialdehyde to pyruvic acid and acetyl coenzyme A was predicted to proceed via the activities of NbaE, NbaF, NbaG, NbaH, NbaI, and NbaJ. The predicted amino acid sequences of these proteins are highly homologous to those of the corresponding proteins involved in the metabolism of 2-aminophenol (e.g., AmnCDEFGH in Pseudomonas sp. strain AP-3). The NbaR-encoding gene is predicted to have a regulatory function of the LysR family type. The function of the product of the small open reading frame, NbaX, like the homologous sequences in the nitrobenzene or 2-aminophenol metabolic pathway, remains elusive.
Project description:Pseudomonas putida strain TW3 is able to metabolize 4-nitrotoluene via 4-nitrobenzoate (4NBen) and 3, 4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (protocatechuate [PCA]) to central metabolites. We have cloned, sequenced, and characterized a 6-kbp fragment of TW3 DNA which contains five genes, two of which encode the enzymes involved in the catabolism of 4NBen to PCA. In order, they encode a 4NBen reductase (PnbA) which is responsible for catalyzing the direct reduction of 4NBen to 4-hydroxylaminobenzoate with the oxidation of 2 mol of NADH per mol of 4NBen, a reductase-like enzyme (Orf1) which appears to have no function in the pathway, a regulator protein (PnbR) of the LysR family, a 4-hydroxylaminobenzoate lyase (PnbB) which catalyzes the conversion of 4-hydroxylaminobenzoate to PCA and ammonium, and a second lyase-like enzyme (Orf2) which is closely associated with pnbB but appears to have no function in the pathway. The central pnbR gene is transcribed in the opposite direction to the other four genes. These genes complete the characterization of the whole pathway of 4-nitrotoluene catabolism to the ring cleavage substrate PCA in P. putida strain TW3.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Burkholderia sp. strain SJ98 is known for its chemotaxis towards nitroaromatic compounds (NACs) that are either utilized as sole sources of carbon and energy or co-metabolized in the presence of alternative carbon sources. Here we test for the chemotaxis of this strain towards six chloro-nitroaromatic compounds (CNACs), namely 2-chloro-4-nitrophenol (2C4NP), 2-chloro-3-nitrophenol (2C3NP), 4-chloro-2-nitrophenol (4C2NP), 2-chloro-4-nitrobenzoate (2C4NB), 4-chloro-2-nitrobenzoate (4C2NB) and 5-chloro-2-nitrobenzoate (5C2NB), and examine its relationship to the degradation of such compounds. RESULTS: Strain SJ98 could mineralize 2C4NP, 4C2NB and 5C2NB, and co-metabolically transform 2C3NP and 2C4NB in the presence of an alternative carbon source, but was unable to transform 4C2NP under these conditions. Positive chemotaxis was only observed towards the five metabolically transformed CNACs. Moreover, the chemotaxis was induced by growth in the presence of the metabolisable CNAC. It was also competitively inhibited by the presence of nitroaromatic compounds (NACs) that it could metabolise but not by succinate or aspartate. CONCLUSIONS: Burkholderia sp. strain SJ98 exhibits metabolic transformation of, and inducible chemotaxis towards CNACs. Its chemotactic responses towards these compounds are related to its previously demonstrated chemotaxis towards NACs that it can metabolise, but it is independently inducible from its chemotaxis towards succinate or aspartate.
Project description:Pseudomonas sp. strain HR199 is able to utilize eugenol (4-allyl-2-methoxyphenol), vanillin (4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde), or protocatechuate as the sole carbon source for growth. Mutants of this strain which were impaired in the catabolism of vanillin but retained the ability to utilize eugenol or protocatechuate were obtained after nitrosoguanidine mutagenesis. One mutant (SK6169) was used as recipient of a Pseudomonas sp. strain HR199 genomic library in cosmid pVK100, and phenotypic complementation was achieved with a 5.8-kbp EcoRI fragment (E58). The amino acid sequences deduced from two corresponding open reading frames (ORF) identified on E58 revealed high degrees of homology to pcaG and pcaH, encoding the two subunits of protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase. Three additional ORF most probably encoded a 4-hydroxybenzoate 3-hydroxylase (PobA) and two putative regulatory proteins, which exhibited homology to PcaQ of Agrobacterium tumefaciens and PobR of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, respectively. Since mutant SK6169 was also complemented by a subfragment of E58 that harbored only pcaH, this mutant was most probably lacking a functional beta subunit of the protocatechuate 3, 4-dioxygenase. Since this mutant was still able to grow on protocatechuate and lacked protocatechuate 4,5-dioxygenase and protocatechuate 2,3-dioxygenase, the degradation had to be catalyzed by different enzymes. Two other mutants (SK6184 and SK6190), which were also impaired in the catabolism of vanillin, were not complemented by fragment E58. Since these mutants accumulated 3-carboxy muconolactone during cultivation on eugenol, they most probably exhibited a defect in a step of the catabolic pathway following the ortho cleavage. Moreover, in these mutants cyclization of 3-carboxymuconic acid seems to occur by a syn absolute stereochemical course, which is normally only observed for cis, cis-muconate lactonization in pseudomonads. In conclusion, vanillin is degraded through the ortho-cleavage pathway in Pseudomonas sp. strain HR199 whereas protocatechuate could also be metabolized via a different pathway in the mutants.