Bioactive Natural Protein-Hydroxyapatite Nanocarriers for Optimizing Osteogenic Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells.
ABSTRACT: Improving the controlled release of bioactive growth factors to regulate cell behavior and tissue regeneration remains a need in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Inorganic and polymeric nanoparticles have been extensively fabricated as bioactive biomaterials with enhanced biocompatibility and effective carriers of therapeutic agents, however, challenges remain such as the achievement of high loading capacity and sustained release, and the bioactivity preservation of growth factors. Here, a multilayered, silk coated hydroxyapatite (HA) nanocarrier with drug loading-release capacity superior to pure silk or HA nanoparticles was developed. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) was bound to the silk coatings with a high binding efficiency of 99.6%, significantly higher than that in silk or the HA nanoparticles alone. The release of BMP-2 was sustained in vitro over a period of 21 days without burst release. Compared with BMP-2 loaded silk or HA particles, bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) showed improved proliferation and osteogenesis when cultured with the BMP-2 loaded composite nanocarriers. Therefore, these silk-HA composite nanoparticles present a useful approach to designing bioactive nanocarrier systems with enhanced functions for bone tissue regeneration needs.
Project description:Alginate-poloxamer (ALG-POL) copolymer with optimal POL content was synthesized, and it was combined with silk fibroin (SF) for building ALG-POL/SF dual network hydrogels. Hyaluronic acid(HA)/chitosan-poly(dioxanone)(CH-PDO) complex nanoparticles (NPs) with optimized composition and high encapsulation efficiency were employed as a vehicle for loading bone morphogenic protein-7 (BMP-7). BMP-7-loaded HA/CH-PDO NPs were incorporated into ALG-POL/SF hydrogel for constructing composite gels to achieve controlled release of BMP-7. These gels showed thermosensitive sol-gel transitions near physiological temperature and pH; and they were tested to be elastic, tough and strong. Some gels exhibited abilities to administer the BMP-7 release in nearly linear manners for a few weeks. Synovium-derived mesenchymal stem cells (SMSCs) were seeded into optimally fabricated gels for assessing their chondrogenic differentiation potency. Real-time PCR analyses showed that the blank ALG-POL/SF gels were not able to induce the chondrogenic differentiation of SMSCs, whereas SMSCs were detected to significantly express cartilage-related genes once they were seeded in the BMP-7-loaded ALG-POL/SF gel for two weeks. The synthesis of cartilaginous matrix components further confirmed that SMSCs seeded in the BMP-7-loaded ALG-POL/SF gel differentiated toward chondrogenesis. Results suggest that BMP-7-loaded ALG-POL/SF composite gels can function as a promising biomaterial for cartilage tissue engineering applications.
Project description:Biomaterials capable of delivering controlled quantities of bioactive agents, while maintaining mechanical integrity, are needed for a variety of cell contacting applications. We describe here a nanotemplating strategy toward porous, polyelectrolyte-based thin films capable of controlled biomolecular loading and release. Films are formed via the layer-by-layer assembly of charged polymers and nanoparticles (NP), then chemically cross-linked to increase mechanical rigidity and stability, and finally exposed to tetrahydrofuran to dissolve the NP and create an intra-film porous network. We report here on the loading and release of the growth factor bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2), and the influence of BMP-2 loaded films on contacting murine C2C12 myoblasts. We observe nanotemplating to enable stable BMP-2 loading throughout the thickness of the film, and find the nanotemplated film to exhibit comparable cell adhesion, and enhanced cell differentiation, compared with a non-porous cross-linked film (where BMP-2 loading is mainly confined to the film surface).
Project description:It is a great challenge to prepare "functional artificial bone" for the repair of large segmental defect, especially in weight-bearing bones. In this study, bioactive HA/PCL composite scaffolds that possess anatomical structure as autogenous bone were fabricated by CT-guided fused deposition modeling technique. The scaffolds can provide mechanical support and possess osteoconduction property. Then the VEGF-165/BMP-2 loaded hydrogel was filled into biomimetic artificial bone spatially to introduce osteoinduction and angioinduction ability via sustained release of these cytokines. It has been revealed that the cytokine-loaded hydrogel possessed good biodegradability and could release the VEGF-165/BMP-2 sustainedly and steadily. The synergistic effect of these two cytokines showed significant stimulation on the osteogenic gene expresssion of osteoblast in vitro and ectopic ossification in vivo. The scaffolds were then implanted into the rabbit tibial defect sites (1.2 cm) for bone regeneration for 12 weeks, indicating the best repair of defect in vivo, which was superior to the pure hydrogel/scaffolds or one-cytokine loaded hydrogel/scaffolds and close to autogenous bone graft. The strategy to construct an "anatomy-structure-function" trinity system as functional artificial bone shows great potential in replacing autogenous bone graft and applying in large bone defect repair clinically in future.
Project description:A simple method for the functionalization of a common implant material (Ti6Al4V) with biodegradable, drug loaded chitosan-tripolyphosphate (CS-TPP) nanoparticles is developed in order to enhance the osseointegration of endoprostheses after revision operations. The chitosan used has a tailored degree of acetylation which allows for a fast biodegradation by lysozyme. The degradability of chitosan is proven via viscometry. Characteristics and degradation of nanoparticles formed with TPP are analyzed using dynamic light scattering. The particle degradation via lysozyme displays a decrease in particle diameter of 40% after 4 days. Drug loading and release is investigated for the nanoparticles with bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2), using ELISA and the BRE luciferase test for quantification and bioactivity evaluation. Furthermore, nanoparticle coatings on titanium substrates are created via spray-coating and analyzed by ellipsometry, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Drug loaded nanoparticle coatings with biologically active BMP-2 are obtained in vitro within this work. Additionally, an in vivo study in mice indicates the dose dependent induction of ectopic bone growth through CS-TPP-BMP-2 nanoparticles. These results show that biodegradable CS-TPP coatings can be utilized to present biologically active BMP-2 on common implant materials like Ti6Al4V.
Project description:Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) exhibit a rapid loss in osteogenic phenotype upon removal of osteoinductive cues, as commonly occurs during transplantation. Osteogenic differentiation can be more effectively but not fully maintained by aggregating MSCs into spheroids. Therefore, the development of effective strategies that prolong the efficacy of inductive growth factors would be advantageous for advancing cell-based therapies. To address this challenge, osteoinductive bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) was adsorbed to osteoconductive hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles for incorporation into MSC spheroids. MSC induction was evaluated in osteogenic conditions and retention of the osteogenic phenotype in the absence of other osteogenic cues. HA was more uniformly incorporated into spheroids at lower concentrations, while BMP-2 dosage was dependent upon initial morphogen concentration. MSC spheroids containing BMP-2-loaded HA nanoparticles exhibited greater alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and more uniform spatial expression of osteocalcin compared to spheroids with uncoated HA nanoparticles. Spheroids cultured in media containing soluble BMP-2 demonstrated differentiation only at the spheroid periphery. Furthermore, the osteogenic phenotype of MSC spheroids was better retained with BMP-2-laden HA upon the removal of soluble osteogenic cues. These findings represent a promising strategy for simultaneous delivery of osteoconductive and osteoinductive signals for enhancing MSC participation in bone formation.
Project description:Delivery of osteoinductive factors such as bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) has emerged as a prominent strategy to improve regeneration in bone grafting procedures. However, it remains challenging to identify a carrier that provides the requisite loading efficiency and release kinetics without compromising the mechanical properties of the bone graft. Previously, we reported on porous, polymerized high internal phase emulsion (polyHIPE) microspheres fabricated using controlled fluidics. Uniquely, this solvent-free method provides advantages over current microsphere fabrication strategies including in-line loading of growth factors to improve loading efficiency. In the current study, we utilized this platform to fabricate protein-loaded microspheres and investigated the effect of particle size (?400 vs ?800??m) and pore size (?15 vs 30??m) on release profiles. Although there was no significant effect of these variables on the substantial burst release profile of the microspheres, the incorporation of the protein-loaded microspheres within the injectable polyHIPE resulted in a sustained release of protein from the bulk scaffold over a two-week period with minimal burst release. Bioactivity retention of encapsulated BMP-2 was confirmed first using a genetically-modified osteoblast reporter cell line. A functional assay with human mesenchymal stem cells established that the BMP-2 release from microspheres induced osteogenic differentiation. Finally, microsphere incorporation had minimal effect on the cure and compressive properties of an injectable polyHIPE bone graft. Overall, this work demonstrates that these microsphere-polyHIPE composites have strong potential to enhance bone regeneration through controlled release of BMP-2 and other growth factors. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: This manuscript describes a method for solvent-free fabrication of porous microspheres from high internal phase emulsions using a controlled fluids setup. The principles of emulsion templating and fluid dynamics provide exceptional control of particle size and pore architecture. In addition to the advantage of solvent-free fabrication, this method provides in-line loading of protein directly into the pores of the microspheres with high loading efficiencies. The incorporation of the protein-loaded microspheres within an injectable polyHIPE scaffold resulted in a sustained release of protein over a two-week period with minimal burst release. Retention of BMP-2 bioactivity and incorporation of microspheres with minimal effect on scaffold compressive properties highlights the potential of these new bone grafts.
Project description:An ideal synthetic bone graft is a combination of the porous and nanofibrous structure presented by natural bone tissue as well as osteoinductive biochemical factors such as bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2). In this work, ultralight 3D hybrid nanofiber aerogels composed of electrospun PLGA-collagen-gelatin and Sr-Cu codoped bioactive glass fibers with incorporation of heptaglutamate E7 domain specific BMP-2 peptides have been developed and evaluated for their potential in cranial bone defect healing. The nanofiber aerogels are surgically implanted into 8 mm × 1 mm (diameter × thickness) critical-sized defects created in rat calvariae. A sustained release of E7-BMP-2 peptide from the degradable hybrid aerogels significantly enhances bone healing and defect closure over 8 weeks in comparison to unfilled defects. Histomorphometry and X-ray microcomputed tomography (µ-CT) analysis reveal greater bone volume and bone formation area in case of the E7-BMP-2 peptide loaded hybrid nanofiber aerogels. Further, histopathology data divulged a near complete nanofiber aerogel degradation along with enhanced vascularization of the regenerated tissue. Together, this study for the first time demonstrates the fabrication of 3D hybrid nanofiber aerogels from 2D electrospun fibers and their loading with therapeutic osteoinductive BMP-2 mimicking peptide for cranial bone tissue regeneration.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>To compare the direct osteogenic effect between placental growth factor-2 (PlGF-2) and bone morphogenic protein-2 (BMP-2).<h4>Methods</h4>Three groups of PlGF-2/BMP-2-loaded heparin-N-(2-hydroxyl) propyl-3-trimethyl ammonium chitosan chloride (HTCC) nanocomplexes were prepared: those with 0.5 ?g PlGF-2; with 1.0 ?g BMP-2; and with 0.5 ?g PlGF-2 combined with 1.0 ?g BMP-2. The loading efficiencies and release profiles of these growth factors (GFs) in this nanocomplex system were quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, their biological activities were evaluated using cell counting kit-8, cell morphology, and cell number counting assays, and their osteogenic activities were quantified using alkaline phosphatase and Alizarin Red S staining assays.<h4>Results</h4>The loading efficiencies were more than 99% for the nanocomplexes loaded with just PlGF-2 and for those loaded with both PlGF-2 and BMP-2. For the nanocomplex loaded with just BMP-2, the loading efficiency was more than 97%. About 83%-84% of PlGF-2 and 89%-91% of BMP-2 were stably retained on the nanocomplexes for at least 21 days. In in vitro biological assays, PlGF-2 exhibited osteogenic effects comparable to those of BMP-2 despite its dose in the experiments being lower than that of BMP-2. Moreover, the results implied that heparin-based nanocomplexes encapsulating two GFs have enhanced potential in the enhancement of osteoblast function.<h4>Conclusion</h4>PlGF-2-loaded heparin-HTCC nanocomplexes may constitute a promising system for bone regeneration. Moreover, the dual delivery of PlGF-2 and BMP-2 appears to have greater potential in bone tissue regeneration than the delivery of either GFs alone.
Project description:Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) is a known key mediator of physiological bone regeneration and is clinically approved for selected musculoskeletal interventions. Yet, broad usage of this growth factor is impeded due to side effects that are majorly evoked by high dosages and burst release kinetics. In this study, mesoporous bioactive glass microspheres (MBGs), produced by an aerosol-assisted spray-drying scalable process, were loaded with BMP-2 resulting in prolonged, low-dose BMP-2 release without affecting the material characteristics. In vitro, MBGs were found to be cytocompatible and to induce a pro-osteogenic response in primary human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). In a pre-clinical rodent model, BMP-2 loaded MBGs significantly enhanced bone formation and influenced the microarchitecture of newly formed bone. The MBG carriers alone performed equal to the untreated (empty) control in most parameters tested, while additionally exerting mild pro-angiogenic effects. Using MBGs as a biocompatible, pro-regenerative carrier for local and sustained low dose BMP-2 release could limit side effects, thus enabling a safer usage of BMP-2 as a potent pro-osteogenic growth factor.
Project description:Silk has traditionally been used as a suture material because of its excellent mechanical properties and biocompatibility. These properties have led to the development of different silk-based material formats for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Although there have been a small number of studies about the use of silk particles for drug delivery, none of these studies have assessed the potential of silk to act as a stimulus-responsive anticancer nanomedicine. This report demonstrates that an acetone precipitation of silk allows the formation of uniform silk nanoparticles (98 nm diameter, polydispersity index 0.109), with an overall negative surface charge (-33.6 ± 5.8 mV), in a single step. Silk nanoparticles are readily loaded with doxorubicin (40 ng doxorubicin/?g silk) and show pH-dependent release (pH 4.5? 6.0 > 7.4). In vitro studies with human breast cancer cell lines demonstrates that the silk nanoparticles are not cytotoxic (IC50 > 120 ?g mL(-1) ) and that doxorubicin-loaded silk nanoparticles are able to overcome drug resistance mechanisms. Live cell fluorescence microscopy studies show endocytic uptake and lysosomal accumulation of silk nanoparticles. In summary, the pH-dependent drug release and lysosomal accumulation of silk nanoparticles demonstrate the ability of drug-loaded silk nanoparticles to serve as a lysosomotropic anticancer nanomedicine.