Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing of the Gram-Negative Bacteria Based on Flow Cytometry.
ABSTRACT: Rapidly treating infections with adequate antibiotics is of major importance. This requires a fast and accurate determination of the antibiotic susceptibility of bacterial pathogens. The most frequently used methods are slow because they are based on the measurement of growth inhibition. Faster methods, such as PCR-based detection of determinants of antibiotic resistance, do not always provide relevant information on susceptibility, particularly that which is not genetically based. Consequently, new methods, such as the detection of changes in bacterial physiology caused by antibiotics using flow cytometry and fluorescent viability markers, are being explored. In this study, we assessed whether Alexa Fluor® 633 Hydrazide (AFH), which targets carbonyl groups, can be used for antibiotic susceptibility testing. Carbonylation of cellular macromolecules, which increases in antibiotic-treated cells, is a particularly appropriate to assess for this purpose because it is irreversible. We tested the susceptibility of clinical isolates of Gram-negative bacteria, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, to antibiotics from the three classes: ?-lactams, aminoglycosides, and fluoroquinolones. In addition to AFH, we used TO-PRO®-3, which enters cells with damaged membranes and binds to DNA, and DiBAC4 (3), which enters cells with depolarized membranes. We also monitored antibiotic-induced morphological alterations of bacterial cells by analyzing light scattering signals. Although all tested dyes and light scattering signals allowed for the detection of antibiotic-sensitive cells, AFH proved to be the most suitable for the fast and reliable detection of antibiotic susceptibility.
Project description:Abstract Rapid antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) is urgently needed for treating infections with appropriate antibiotics and slowing down the emergence of antibiotic?resistant bacteria. Here, a phenotypic platform that rapidly produces AST results by femtosecond stimulated Raman scattering imaging of deuterium oxide (D2O) metabolism is reported. Metabolic incorporation of D2O into biomass in a single bacterium and the metabolic response to antibiotics are probed in as short as 10 min after culture in 70% D2O medium, the fastest among current technologies. Single?cell metabolism inactivation concentration (SC?MIC) is obtained in less than 2.5 h from colony to results. The SC?MIC results of 37 sets of bacterial isolate samples, which include 8 major bacterial species and 14 different antibiotics often encountered in clinic, are validated by standard minimal inhibitory concentration blindly measured via broth microdilution. Toward clinical translation, stimulated Raman scattering imaging of D2O metabolic incorporation and SC?MIC determination after 1 h antibiotic treatment and 30 min mixture of D2O and antibiotics incubation of bacteria in urine or whole blood is demonstrated. A phenotypic platform that rapidly produces antimicrobial susceptibility testing results by femtosecond stimulated Raman scattering imaging of D2O metabolism is reported. Metabolic incorporation of D2O into biomass in a single bacterium and the metabolic response to antibiotics are probed. Single?cell metabolism inactivation concentration is obtained in less than 2.5 h from colony to results.
Project description:The emergence of antibiotic resistance has prompted the development of rapid antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) technologies that will enable evidence-based treatment and promote antimicrobial stewardship. To date, many rapid AST methods have been developed, but few are able to be performed on clinical samples directly. Here we developed a large volume light scattering microscopy technique that tracks phenotypic features of single bacterial cells directly in clinical urine samples without sample enrichment or culturing. The technique demonstrated rapid (90 min) detection of Escherichia coli in 24 clinical urine samples with 100% sensitivity and 83% specificity and rapid (90 min) AST in 12 urine samples with 87.5% categorical agreement with two antibiotics, ampicillin and ciprofloxacin.
Project description:Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication fails in a definite amount of patients despite one or more therapeutic attempts. Curing these patients is progressively more difficult, due to development of antibiotic resistance. Current guidelines suggest testing antibiotic susceptibility in H. pylori isolates following two therapeutic attempts. AIM:to evaluate the development of antibiotic resistance, MIC values trends and therapeutic outcomes in patients who failed at least one H. pylori eradication therapy. METHODS:consecutive patients, referred to perform upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGIE) to our Unit from January 2009 to January 2019 following at least one therapeutic attempt were considered. Bacterial resistance towards clarithromycin, metronidazole and levofloxacin was tested. Patients received either a susceptibility-guided therapy or Pylera®. RESULTS:a total of 1223 patients were H. pylori positive, and antibiotic susceptibility was available for 1037. The rate of antibiotic resistance and MIC values significantly increased paralleling the number of previous therapeutic attempts. Eradication rates of antibiogram-tailored therapies remained stable, except for the sequential therapy if used as a third line. As a rescue treatment, the Pylera® therapy achieved cure rates comparable to those of the other culture-guided therapies. CONCLUSIONS:A significant increase in the secondary resistance towards the three tested antibiotics was observed, both as rate and MIC values, in correlation with the number of therapy failures. These findings should be considered when administering an empirical second-line therapy. Pylera® therapy eradication rates are comparable to culture-tailored therapies.
Project description:Rapid, specific, and sensitive detection of pathogenic bacteria in drink, food, and clinical samples is an important goal for public health. In addition, rapid characterization of antibiotic susceptibility could inform clinical choices and improve antibiotic stewardship. We previously reported a straightforward, inexpensive strategy to detect Gram-negative bacterial pathogens, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Vibrio cholerae, and Escherichia coli, taking advantage of the high affinity and specificity of phages for their bacterial hosts. Chimeric phages targeted different bacterial pathogens, and thiolation of the phages induced aggregation of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), leading to a visible colorimetric response in the presence of at least ?100 cells of the target bacteria. Here, we apply this strategy to complex biological samples (milk, urine, and swabs from a porcine ex vivo model of P. aeruginosa infection). We also show that this assay can be used to identify the antibiotic susceptibility profile based on detection of bacterial growth in the presence of different antibiotics. The prospect for using phage-conjugated AuNPs to detect bacterial pathogens in clinical samples and guide antibiotic choice is discussed.
Project description:The absence of rapid tests evaluating antibiotic susceptibility results in the empirical prescription of antibiotics. This can lead to treatment failures due to escalating antibiotic resistance, and also furthers the emergence of drug-resistant bacteria. This study reports a rapid optical method to detect ?-lactamase and thereby assess activity of ?-lactam antibiotics, which could provide an approach for targeted prescription of antibiotics. The methodology is centred on a fluorescence quenching based probe (?-LEAF--?-Lactamase Enzyme Activated Fluorophore) that mimics the structure of ?-lactam antibiotics.The ?-LEAF assay was performed for rapid determination of ?-lactamase production and activity of ?-lactam antibiotic (cefazolin) on a panel of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC strains and clinical isolates. Four of the clinical isolates were determined to be lactamase producers, with the capacity to inactivate cefazolin, out of the twenty-five isolates tested. These results were compared against gold standard methods, nitrocefin disk test for ?-lactamase detection and disk diffusion for antibiotic susceptibility, showing results to be largely consistent. Furthermore, in the sub-set of ?-lactamase producers, it was demonstrated and validated that multiple antibiotics (cefazolin, cefoxitin, cefepime) could be assessed simultaneously to predict the antibiotic that would be most active for a given bacterial isolate.The study establishes the rapid ?-LEAF assay for ?-lactamase detection and prediction of antibiotic activity using S. aureus clinical isolates. Although the focus in the current study is ?-lactamase-based resistance, the overall approach represents a broad diagnostic platform. In the long-term, these studies form the basis for the development of assays utilizing a broader variety of targets, pathogens and drugs.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Extensive use of antibiotics has fostered the emergence of superbugs that are resistant to multidrugs, which becomes a great healthcare and public concern. Previous studies showed that quorum sensing signal DSF (diffusible signal factor) not only modulates bacterial antibiotic resistance through intraspecies signaling, but also affects bacterial antibiotic tolerance through interspecies communication. These findings motivate us to exploit the possibility of using DSF and its structurally related molecules as adjuvants to influence antibiotic susceptibility of bacterial pathogens. RESULTS: In this study, we have demonstrated that DSF signal and its structurally related molecules could be used to induce bacterial antibiotic susceptibility. Exogenous addition of DSF signal (cis-11-methyl-2-dodecenoic acid) and its structural analogues could significantly increase the antibiotic susceptibility of Bacillus cereus, possibly through reducing drug-resistant activity, biofilm formation and bacterial fitness. The synergistic effect of DSF and its structurally related molecules with antibiotics on B. cereus is dosage-dependent. Combination of DSF with gentamicin showed an obviously synergistic effect on B. cereus pathogenicity in an in vitro model. We also found that DSF could increase the antibiotic susceptibility of other bacterial species, including Bacillus thuringiensis, Staphylococcus aureus, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Neisseria subflava and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. CONCLUSION: The results indicate a promising potential of using DSF and its structurally related molecules as novel adjuvants to conventional antibiotics for treatment of infectious diseases caused by bacterial pathogens.
Project description:It was recently proposed that for bactericidal antibiotics a common killing mechanism contributes to lethality involving indirect stimulation of hydroxyl radical (OH•) formation. Flow cytometric detection of OH• by hydroxyphenyl fluorescein (HPF) probe oxidation was used to support this hypothesis. Here we show that increased HPF signals in antibiotics-exposed bacterial cells are explained by fluorescence associated with increased cell size, and do not reflect reactive oxygen species (ROS) concentration. Independently of antibiotics, increased fluorescence was seen for elongated cells expressing the oxidative insensitive green fluorescent protein (GFP). Although our data question the role of ROS in lethality of antibiotics other research approaches point to important interplays between basic bacterial metabolism and antibiotic susceptibility. To underpin such relationships, methods for detecting bacterial metabolites at a cellular level are needed.
Project description:Rapid detection and phenotyping of pathogenic microbes is critical for administration of effective antibiotic therapies and for impeding the spread of antibiotic resistance. Here, we present a novel platform, rapid ultrasensitive detector (RUSD), that utilizes the high reflectance coefficient at high incidence angles when light travels from low- to high-refractive-index media. RUSD leverages a principle that does not require complex manufacturing, labeling, or processing steps. Utilizing RUSD, we can detect extremely low cell densities (optical density [OD] ? 5 × 10-7) that correspond to approximately 20 bacterial cells or a single fungal cell in the detection volume, which is nearly 4 orders of magnitude more sensitive than standard OD methods. RUSD can measure minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of commonly used antibiotics against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, including Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli, within 2 to 4 h. Here, we demonstrate that antibiotic susceptibility tests for several pathogens can rapidly be performed with RUSD using both small inoculum sizes (500 cells/mL) and larger inoculum sizes (5 × 105 cells/mL) used in standard antibiotic susceptibility tests. We anticipate that the RUSD system will be particularly useful for the cases in which antibiotic susceptibility tests have to be done with a limited number of bacterial cells that are available. Its compatibility with standard antibiotic susceptibility tests, simplicity, and low cost can make RUSD a viable and rapidly deployed diagnostic tool.
Project description:Tan2012 - Antibiotic Treatment, Inoculum Effect
The efficacy of many antibiotics decreases with increasing bacterial density, a phenomenon called the ‘inoculum effect’ (IE). This study reveals that, for ribosome-targeting antibiotics, IE is due to bistable inhibition of bacterial growth, which reduces the efficacy of certain treatment frequencies.
This model is described in the article:
The inoculum effect and band-pass bacterial response to periodic antibiotic treatment.
Tan C, Phillip Smith R, Srimani JK, Riccione KA, Prasada S, Kuehn M, You L.
Mol Syst Biol. 2012 Oct 9; 8:617
The inoculum effect (IE) refers to the decreasing efficacy of an antibiotic with increasing bacterial density. It represents a unique strategy of antibiotic tolerance and it can complicate design of effective antibiotic treatment of bacterial infections. To gain insight into this phenomenon, we have analyzed responses of a lab strain of Escherichia coli to antibiotics that target the ribosome. We show that the IE can be explained by bistable inhibition of bacterial growth. A critical requirement for this bistability is sufficiently fast degradation of ribosomes, which can result from antibiotic-induced heat-shock response. Furthermore, antibiotics that elicit the IE can lead to 'band-pass' response of bacterial growth to periodic antibiotic treatment: the treatment efficacy drastically diminishes at intermediate frequencies of treatment. Our proposed mechanism for the IE may be generally applicable to other bacterial species treated with antibiotics targeting the ribosomes.
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Project description:The antibiotic susceptibility test determines the most effective antibiotic treatment for bacterial infection. Antimicrobial stewardship is advocated for the rational use of antibiotics to preserve their efficacy in the long term and provide empirical therapy for disease management. Therefore, rapid diagnostic tests can play a pivotal role in efficient and timely treatment. Here, we developed a novel, rapid, affordable, and portable platform for detecting uropathogens and reporting antibiogram to clinicians in just 4 h. This technology replicates the basic tenets of clinical microbiology including bacterial growth in indigenously formulated medium, and measurement of inhibition of bacterial growth in presence of antibiotic/s. Detection is based on chromogenic endpoints using optical sensors and is analyzed by a lab-developed algorithm, which reports antibiotic sensitivity to the antibiotics panel tested. To assess its diagnostic accuracy, a prospective clinical validation study was conducted in two tertiary-care Indian hospitals. Urine samples from 1986 participants were processed by both novel/index test and conventional Kirby Bauer Disc Diffusion method. The sensitivity and specificity of this assay was 92.5% and 82%, respectively (p < 0.0005). This novel technology will promote evidence-based prescription of antibiotics and reduce the burden of increasing resistance by providing rapid and precise diagnosis in shortest possible time.