Immune infiltration and PD-L1 expression in the tumor microenvironment are prognostic in osteosarcoma.
ABSTRACT: Osteosarcoma patient survival has remained stagnant for 30 years. Novel therapeutic approaches are needed to improve outcomes. We examined the expression of Programmed Death Ligand 1 (PD-L1) and defined the tumor immune microenvironment to assess the prognostic utility in osteosarcoma. PD-L1 expression in osteosarcoma was examined in two patient cohorts using immunohistochemistry (IHC) (n?=?48, n?=?59) and expression was validated using quantitative real time PCR (n?=?21) and western blotting (n?=?9). IHC was used to determine the presence of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes and antigen-presenting cells (APCs) in the tumor. Expression of PD-L1 was correlated with immune cell infiltration and event-free-survival (EFS). The 25% of primary osteosarcoma tumors that express PD-L1 were more likely to contain cells that express PD-1 than PD-L1 negative tumors (91.7% vs 47.2%, p?=?0.002). Expression of PD-L1 was significantly associated with the presence of T cells, dendritic cells, and natural killer cells. Although all immune cell types examined were present in osteosarcoma samples, only infiltration by dendritic cells (28.3% vs. 83.9%, p?=?0.001) and macrophages (45.5% vs. 84.4%, p?=?0.031) were associated with worse five-year-EFS. PD-L1 expression was significantly associated with poorer five-year-EFS (25.0%. vs. 69.4%, p?=?0.014). Further studies in osteosarcoma are needed to determine if targeting the PD-L1:PD-1 axis improves survival.
Project description:The potential of neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN) to respond to checkpoint inhibitors is largely unknown and full of great expectations. Immunohistochemical (IHC) studies of programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression in the tumor microenvironment and its implications in predicting the response to checkpoint inhibition is a very active subject. Currently, the combined analysis of PD-L1 expression and tumor-associated immune cell (TAIC) infiltration is considered the best predictive marker of therapeutic response. Here we investigated the expression of PD-L1 on tumor cells (TC) and tumor-infiltrating immune cells (IC) by IHC in 68 NEN samples with a high proliferation rate (Ki-67 >20%) from 57 patients and in 22 samples we correlated it with TAIC density by assessing intratumoral infiltration of CD3+, CD8+, and CD68+ cells. Furthermore, the tumor microenvironment was evaluated according to the classification of Teng et al. We detected PD-L1 expression in 31.6% of NEN G3. Its expression usually was weak and more IC than TC expressed PD-L1. The proportion of tumors positive for PD-L1 was comparable in NEN from different sites of origin but varied depending on tumor differentiation and disease extension. No positive IHC staining was found in 3 well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) with a proliferation rate above 20% (NET G3). When analyzing TAIC, we rarely (18.2%) detected intratumoral CD8+ cells, whereas infiltration by CD3+ and CD68+ cells was more common (45.5 and 59.1%, respectively). By combining CD3+ cells and PD-L1 status, we identified the immune ignorant phenotype of tumor microenvironment as being the most common phenotype, supporting the concept of a preferably combined immunotherapeutic approach in neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC).
Project description:The quantity of programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) is regarded as a predicting factor of clinical response to anti-PD-1 axis immunotherapy. However, the expression of PD-L1 and its prognostic value in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients remain debated. Meanwhile, the molecular features of PD-1's other ligand, namely PD-L2, as well as its correlation with clinicopathological parameters and HCC tumor microenvironment (TME), are still poorly understood. In this study, immunohistochemistry (IHC) data from 304 HCC patients were used to determine the clinicopathological features of PD-L1 and PD-L2 and their correlation with CD8+ T cells in HCC. Moreover, fresh clinical HCC samples were used to identify the immune cell subtypes expressing PD-L1 and PD-L2. By using The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) dataset, we further assessed the correlation between mutation signature, copy number variation (CNV), number of neoepitopes, immune gene expression, immune/stromal cell infiltration to the expression of PD-L1 and PD-L2. While membrane expression of PD-L2 was observed in 19.1% of tumor samples, no obvious expression of PD-L1 was detected on tumor cell membranes. High expression of PD-L2 on tumor membranes and PD-L1 in immune stroma were both significantly associated with poorer overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) outcomes. Flow cytometry analysis and immunofluorescence showed that macrophages were the main immune cell subtype expressing both PD-L1 and PD-L2. Moreover, positive expression of PD-Ls was correlated with higher CD8+ T cells infiltration in immune stroma. CNV analysis showed a similarity between PD-L1 and PD-L2 in affecting gene expression. In addition, higher levels of PD-Ls correlated with higher expression of immune related genes, enhanced cytolytic activity, and larger proportions of immune/stromal cell infiltration. Collectively, our study reveals the impact of both PD-L1 and PD-L2 on the HCC tumor microenvironment for the first time, providing insight for new therapeutic options.
Project description:Lung cancer is a major global health problem, as it is the leading cause of cancer- related deaths worldwide. Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the most common form, is a heterogeneous disease with adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma being the predominant subtypes. Immune-inhibiting interaction of Programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) with programmed cell death-protein 1 (PD-1) causes checkpoint mediated immune evasion and is, accordingly, an important therapeutic target in cancer. In NSCLC, improved understanding of PD-1/PD-L1 checkpoint blockade-responsive biology is warranted. We aimed to identify the landscape of immune cell infiltration in primary lung adeno- carcinoma (LUAD) in the context of tumor PD-L1 expression and the extent of immune infiltration (“hot” vs. “cold” phenotype). Therefore, the study comprises LUAD cases (n=138) with “hot” and “cold” tumor immune phenotype and positive and negative tumor PD-L1 expression, respectively. Tumor samples were immunohistochemically analyzed for expression of PD-L1, CD4 and CD8 and further analyzed on transcriptomic level by Nanostring nCouter Pan Cancer Immune Profiling Panel. We detected significantly differentially expressed genes associated with PD-L1 positive and “hot” versus PD-L1 negative and “cold” phenotype. The presented study illustrates novel aspects of PD-L1 regulation, with potential biological relevance, as well as relevance for immunotherapy response stratification. Overall design: 144 lung adenocarcinomas were classified into four different groups, depending on their PD-L1 expression status determined by IHC and total immune infiltration determined by H&E. Cases with tumors expressing PD-L1 and high total immune cell infiltration were designated as PH (n=23), cases with tumors expressing PD-L1 and low total immune cell infiltration were designated as PC (n=7), cases with no PD-L1 expression and high total immune cell infiltration were designated as NH (n=53) and cases with no PD-L1 expression and low total immune cell infiltration were designated as NC (n=55).
Project description:Recently, the possibility of PD1 pathway-targeted therapy has been extensively studied in various human malignant tumors. However, no previous study has investigated their potential application for soft-tissue sarcomas (STS). In this study, we evaluated the clinical impact of intra-tumoral infiltration of PD1-positive lymphocytes and PD-L1 expression in tumor cells in 105 cases of STS. Intra-tumoral infiltration of PD1-positive lymphocytes and PD-L1 expression were seen in 65% and 58% of STS, respectively. Both PD1-positivity and PD-L1 expression were significantly associated with advanced clinicopathological parameters such as higher clinical stage, presence of distant metastasis, higher histological grade, poor differentiation of tumor, and tumor necrosis. Moreover, both PD1-positivity and PD-L1 positivity were independent prognostic indicators of overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) of STS by multivariate analysis. In addition, the combined pattern of PD1- and PD-L1-positivity was also an independent prognostic indicator for OS and EFS by multivariate analysis. The patents with a PD1(+)/PD-L1(+) pattern had the shortest survival time. In conclusion, this study is the first to demonstrate that the infiltration of PD1 positive lymphocytes and PD-L1 expression in STS cells could be used as novel prognostic indicators for STS. Moreover, the evaluation of PD1- and PD-L1-positivity in STS is also available as possible criteria for selection of patients suitable for PD1-based immunotherapy.
Project description:Objective:Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression in the tumor microenvironment (TME) has been reported to be related to prognosis in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after hepatectomy. The impact of sorafenib on PD-L1 expression in the TME of advanced HCC is unclear. Patients and Methods:Patients with HCC who received sorafenib for advanced disease at National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, and who had paired HCC tissues obtained before and after sorafenib treatment were included in the study group. HCC patients not treated with sorafenib who had paired primary and recurrent or metastatic tissues were identified as the reference group. The membrane PD-L1 staining, detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC) using SP142 antibody, was semiquantitatively scored in tumor cells (TCs) or tumor-infiltrating immune cells (ICs). Additional IHC assays were employed to characterize the PD-L1-expressing ICs. Results:Twenty-three advanced HCC patients with pre- and post-sorafenib paired HCC tissues were included in the study group. The median duration of sorafenib treatment was 4.3 months (range: 1.3-18.7). PD-L1 expression in ICs was significantly higher in post-sorafenib HCC tissues than in pre-sorafenib HCC tissues (pre-sorafenib vs. post-sorafenib IHC 0/1/2/3: 11/5/5/2 vs. 5/5/2/11, p = 0.016). However, PD-L1 expression in TCs was not significantly different between pre- and post-sorafenib tissues (IHC 0/1/2/3: 19/2/0/2 vs. 14/5/0/4, p = 0.094). In the reference group of 44 patients not treated with sorafenib, PD-L1 expression in ICs and TCs was not significantly different between the paired primary and metastatic HCC tissues. By performing IHC double staining with PD-L1 and CD68, we found the PD-L1-expressing ICs were mainly CD68-positive macrophages. PD-L1 expression levels of pre- and post-sorafenib tissues were not associated with patients' overall survival or duration of sorafenib treatment. Conclusions:PD-L1 expression in ICs was significantly increased in post-sorafenib HCC tissues. The mechanisms and clinical significance of this observation warrants further investigation.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Immunohistochemistry (IHC) for programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) displays staining diversity. We compared IHC staining of PD-L1 in gastric cancer (GC) by using three commercially available antibody clones, and analyzed the correlation with the prognosis. METHODS:IHC using PD-L1 antibodies (clones SP142, 28-8 and E1L3N) in 315 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples was qualitatively compared at the 1, 5 and 10% cut-off by two pathologists on total, tumor and immune/stromal cells. We used computer - assisted scoring to quantitatively analyze and compare the "H-score" of PD-L1 expression in 66 samples on total cells. The antibody clone SP142 was selected to investigate the infiltration of PD-L1+CD8+ T cells using automated quantitative immunofluorescence analyses (n?=?50) and the prognostic significance. The prognoses were assessed by log-rank test. RESULTS:PD-L1 clones SP142 and 28-8 displayed great concordance by qualitative (??=?0.816, 0.810 for total cells and tumor cells at the 5% cut-off) and quantitative analyses (R2?=?0.7991, 0.8187 for positive percentage and "H-score"). PD-L1 clone SP142 showed the highest positivity in immune/stromal cells staining (18.41%) compared to 28-8 (7.62%), while clone E1L3N showed poor staining in both tumor and immune/stromal cells. Clone SP142, but not 28-8 and E1L3N, predicted a worse prognosis at the 5% cut-off (p?=?0.0243). Both the clone SP142 and 28-8 had high inter-pathologist correlation for tumor staining (R2?=?0.9805 and R2?=?0.9853), but a moderate correlation for stromal/immune cell staining (R2?=?0.5653 and R2?=?0.5745). Furthermore, a higher density of PD-L1+CD8+ T cells was correlated with a shorter survival time (R2?=?0.0909, p?=?0.0352). CONCLUSIONS:PD-L1 antibody clone SP142 was superior in cell staining, particularly in immune/stromal cell and prognosis. These findings are important for selection of PD-L1 antibody clones in the future diagnostic test.
Project description:We hypothesized that immune-infiltrates were associated with superior survival, and examined a primary osteosarcoma tissue microarrays (TMAs) to test this hypothesis.129 patients (pts) with localized osteosarcoma treated within protocol ISG-OS1 were included in the study. Clinical characteristics, expression of CD8, CD3, FOXP3, CD20, CD68/CD163 (tumor associated macrophage, TAM), Tia-1 (cytotoxic T cell), CD303 (plasmacytoid dendritic cells: pDC), Arginase-1 (myeloid derived suppressor cells: MDSC), PD-1 on immune-cells (IC), and PD-L1 on tumoral cells (TC) and IC were analysed and correlated with outcome.Most of the cases presented tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) (CD3+ 90%; CD8+ 86%). Tia-1 was detected in 73% of the samples. PD-L1 expression was found in 14% patients in IC and 0% in TC; 22% showed PD-1 expression in IC.With a median follow-up of 8 years (range 1-13), the 5-year overall survival (5-year OS) was 74% (95% CI 64-85). Univariate analysis showed better 5-year OS for: a) pts with a good histologic response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (p = 0.0001); b) pts with CD8/Tia1 tumoral infiltrates (p = 0.002); c) pts with normal alkaline phosphatas (sALP) (p = 0.04). After multivariate analysis, histologic response (p = 0.007) and CD8/Tia1 infiltration (p = 0.01) were independently correlated with survival. In the subset of pts with CD8+ infiltrate, worse (p 0.02) OS was observed for PD-L1(IC)+ cases.Our findings support the hypothesis that CD8/Tia1 infiltrate in tumor microenvironment at diagnosis confers superior survival for pts with localized osteosarcoma, while PD-L1 expression is associated with worse survival.
Project description:Digestive system neuroendocrine carcinomas (NECs) are rare neoplasms originating from neuroendocrine cells with a poor prognosis and limited effective treatments. Programmed cell death protein 1/ligand 1 (PD-1/PD-L1) blockade has been used in the management of more than 10 solid tumors and has achieved promising clinical outcomes. PD-L1 expression, immune cell infiltration, tumor mutational burden (TMB), and microsatellite instability (MSI) are all verified biomarkers that can predict the response to anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy. Here, we investigated PD-L1 expression and immune cell infiltration density by immunohistochemical (IHC) staining of tumor samples from 33 patients with digestive system NECs. Tumor and paratumor normal samples from 31 of these patients underwent whole-exome sequencing to evaluate TMB and the MSI-high (MSI-H) status. In total, 29.0% of digestive system NECs had positive PD-L1 expression according to the tumor proportion score (TPS). Infiltration of CD3+, CD8+, and CD68+ cells was observed in 69.7, 27.3, and 54.5% of patients, respectively. The TMB value for patients sequenced ranged from 0.57 to 11.75 mutations/Mb, with a median of 5.68 mutations/Mb. mSINGS, MSIsensor, and MSIseq were used to analyze the MSI status according to the sequencing data, and in our evaluation, no MSI-H status was detected. Our data might indicate a limited potential of anti-PD-1/PD-L1 monotherapy in digestive system NECs, although clinical trials are warranted.
Project description:L-arginine supplementation was recently proved to promote the function of immune cells, especially T-cells, by facilitating T-cell proliferation, differentiation and survival in vivo. Cytotoxic CD8+ plays a crucial role in modulating anti-cancer response mediated by the immune system, but was restricted by exhaustion. Thus, we hypothesized that L-arginine, in combination with ?-PD-L1 antibody, may provide a favored environment for T-cell response against osteosarcoma. Immunocompetent BALB/c mouse models bearing orthotopic and metastatic osteosarcoma were established to validate this conjecture. We found that L-arginine significantly elevated the number of splenic CD8+ T-cells, the level of serum interferon-?, and CD8+ T-cell infiltration. Furthermore, ?-PD-L1 antibody protected these amplified CD8+ T-cells from exhaustion, and therefore strengthened the secretion of interferon-?, granzyme B and perforin by these T-cells. As a result, this combination treatment strategy significantly prolonged survival of osteosarcoma bearing mice, suggesting that L-arginine supplementation in combination with ?-PD-L1 antibody may be a promising method for osteosarcoma patients.