Cytogenetic Diversity of Simple Sequences Repeats in Morphotypes of Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis.
ABSTRACT: A significant fraction of the nuclear DNA of all eukaryotes is comprised of simple sequence repeats (SSRs). Although these sequences are widely used for studying genetic variation, linkage mapping and evolution, little attention had been paid to the chromosomal distribution and cytogenetic diversity of these sequences. In this paper, we report the distribution characterization of mono-, di-, and tri-nucleotide SSRs in Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was used to characterize the cytogenetic diversity of SSRs among morphotypes of B. rapa ssp. chinensis. The proportion of different SSR motifs varied among morphotypes of B. rapa ssp. chinensis, with tri-nucleotide SSRs being more prevalent in the genome of B. rapa ssp. chinensis. We determined the chromosomal locations of mono-, di-, and tri-nucleotide repeat loci. The results showed that the chromosomal distribution of SSRs in the different morphotypes is non-random and motif-dependent, and allowed us to characterize the relative variability in terms of SSR numbers and similar chromosomal distributions in centromeric/peri-centromeric heterochromatin. The differences between SSR repeats with respect to abundance and distribution indicate that SSRs are a driving force in the genomic evolution of B. rapa species. Our results provide a comprehensive view of the SSR sequence distribution and evolution for comparison among morphotypes B. rapa ssp. chinensis.
Project description:The crop species Brassica rapa L. has significant economic importance around the world. However, the global distribution and complex evolutionary history of the species has made investigating its genetic population structure difficult. Crop domestication and improvement has resulted in extreme phenotypic diversity and subspecies that are used for oilseed, food for human consumption, and fodder for livestock. These subspecies include the oilseed morphotypes. oleifera (turnip rape), ssp. dichotoma (brown sarson/toria), ssp. trilocularis (yellow sarson); ssp. rapa (turnip); and Asian leafy vegetables ssp. pekinensis (Chinese cabbage), ssp. chinensis (bok choy), ssp. nipposinica (mizuna/mibuna), ssp. rapifera (rapini/broccoli rabe), ssp. narinosa (tatsoi), ssp parachinensis (choy sum), and ssp. perviridis (komatsuna). To date, studies have had insufficient sampling to determine the relationship of all morphotypes, especially oilseed morphotypes, and questions remain over the contribution of morphotype and geographic origin to population structure. We used genotyping-by-sequencing to score 18,272 single nucleotide polymorphism markers in a globally diverse panel of 333 B. rapa National Plant Germplasm System accessions that included 10 recognized subspecies. Our population genetic and phylogenetic analyses were broadly congruent and revealed five subpopulations that were largely reflective of morphotype and geography. These subpopulations were 1. European turnips/oilseed, 2. Asian turnips/oilseed, 3. yellow/brown sarson (ssp. trilocularis and ssp. dichotoma), 4. Chinese cabbage (ssp. pekinensis), and 5. bok choy, choy sum, and tatsoi (ssp. chinensis, ssp. parachinensis, ssp. narinosa). Additionally, we found evidence of polyphyly and/or paraphyly, particularly for oilseed morphotypes (ssp. oleifera and ssp. dichotoma) and turnips. The results of this study have provided improved resolution to the genetic and phylogenetic relationships of subspecies within the species B. rapa. Understanding of these relationships is key to the future genetic study and improvement of this globally important crop species.
Project description:Male sterility has been widely used in hybrid seed production in Brassica, but not in B. rapa ssp. chinensis, and genetic models of male sterility for this subspecies are unclear. We discovered a spontaneous mutant in B. rapa ssp. chinensis A series of progeny tests indicated that male sterility in B. rapa ssp. chinensis follows a three-allele model with BrMsa , BrMsb , and BrMsc The male sterility locus has been mapped to chromosome A07 in BC1 and F2 populations through genotyping by sequencing. Fine mapping in a total of 1,590 F2 plants narrowed the male sterility gene BrMs to a 400 kb region, with two SNP markers only 0.3 cM from the gene. Comparative gene mapping shows that the Ms gene in B. rapa ssp. pekinensis is different from the BrMs gene of B. rapa ssp. chinensis, despite that both genes are located on chromosome A07. Interestingly, the DNA sequence orthologous to a male sterile gene in Brassica napus, BnRf, is within 400 kb of the BrMs locus. The BnRf orthologs of B. rapa ssp. chinensis were sequenced, and one KASP marker (BrMs_indel) was developed for genotyping based on a 14 bp indel at intron 4. Cosegregation of male sterility and BrMs_indel genotypes in the F2 population indicated that BnRf from B. napus and BrMs from B. rapa are likely to be orthologs. The BrMs_indel marker developed in this study will be useful in marker-assisted selection for the male sterility trait.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>During the bread wheat speciation by polyploidization, a series of genome rearrangement and sequence recombination occurred. Simple sequence repeat (SSR) sequences, predominately located in heterochromatic regions of chromosomes, are the effective marker for tracing the genomic DNA sequence variations. However, to date the distribution dynamics of SSRs on chromosomes of bread wheat and its donors, including diploid and tetraploid Triticum urartu, Aegilops speltoides, Aegilops tauschii, Triticum turgidum ssp. dicocoides, reflecting the genome evolution events during bread wheat formation had not been comprehensively investigated.<h4>Results</h4>The genome evolution was studied by comprehensively comparing the distribution patterns of (AAC)<sub>n</sub>, (AAG)<sub>n</sub>, (AGC)<sub>n</sub> and (AG)<sub>n</sub> in bread wheat Triticum aestivum var. Chinese Spring and its progenitors T. urartu, A. speltoides, Ae. tauschii, wild tetroploid emmer wheat T. dicocoides, and cultivated emmer wheat T. dicoccum. Results indicated that there are specific distribution patterns in different chromosomes from different species for each SSRs. They provided efficient visible markers for identification of some individual chromosomes and SSR sequence evolution tracing from the diploid progenitors to hexaploid wheat. During wheat speciation, the SSR sequence expansion occurred predominately in the centromeric and pericentromeric regions of B genome chromosomes accompanied by little expansion and elimination on other chromosomes. This result indicated that the B genome might be more sensitive to the "genome shock" and more changeable during wheat polyplodization.<h4>Conclusions</h4>During the bread wheat evolution, SSRs including (AAC)<sub>n</sub>, (AAG)<sub>n</sub>, (AGC)<sub>n</sub> and (AG)<sub>n</sub> in B genome displayed the greatest changes (sequence expansion) especially in centromeric and pericentromeric regions during the polyploidization from Ae. speltoides S genome, the most likely donor of B genome. This work would enable a better understanding of the wheat genome formation and evolution and reinforce the viewpoint that B genome was originated from S genome.
Project description:Highly polymorphic markers such as simple sequence repeats (SSRs) or microsatellites are very useful for genetic mapping. In this study novel SSRs were identified in BAC-end sequences (BES) from non-contigged, non-overlapping bacterial artificial clones (BACs) in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). These so called "singleton" BACs were from the G19833 Andean gene pool physical map and the new BES-SSR markers were used for the saturation of the inter-gene pool, DOR364×G19833 genetic map. A total of 899 SSR loci were found among the singleton BES, but only 346 loci corresponded to the single di- or tri-nucleotide motifs that were likely to be polymorphic (ATT or AG motifs, principally) and useful for primer design and individual marker mapping. When these novel SSR markers were evaluated in the DOR364×G19833 population parents, 136 markers revealed polymorphism and 106 were mapped. Genetic mapping resulted in a map length of 2291 cM with an average distance between markers of 5.2 cM. The new genetic map was compared to the most recent cytogenetic analysis of common bean chromosomes. We found that the new singleton BES-SSR were helpful in filling peri-centromeric spaces on the cytogenetic map. Short genetic distances between some new singleton-derived BES-SSR markers was common showing suppressed recombination in these regions compared to other parts of the genome. The correlation of singleton-derived SSR marker distribution with other cytogenetic features of the bean genome is discussed.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) have been successfully used for various genetic and evolutionary studies in eukaryotic systems. The eukaryotic model organism Neurospora crassa is an excellent system to study evolution and biological function of SSRs. RESULTS: We identified and characterized 2749 SSRs of 963 SSR types in the genome of N. crassa. The distribution of tri-nucleotide (nt) SSRs, the most common SSRs in N. crassa, was significantly biased in exons. We further characterized the distribution of 19 abundant SSR types (AST), which account for 71% of total SSRs in the N. crassa genome, using a Poisson log-linear model. We also characterized the size variation of SSRs among natural accessions using Polymorphic Index Content (PIC) and ANOVA analyses and found that there are genome-wide, chromosome-dependent and local-specific variations. Using polymorphic SSRs, we have built linkage maps from three line-cross populations. CONCLUSION: Taking our computational, statistical and experimental data together, we conclude that 1) the distributions of the SSRs in the sequenced N. crassa genome differ systematically between chromosomes as well as between SSR types, 2) the size variation of tri-nt SSRs in exons might be an important mechanism in generating functional variation of proteins in N. crassa, 3) there are different levels of evolutionary forces in variation of amino acid repeats, and 4) SSRs are stable molecular markers for genetic studies in N. crassa.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSRs) in expressed sequence tags (ESTs) are useful resources for genome analysis because of their abundance, functionality and polymorphism. The advent of commercial second generation sequencing machines has lead to new strategies for developing EST-SSR markers, necessitating the development of bioinformatic framework that can keep pace with the increasing quality and quantity of sequence data produced. We describe an open scheme for analyzing ESTs and developing EST-SSR markers from reads collected by Sanger sequencing and pyrosequencing of sugi (Cryptomeria japonica). RESULTS: We collected 141,097 sequence reads by Sanger sequencing and 1,333,444 by pyrosequencing. After trimming contaminant and low quality sequences, 118,319 Sanger and 1,201,150 pyrosequencing reads were passed to the MIRA assembler, generating 81,284 contigs that were analysed for SSRs. 4,059 SSRs were found in 3,694 (4.54%) contigs, giving an SSR frequency lower than that in seven other plant species with gene indices (5.4-21.9%). The average GC content of the SSR-containing contigs was 41.55%, compared to 40.23% for all contigs. Tri-SSRs were the most common SSRs; the most common motif was AT, which was found in 655 (46.3%) di-SSRs, followed by the AAG motif, found in 342 (25.9%) tri-SSRs. Most (72.8%) tri-SSRs were in coding regions, but 55.6% of the di-SSRs were in non-coding regions; the AT motif was most abundant in 3' untranslated regions. Gene ontology (GO) annotations showed that six GO terms were significantly overrepresented within SSR-containing contigs. Forty-four EST-SSR markers were developed from 192 primer pairs using two pipelines: read2Marker and the newly-developed CMiB, which combines several open tools. Markers resulting from both pipelines showed no differences in PCR success rate and polymorphisms, but PCR success and polymorphism were significantly affected by the expected PCR product size and number of SSR repeats, respectively. EST-SSR markers exhibited less polymorphism than genomic SSRs. CONCLUSIONS: We have created a new open pipeline for developing EST-SSR markers and applied it in a comprehensive analysis of EST-SSRs and EST-SSR markers in C. japonica. The results will be useful in genomic analyses of conifers and other non-model species.
Project description:As the first examination of distribution, guanine-cytosine (GC) pattern, and variation analysis of microsatellites (SSRs) in different genomic regions of six bovid species, SSRs displayed nonrandomly distribution in different regions. SSR abundances are much higher in the introns, transposable elements (TEs), and intergenic regions compared to the 3'-untranslated regions (3'UTRs), 5'UTRs and coding regions. Trinucleotide perfect SSRs (P-SSRs) were the most frequent in the coding regions, whereas, mononucleotide P-SSRs were the most in the introns, 3'UTRs, TEs, and intergenic regions. Trifold P-SSRs had more GC-contents in the 5'UTRs and coding regions than that in the introns, 3'UTRs, TEs, and intergenic regions, whereas mononucleotide P-SSRs had the least GC-contents in all genomic regions. The repeat copy numbers (RCN) of the same mono- to hexanucleotide P-SSRs showed significantly different distributions in different regions (P?<?0.01). Except for the coding regions, mononucleotide P-SSRs had the most RCNs, followed by the pattern: di-?>?tri-?>?tetra-?>?penta-?>?hexanucleotide P-SSRs in the same regions. The analysis of coefficient of variability (CV) of SSRs showed that the CV variations of RCN of the same mono- to hexanucleotide SSRs were relative higher in the intronic and intergenic regions, followed by the CV variation of RCN in the TEs, and the relative lower was in the 5'UTRs, 3'UTRs, and coding regions. Wide SSR analysis of different genomic regions has helped to reveal biological significances of their distributions.
Project description:Genic microsatellite markers, also known as functional markers, are preferred over anonymous markers as they reveal the variation in transcribed genes among individuals. In this study, we developed a total of 707 expressed sequence tag-derived simple sequence repeat markers (EST-SSRs) and used for development of a high-density integrated map using four individual mapping populations of B. rapa. This map contains a total of 1426 markers, consisting of 306 EST-SSRs, 153 intron polymorphic markers, 395 bacterial artificial chromosome-derived SSRs (BAC-SSRs), and 572 public SSRs and other markers covering a total distance of 1245.9 cM of the B. rapa genome. Analysis of allelic diversity in 24 B. rapa germplasm using 234 mapped EST-SSR markers showed amplification of 2 alleles by majority of EST-SSRs, although amplification of alleles ranging from 2 to 8 was found. Transferability analysis of 167 EST-SSRs in 35 species belonging to cultivated and wild brassica relatives showed 42.51% (Sysimprium leteum) to 100% (B. carinata, B. juncea, and B. napus) amplification. Our newly developed EST-SSRs and high-density linkage map based on highly transferable genic markers would facilitate the molecular mapping of quantitative trait loci and the positional cloning of specific genes, in addition to marker-assisted selection and comparative genomic studies of B. rapa with other related species.
Project description:Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) have been widely used in maize genetics and breeding, because they are co-dominant, easy to score, and highly abundant. In this study, we used whole-genome sequences from 16 maize inbreds and 1 wild relative to determine SSR abundance and to develop a set of high-density polymorphic SSR markers. A total of 264 658 SSRs were identified across the 17 genomes, with an average of 135 693 SSRs per genome. Marker density was one SSR every of 15.48 kb. (C/G)n, (AT)n, (CAG/CTG)n, and (AAAT/ATTT)n were the most frequent motifs for mono, di-, tri-, and tetra-nucleotide SSRs, respectively. SSRs were most abundant in intergenic region and least frequent in untranslated regions, as revealed by comparing SSR distributions of three representative resequenced genomes. Comparing SSR sequences and e-polymerase chain reaction analysis among the 17 tested genomes created a new database, including 111 887 SSRs, that could be develop as polymorphic markers in silico. Among these markers, 58.00, 26.09, 7.20, 3.00, 3.93, and 1.78% of them had mono, di-, tri-, tetra-, penta-, and hexa-nucleotide motifs, respectively. Polymorphic information content for 35 573 polymorphic SSRs out of 111 887 loci varied from 0.05 to 0.83, with an average of 0.31 in the 17 tested genomes. Experimental validation of polymorphic SSR markers showed that over 70% of the primer pairs could generate the target bands with length polymorphism, and these markers would be very powerful when they are used for genetic populations derived from various types of maize germplasms that were sampled for this study.