Lysyl Oxidase Gene G473A Polymorphism and Cigarette Smoking in Association with a High Risk of Lung and Colorectal Cancers in a North Chinese Population.
ABSTRACT: The relationship among the lysyl oxidase (LOX) G473A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), cigarette smoking and lung, colorectal, colon and rectum cancer susceptibility was studied in 200 cases of lung cancer, 335 cases of colorectal cancer including 130 cases of colon cancer and 205 cases of rectum cancer, and 335 healthy people in Tangshan, China. Peripheral blood DNA samples were collected, DNA sequencing and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) performed, followed by multivariate logistic regression analysis. In comparison to LOX473GG genotype carriers, individuals with LOX473AA exhibited a higher susceptibility to lung, colon-rectum, colon, and rectum cancers with OR values amounting to 3.84-, 2.74-, 2.75-, and 2.74-fold of the control, respectively. In the LOX 473AA-positive population, females were more susceptible than males to carcinogenesis with OR values (female vs. male): 5.25 vs. 3.23, 2.29 vs. 1.51, 2.27 vs. 1.45, and 2.25 vs. 1.53, respectively, for lung, colon-rectum combined, colon, and rectum cancers. LOX G473A polymorphism apparently elevated human sensitivity to cigarette smoking carcinogens for eliciting cancers in the lung and colon only. Thus, LOX G473A polymorphism positively correlates with carcinogenesis and it may be used as an ideal intrinsic biomarker for prediction or diagnosis of carcinogenesis in humans.
Project description:Colorectal cancer is typically classified into proximal colon, distal colon and rectal cancer. Tumour genetic and epigenetic features differ by tumour location. Considering a possible role of bowel contents (including microbiome) in carcinogenesis, this study hypothesised that tumour molecular features might gradually change along bowel subsites, rather than change abruptly at splenic flexure.Utilising 1443 colorectal cancers in two US nationwide prospective cohort studies, the frequencies of molecular features (CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP), microsatellite instability (MSI), LINE-1 methylation and BRAF, KRAS and PIK3CA mutations) were examined along bowel subsites (rectum, rectosigmoid junction, sigmoid, descending colon, splenic flexure, transverse colon, hepatic flexure, ascending colon and caecum). The linearity and non-linearity of molecular relations along subsites were statistically tested by multivariate logistic or linear regression analysis.The frequencies of CIMP-high, MSI-high and BRAF mutations gradually increased from the rectum (<2.3%) to ascending colon (36-40%), followed by falls in the caecum (12-22%). By linearity tests, these molecular relations were significantly linear from rectum to ascending colon (p<0.0001), and there was little evidence of non-linearity (p>0.09). Caecal cancers exhibited the highest frequency of KRAS mutations (52% vs 27-35% in other sites; p<0.0001).The frequencies of CIMP-high, MSI-high and BRAF mutations in cancer increased gradually along colorectum subsites from the rectum to ascending colon. These novel data challenge the common conception of discrete molecular features of proximal versus distal colorectal cancers, and have a substantial impact on clinical, translational and epidemiology research, which has typically been performed with the dichotomous classification of proximal versus distal tumours.
Project description:The functional single nucleotide polymorphisms in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) gene were predicted to be correlated with the susceptibility of colorectal cancer (CRC). The aim of the present study was to explore the relationship between PPARG rs1801282 C>G polymorphism and the risk of CRC. First, we conducted a case-control study with 387 CRC cases and 1,536 controls. We used the SNPscan method to determine the genotypes of PPARG rs1801282 C>G polymorphism. We found PPARG rs1801282 C>G polymorphism had a tendency of decreased risk to CRC risk (CG vs. CC: adjusted OR, 0.67, 95% CI = 0.43-1.04 for CG vs. CC, P = 0.073; GG vs. CC: adjusted OR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.44-1.05; P = 0.078). The stratified analysis revealed PPARG rs1801282 C>G polymorphism also had a tendency of decreased risk to colon cancer (CG vs. CC: adjusted OR = 0.54, 95% CI = 0.27-1.08, P = 0.083). The results of subsequent meta-analysis suggested that PPARG rs1801282 C>G polymorphism might be a protective factor for CRC, especially in Asians, colon cancer and rectum cancer subgroups. In conclusion, our study indicates that PPARG rs1801282 C>G polymorphism might decrease the risk of overall CRC. Larger sample size and well-designed case-control studies are needed to confirm the potential association.
Project description:Blood levels of inflammation-related markers may reveal molecular pathways contributing to carcinogenesis. To date, prospective associations with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk have been based on few studies with limited sets of analytes. We conducted a case-cohort study within the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study Cohort II, comparing 457 incident CRC cases during median 18 years follow-up with a random subcohort of 774 individuals. Baseline plasma levels of 62 cytokines, soluble receptors, acute-phase proteins, and growth factor markers were measured using Luminex bead-based assays. We estimated hazard ratios (HRs) associating each marker with CRC risk by Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for potential confounders. Subanalyses compared cases by years after blood draw (<5 vs. ?5) and anatomical subsite (colon vs. rectum). Linear trends in quantiles of four C-C motif ligand (CCL) chemokines, one C-X-C motif ligand (CXCL) chemokine, and a soluble receptor were nominally associated with CRC risk based on ptrend < 0.05, but none met false discovery rate corrected statistical significance. HRs for the 4th vs. 1st quartile were: 1.69 for CCL2/MCP1, 1.61 for soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 2, 1.39 for CCL15/MIP1D, 1.35 for CCL27/CTACK, 0.70 for CXCL6/GCP2 and 0.61 for CCL3/MIP1A. Among cases diagnosed 5+ years after enrollment, CCL2/MCP1, CCL3/MIP1A and CXCL6/GCP2 retained nominal statistical significance. There were no significant differences in associations between colon and rectum. Our findings implicate chemokine alterations in colorectal carcinogenesis, but require replication for confirmation. Noninvasive chemokine assays may have potential application in colorectal cancer screening and etiologic research.
Project description:Evidence suggests a possible role of Fusobacterium nucleatum in colorectal carcinogenesis, especially in right-sided proximal colorectum. Considering a change in bowel contents and microbiome from proximal to distal colorectal segments, we hypothesized that the proportion of colorectal carcinoma enriched with F. nucleatum might gradually increase along the bowel subsites from rectum to cecum.A retrospective, cross-sectional analysis was conducted on 1,102 colon and rectal carcinomas in molecular pathological epidemiology databases of the Nurses' Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. We measured the amount of F. nucleatum DNA in colorectal tumor tissue using a quantitative PCR assay and equally dichotomized F. nucleatum-positive cases (high vs. low). We used multivariable logistic regression analysis to examine the relationship of a bowel subsite variable (rectum, rectosigmoid junction, sigmoid colon, descending colon, splenic flexure, transverse colon, hepatic flexure, ascending colon, and cecum) with the amount of F. nucleatum.The proportion of F. nucleatum-high colorectal cancers gradually increased from rectal cancers (2.5%; 4/157) to cecal cancers (11%; 19/178), with a statistically significant linear trend along all subsites (P<0.0001) and little evidence of non-linearity. The proportion of F. nucleatum-low cancers was higher in rectal, ascending colon, and cecal cancers than in cancers of middle segments.The proportion of F. nucleatum-high colorectal cancers gradually increases from rectum to cecum. Our data support the colorectal continuum model that reflects pathogenic influences of the gut microbiota on neoplastic and immune cells and challenges the prevailing two-colon (proximal vs. distal) dichotomy paradigm.
Project description:Recurrence and metastasis are the primary causes of mortality in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC), and therefore effective tools to reduce morbidity and mortality of CRC patients are necessary. LOX-1, the ox-LDL receptor, is strongly involved in inflammation, obesity, and atherosclerosis, and several studies have assessed its role in the carcinogenesis process linking ROS, metabolic disorders and cancer. We have already demonstrated <i>in vitro</i> that LOX-1 expression correlates to the aggressiveness of human colon cancer and its downregulation weakens the tumoral phenotype, indicating its potential function as a biomarker and a target in CRC therapy. Here we further investigate <i>in vivo</i> the role of LOX-1 in colon tumorigenesis by xenografting procedures, injecting nude mice both subcutaneously and intravenously with human high grade metastatic colorectal cancer cells, DLD-1, in which LOX-1 expression has been downregulated by shRNA (LOX-1<sub>RNAi</sub> cells). Histopathological and immunohistochemical evaluations have been performed on xenograft tumors. The experiments have been complemented by the analysis of the volatile compounds (VOCs) collected from the cages of injected mice and analyzed by gas-chromatography and gas sensors. After intravenous injection of LOX-1<sub>RNAi</sub> cells, we found that LOX-1 silencing influences both the engraftment of the tumor and the metastasis development, acting by angiogenesis. For the first time, we have observed that LOX-1 inhibition significantly prevents metastasis formation in injected mice and, at the same time, induces a downregulation of VEGF-A165, HIF-1?, and ?-catenin whose expression is involved in cell migration and metastasis, and a variation of histone H4 acetylation pattern suggesting also a role of LOX-1 in regulating gene transcription. The analysis of the volatile compounds (VOCs) collected from the cages of injected mice has evidenced a specific profile in those xenograft mice in which metastasis originates. These findings underline the role of LOX-1 as a potential target for inhibition of tumor progression and metastasis, enhancing current therapeutic strategies against colorectal cancer.
Project description:Purpose: Functional variants in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) and PPARG co-activator 1 (PPARGC1) family (e.g., PPARGC1A and PPARGC1B) genes were predicted to confer susceptibility to colorectal cancer (CRC). The aim of the present study was to explore the relationship between PPARG, PPARGC1A, PPARGC1B polymorphism and the risk of CRC. Patients and methods: We conducted a case-control study with 1,003 CRC cases and 1,303 controls. We selected the PPARG rs3856806 C>T, PPARGC1A rs2970847 C>T, rs8192678 C>T, rs3736265 G>A and PPARGC1B rs7732671 G>C and rs17572019 G>A SNPs to assess the relationship between PPARG, PPARGC1A, PPARGC1B their variants and risk of CRC. Results: We found that the PPARG rs3856806 C>T polymorphism increased the risk of CRC (TT vs. CC: adjusted OR, 1.59, 95% CI 1.08-2.35, P = 0.020; TT/CT vs. CC: adjusted OR, 1.26; 95% CI 1.06-1.49; P = 0.009 and TT vs. CC/CT: adjusted OR, 1.54; 95% CI 1.05-2.26; P = 0.028), even after a Bonferroni correction test. The stratified analysis revealed that the PPARG rs3856806 C>T polymorphism also increased the risk of CRC, especially in male, ?61 years old, never smoking, never drinking, BMI ? 24 kg/m2, colon cancer and rectum cancer subgroups. Conclusion: Our findings highlight that the PPARG rs3856806 C>T polymorphism may increase the risk of CRC. In the future larger sample size case-control studies with a detailed functional assessment are needed to further determine the relationship of the PPARG rs3856806 C>T polymorphism with CRC risk.
Project description:Increased dietary fat consumption is associated with colon cancer development. The exact mechanism by which fat induces colon cancer is not clear, however, increased bile acid excretion in response to high-fat diet may promote colon carcinogenesis. The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, and bile acids are endogenous ligands of FXR. FXR is highly expressed in the intestine and liver where FXR is essential for maintaining bile acid homeostasis. The role of FXR in intestine cancer development is not known. The current study evaluated the effects of FXR deficiency in mice on intestinal cell proliferation and cancer development. The results showed that FXR deficiency resulted in increased colon cell proliferation, which was accompanied by an up-regulation in the expression of genes involved in cell cycle progression and inflammation, including cyclin D1 and interleukin-6. Most importantly, FXR deficiency led to an increase in the size of small intestine adenocarcinomas in adenomatous polyposis coli mutant mice. Furthermore, after treatment with a colon carcinogen, azoxymethane, FXR deficiency increased the adenocarcinoma multiplicity and size in colon and rectum of C57BL/6 mice. Loss of FXR function also increased the intestinal lymphoid nodule numbers in the intestine. Taken together, the current study is the first to show that FXR deficiency promotes cell proliferation, inflammation, and tumorigenesis in the intestine, suggesting that activation of FXR by nonbile acid ligands may protect against intestinal carcinogenesis.
Project description:Loss of terminal cell differentiation promotes tumorigenesis. 15-Lipoxygenase-1 (15-LOX-1) contributes to terminal cell differentiation in normal cells. The mechanistic significance of 15-LOX-1 expression loss in human cancers to terminal cell differentiation suppression is unknown. In a screen of 128 cancer cell lines representing more than 20 types of human cancer, we found that 15-LOX-1 mRNA expression levels were markedly lower than levels in terminally differentiated cells. Relative expression levels of 15-LOX-1 (relative to the level in terminally differentiated primary normal human-derived bronchial epithelial cells) were lower in 79% of the screened cancer cell lines than relative expression levels of p16 (INK4A), which promotes terminal cell differentiation and is considered one of the most commonly lost tumor suppressor genes in cancer cells. 15-LOX-1 was expressed during terminal differentiation in three-dimensional air-liquid interface cultures, and 15-LOX-1 expression and terminal differentiation occurred in immortalized nontransformed bronchial epithelial but not in lung cancer cell lines. 15-LOX-1 expression levels were lower in human tumors than in paired normal lung epithelia. Short hairpin RNA-mediated downregulation of 15-LOX-1 in Caco-2 cells blocked enterocyte-like differentiation, disrupted tight junction formation, and blocked E-cadherin and ZO-1 localization to the cell wall membrane. 15-LOX-1 episomal expression in Caco-2 and HT-29 colon cancer cells induced differentiation. Our findings indicate that 15-LOX-1 downregulation in cancer cells is an important mechanism for terminal cell differentiation dysregulation and support the potential therapeutic utility of 15-LOX-1 reexpression to inhibit tumorigenesis.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:MicroRNA plays a vital role in gene expression, and microRNA dysregulation is involved in carcinogenesis. The miR-196a-2 polymorphism rs11614913 is reportedly associated with cancer susceptibility. This meta-analysis was performed to assess the overall association of miR-196a-2 with cancer risk. METHODS:A total of 27 independent case-control studies involving 10,435 cases and 12,075 controls were analyzed for the rs11614913 polymorphism. RESULTS:A significant association was found between rs11614913 polymorphism and cancer risk in four genetic models (CT vs. TT, OR=1.15, 95%CI=1.05-1.27; CC vs. TT, OR=1.23, 95%CI=1.08-1.39; Dominant model, OR=1.17, 95%CI=1.06-1.30; Additive model, OR=1.08, 95%CI=1.01-1.14). In the subgroup analysis of different tumor types, the C allele was associated with increased risk of lung, breast, and colorectal cancer, but not with liver, gastric, or esophageal cancer. In the subgroup analysis by ethnicity, a significantly increased risk of cancer was found among Asians in all genetic models, but no associations were found in the Caucasian subgroup. CONCLUSIONS:The meta-analysis demonstrated that the miR-196a-2 polymorphism is associated with cancer susceptibility, especially lung cancer, colorectal cancer, and breast cancer among Asian populations.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Lymphotoxin-alpha (LTA) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine with anti-tumor activity. The objective of this study was to determine whether LTA polymorphisms influence the presence of cancer. METHODS: LTA polymorphisms C804A (rs1041981, T60N) and T495C (rs2229094, C13R) were determined in 1,536 consecutive autopsy cases and were registered in the Japanese single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for geriatric research (JG-SNP) Internet database. Tumors were systematically reviewed, pathologically confirmed, and assessed in relation to LTA genotype. RESULTS: The study population consisted of 827 males and 709 females, with a mean age of 80 years. Altogether, we studied 606 subjects without cancer and 930 subjects with cancer of the stomach (n = 183), lung (n = 164), colon or rectum (n = 143), or other sites. The presence of cancer was higher in males than in females. The C804A and T495C polymorphisms were associated with cancer in males (CA + AA: CC, adjusted OR = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.53 - 0.99; TC + CC: TT, adjusted OR = 1.45, 95% CI = 1.04 - 2.02; respectively) but not in females. In males, the C804A polymorphism was associated with lung cancer (CA + AA: CC, adjusted OR = 0.60, 95% CI = 0.37 - 0.97), whereas the T495C polymorphism was associated with gastric cancer (TC + CC: TT, adjusted OR = 1.68, 95% CI = 1.06 - 2.65). CONCLUSION: We found some evidence of an association between LTA polymorphisms and cancer risk in elderly Japanese men. Further studies in larger populations should examine this hypothesis.