Associations between microvascular function and short-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution and particulate matter oxidative potential.
ABSTRACT: Short-term exposure to ambient air pollution has been associated with acute increases in cardiovascular hospitalization and mortality. However, causative chemical components and underlying pathophysiological mechanisms remain to be clarified. We hypothesized that endothelial dysfunction would be associated with mobile-source (traffic) air pollution and that pollutant components with higher oxidative potential to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) would have stronger associations.We carried out a cohort panel study in 93 elderly non-smoking adults living in the Los Angeles metropolitan area, during July 2012-February 2014. Microvascular function, represented by reactive hyperemia index (RHI), was measured weekly for up to 12 weeks (N?=?845). Air pollutant data included daily data from regional air-monitoring stations, five-day average PM chemical components and oxidative potential in three PM size-fractions, and weekly personal nitrogen oxides (NOx). Linear mixed-effect models estimated adjusted changes in microvascular function with exposure.RHI was inversely associated with traffic-related pollutants such as ambient PM2.5 black carbon (BC), NOx, and carbon monoxide (CO). An interquartile range change increase (1.06 ?g/m(3)) in 5-day average BC was associated with decreased RHI, -0.093 (95 % CI: -0.151, -0.035). RHI was inversely associated with other mobile-source components/tracers (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, elemental carbon, and hopanes), and PM oxidative potential as quantified in two independent assays (dithiothreitol and in vitro macrophage ROS) in accumulation and ultrafine PM, and transition metals.Our findings suggest that short-term exposures to traffic-related air pollutants with high oxidative potential are major components contributing to microvascular dysfunction.
Project description:Gene expression changes are linked to air pollutant exposures in in vitro and animal experiments. However, limited data are available on how these outcomes relate to ambient air pollutant exposures in humans. We performed an exploratory analysis testing whether gene expression levels were associated with air pollution exposures in a Los Angeles area cohort of elderly subjects with coronary artery disease. Candidate genes (35) were selected from published studies of gene expression-pollutant associations. Expression levels were measured weekly in 43 subjects (? 12 weeks) using quantitative PCR. Exposures included gaseous pollutants O3, nitrogen oxides (NOx), and CO; particulate matter (PM) pollutants elemental and black carbon (EC, BC); and size-fractionated PM mass. We measured organic compounds from PM filter extracts, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and determined the in vitro oxidative potential of particle extracts. Associations between exposures and gene expression levels were analyzed using mixed-effects regression models. We found positive associations of traffic-related pollutants (EC, BC, primary organic carbon, PM 0.25-2.5 PAH and/or PM 0.25 PAH, and NOx) with NFE2L2, Nrf2-mediated genes (HMOX1, NQO1, and SOD2), CYP1B1, IL1B, and SELP. Findings suggest that NFE2L2 gene expression links associations of traffic-related air pollution with phase I and II enzyme genes at the promoter transcription level.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Exposure to air pollution has been associated with cardiorespiratory morbidity and mortality. However, the chemical constituents and pollution sources underlying these associations remain unclear. METHOD:We conducted a cohort panel study involving 97 elderly subjects living in the Los Angeles metropolitan area. Airway and circulating biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation were measured weekly over 12 weeks and included, exhaled breath condensate malondialdehyde (EBC MDA), fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), plasma oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL), and plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6). Exposures included 7-day personal nitrogen oxides (NOx), daily criteria-pollutant data, five-day average particulate matter (PM) measured in three size-fractions and characterized by chemical components including transition metals, and in vitro PM oxidative potential (dithiothreitol and macrophage reactive oxygen species). Associations between biomarkers and pollutants were assessed using linear mixed effects regression models. RESULTS:We found significant positive associations of airway oxidative stress and inflammation with traffic-related air pollutants, ultrafine particles and transition metals. Positive but nonsignificant associations were observed with PM oxidative potential. The strongest associations were observed among PM variables in the ultrafine range (PM <0.18µm). It was estimated that an interquartile increase in 5-day average ultrafine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons was associated with a 6.3% (95% CI: 1.1%, 11.6%) increase in EBC MDA and 6.7% (95% CI: 3.4%, 10.2%) increase in FeNO. In addition, positive but nonsignificant associations were observed between oxLDL and traffic-related pollutants, ultrafine particles and transition metals while plasma IL-6 was positively associated with 1-day average traffic-related pollutants. CONCLUSION:Our results suggest that exposure to pollutants with high oxidative potential (traffic-related pollutants, ultrafine particles, and transition metals) may lead to increased airway oxidative stress and inflammation in elderly adults. This observation was less clear with circulating biomarkers.
Project description:Mitochondria are the main source of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Human mitochondrial haplogroups are linked to differences in ROS production and oxidative-stress induced inflammation that may influence disease pathogenesis, including coronary artery disease (CAD). We previously showed that traffic-related air pollutants were associated with biomarkers of systemic inflammation in a cohort panel of subjects with CAD in the Los Angeles air basin.We tested whether air pollutant exposure-associated inflammation was stronger in mitochondrial haplogroup H than U (high versus low ROS production) in this panel (38 subjects and 417 observations).Inflammation biomarkers were measured weekly in each subject (? 12 weeks), including interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 soluble receptor and tumor necrosis factor-soluble receptor II. We determined haplogroup by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Air pollutants included nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), organic carbon, elemental and black carbon (EC, BC); and particulate matter mass, three size fractions (<0.25 µm, 0.25-2.5 µm, and 2.5-10 µm in aerodynamic diameter). Particulate matter extracts were analyzed for organic compounds, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and in vitro oxidative potential of aqueous extracts. Associations between exposures and biomarkers, stratified by haplogroup, were analyzed by mixed-effects models.IL-6 and TNF-? were associated with traffic-related air pollutants (BC, CO, NOx and PAH), and with mass and oxidative potential of quasi-ultrafine particles <0.25 µm. These associations were stronger for haplogroup H than haplogroup U.Results suggest that mitochondrial haplogroup U is a novel protective factor for air pollution-related systemic inflammation in this small group of subjects.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Air pollution has been related to brain structural alterations, but a relationship with white matter microstructure is unclear. OBJECTIVES:We assessed whether pregnancy and childhood exposures to air pollution are related to white matter microstructure in preadolescents. METHODS:We used data of 2,954 children from the Generation R Study, a population-based birth cohort from Rotterdam, Netherlands (2002-2006). Concentrations of 17 air pollutants including nitrogen oxides (NOX), particulate matter (PM), and components of PM were estimated at participants' homes during pregnancy and childhood using land-use regression models. Diffusion tensor images were obtained at child's 9-12 years of age, and fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) were computed. We performed linear regressions adjusting for socioeconomic and lifestyle characteristics. Single-pollutant analyses were followed by multipollutant analyses using the Deletion/Substitution/Addition (DSA) algorithm. RESULTS:In the single-pollutant analyses, higher concentrations of several air pollutants during pregnancy or childhood were associated with significantly lower FA or higher MD (p<0.05). In multipollutant models of pregnancy exposures selected by DSA, higher concentration of fine particles was associated with significantly lower FA [-0.71 (95% CI: -1.26, -0.16) per 5??g/m3 fine particles] and higher concentration of elemental silicon with significantly higher MD [0.06 (95% CI: 0.01, 0.11) per 100?ng/m3 silicon]. Multipollutant models of childhood exposures selected by DSA indicated significant associations of NOX with FA [-0.14 (95% CI: -0.23, -0.04) per 20-?g/m3 NOX increase], and of elemental zinc and the oxidative potential of PM with MD [0.03 (95% CI: 0.01, 0.04) per 10-ng/m3 zinc increase and 0.07 (95% CI: 0.00, 0.44) per 1-nmol?DTT/min/m3 oxidative potential increase]. Mutually adjusted models of significant exposures during pregnancy and childhood indicated significant associations of silicon during pregnancy, and zinc during childhood, with MD. DISCUSSION:Exposure in pregnancy and childhood to air pollutants from tailpipe and non-tailpipe emissions were associated with lower FA and higher MD in white matter of preadolescents. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP4709.
Project description:Emerging evidence indicates that near-roadway pollution (NRP) in ambient air has adverse health effects. However, specific components of the NRP mixture responsible for these effects have not been established. A major limitation for health studies is the lack of exposure models that estimate NRP components observed in epidemiological studies over fine spatial scale of tens to hundreds of meters. In this study, exposure models were developed for fine-scale variation in biologically relevant elemental carbon (EC). Measurements of particulate matter (PM) and EC less than 2.5 ?m in aerodynamic diameter (EC2.5) and of PM and EC of nanoscale size less than 0.2 ?m were made at up to 29 locations in each of eight Southern California Children's Health Study communities. Regression-based prediction models were developed using a guided forward selection process to identify traffic variables and other pollutant sources, community physical characteristics and land use as predictors of PM and EC variation in each community. A combined eight-community model including only CALINE4 near-roadway dispersion-estimated vehicular emissions accounting for distance, distance-weighted traffic volume, and meteorology, explained 51% of the EC0.2 variability. Community-specific models identified additional predictors in some communities; however, in most communities the correlation between predicted concentrations from the eight-community model and observed concentrations stratified by community were similar to those for the community-specific models. EC2.5 could be predicted as well as EC0.2. EC2.5 estimated from CALINE4 and population density explained 53% of the within-community variation. Exposure prediction was further improved after accounting for between-community heterogeneity of CALINE4 effects associated with average distance to Pacific Ocean shoreline (to 61% for EC0.2) and for regional NOx pollution (to 57% for EC2.5). PM fine spatial scale variation was poorly predicted in both size fractions. In conclusion, models of exposure that include traffic measures such as CALINE4 can provide useful estimates for EC0.2 and EC2.5 on a spatial scale appropriate for health studies of NRP in selected Southern California communities.
Project description:A variety of single pollutant and multipollutant metrics can be used to represent exposure to traffic pollutant mixtures and evaluate their health effects. Integrated mobile source indicators (IMSIs) that combine air quality concentration and emissions data have recently been developed and evaluated using data from Atlanta, Georgia. IMSIs were found to track trends in traffic-related pollutants and have similar or stronger associations with health outcomes. In the current work, we apply IMSIs for gasoline, diesel and total (gasoline + diesel) vehicles to two other cities (Denver, Colorado and Houston, Texas) with different emissions profiles as well as to a different dataset from Atlanta. We compare spatial and temporal variability of IMSIs to single-pollutant indicators (carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and elemental carbon (EC)) and multipollutant source apportionment factors produced by Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF). Across cities, PMF-derived and IMSI gasoline metrics were most strongly correlated with CO (r = 0.31-0.98), while multipollutant diesel metrics were most strongly correlated with EC (r = 0.80-0.98). NOx correlations with PMF factors varied across cities (r = 0.29-0.67), while correlations with IMSIs were relatively consistent (r = 0.61-0.94). In general, single-pollutant metrics were more correlated with IMSIs (r = 0.58-0.98) than with PMF-derived factors (r = 0.07-0.99). A spatial analysis indicated that IMSIs were more strongly correlated (r > 0.7) between two sites in each city than single pollutant and PMF factors. These findings provide confidence that IMSIs provide a transferable, simple approach to estimate mobile source air pollution in cities with differing topography and source profiles using readily available data.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Cycling and other forms of active transportation provide health benefits via increased physical activity. However, direct evidence of the extent to which these benefits may be offset by exposure and intake of traffic-related air pollution is limited. The purpose of this study is to measure changes in endothelial function, measures of oxidative stress and inflammation, and lung function in healthy participants before and after cycling along a high- and low- traffic route. METHODS:Participants (n?=?38) bicycled for 1 h along a Downtown and a Residential designated bicycle route in a randomized crossover trial. Heart rate, power output, particulate matter air pollution (PM10, PM2.5, and PM1) and particle number concentration (PNC) were measured. Lung function, endothelial function (reactive hyperemia index, RHI), C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine were assessed within one hour pre- and post-trial. RESULTS:Geometric mean PNC exposures and intakes were higher along the Downtown (exposure?=?16,226 particles/cm3; intake?=?4.54?×?1010 particles) compared to the Residential route (exposure?=?9367 particles/cm3; intake?=?3.13?×?1010 particles). RHI decreased following cycling along the Downtown route and increased on the Residential route; in mixed linear regression models, the (post-pre) change in RHI was 21% lower following cycling on the Downtown versus the Residential route (-0.43, 95% CI: -0.79, -0.079) but RHI decreases were not associated with measured exposure or intake of air pollutants. The differences in RHI by route were larger amongst females and older participants. No consistent associations were observed for any of the other outcome measures. CONCLUSIONS:Although PNC exposures and intakes were higher along the Downtown route, the lack of association between air pollutant exposure or intake with RHI and other measures suggests other exposures related to cycling on the Downtown route may have been influential in the observed differences between routes in RHI. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01708356 . Registered 16 October 2012.
Project description:Particulate matter mass (PM), trace gaseous pollutants, and select volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with meteorological variables were measured in Logan, Utah (Cache Valley), for >4 weeks during winter 2017 as part of the Utah Winter Fine Particle Study (UWFPS). Higher PM levels for short time periods and lower ozone (O3) levels were present due to meteorological and mountain valley conditions. Nitrogenous pollutants were relatively strongly correlated with PM variables. Diurnal cycles of NOx, O3, and fine PM(PM 2.5) (aerodynamic diameter <2.5 ?m [PM2.5]) suggested formation from NOx. O3 levels increased from early morning into midafternoon, and NOx and PM2.5 increased throughout the morning, followed by sharp decreases. Toluene/benzene and xylenes/benzene ratios and VOC correlations with nitrogenous and PM species were indicative of local traffic sources. Wind sector comparisons suggested that pollutant levels were lower when winds were from nearby mountains to the east versus winds from northerly or southerly origins. Implications: The Cache Valley in Idaho and Utah has been designated a PM2.5 nonattainment area that has been attributed to air pollution buildup during winter stagnation events. To inform state implementation plans for PM2.5 in Cache Valley and other PM2.5 nonattainment areas in Utah, a state and multiagency federal research effort known as the UWFPS was conducted in winter 2017. As part of the UWFPS, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) measured ground-based PM species and their precursors, VOCs, and meteorology in Logan, Utah. Results reported here from the EPA study in Logan provide additional understanding of wintertime air pollution conditions and possible sources of PM and gaseous pollutants as well as being useful for future PM control strategies in this area.
Project description:Numerous studies have revealed an association between particulate matter (PM) and emergency room (ER) visits, although few studies have investigated the association between health and PM components. The present study evaluated the associations of ER visits for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases with PM2.5 components, including organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), and ion species (SO42-, NO3-, and NH4+). Statistical analyses were performed using the time-series approach, and generalized linear models with natural spline functions were used to adjust for the non-linear relationship between the confounders and ER visits. Our single-pollutant models revealed that the greatest increase in cardiovascular ER visits was associated with NH4+ (relative risk: 1.05; 95% confidence interval: 1.01-1.09), which was followed by OC, SO42-, NO3-, and EC. The associations of cardiovascular ER visits with EC and OC varied according to age and sex, with elderly and female patients exhibiting stronger associations. Lagged SO42- was associated with respiratory ER visits. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate the associations between ER visits and PM components in South Korea. As PM components are related to traffic and industrial sources, and exhibited positive associations with ER visits, our results may help improve air pollution regulation and public health.
Project description:Particulate matter (PM) is regulated in various parts of the world based on specific size cut offs, often expressed as 10 or 2.5 µm mass median aerodynamic diameter. This pollutant is deemed one of the most dangerous to health and moreover, problems persist with high ambient concentrations. Continuing pressure to re-evaluate ambient air quality standards stems from research that not only has identified effects at low levels of PM but which also has revealed that reductions in certain components, sources and size fractions may best protect public health. Considerable amount of published information have emerged from toxicological research in recent years. Accumulating evidence has identified additional air quality metrics (e.g. black carbon, secondary organic and inorganic aerosols) that may be valuable in evaluating the health risks of, for example, primary combustion particles from traffic emissions, which are not fully taken into account with PM2.5 mass. Most of the evidence accumulated so far is for an adverse effect on health of carbonaceous material from traffic. Traffic-generated dust, including road, brake and tire wear, also contribute to the adverse effects on health. Exposure durations from a few minutes up to a year have been linked with adverse effects. The new evidence collected supports the scientific conclusions of the World Health Organization Air Quality Guidelines and also provides scientific arguments for taking decisive actions to improve air quality and reduce the global burden of disease associated with air pollution.