Computational Identification of the Paralogs and Orthologs of Human Cytochrome P450 Superfamily and the Implication in Drug Discovery.
ABSTRACT: The human cytochrome P450 (CYP) superfamily consisting of 57 functional genes is the most important group of Phase I drug metabolizing enzymes that oxidize a large number of xenobiotics and endogenous compounds, including therapeutic drugs and environmental toxicants. The CYP superfamily has been shown to expand itself through gene duplication, and some of them become pseudogenes due to gene mutations. Orthologs and paralogs are homologous genes resulting from speciation or duplication, respectively. To explore the evolutionary and functional relationships of human CYPs, we conducted this bioinformatic study to identify their corresponding paralogs, homologs, and orthologs. The functional implications and implications in drug discovery and evolutionary biology were then discussed. GeneCards and Ensembl were used to identify the paralogs of human CYPs. We have used a panel of online databases to identify the orthologs of human CYP genes: NCBI, Ensembl Compara, GeneCards, OMA ("Orthologous MAtrix") Browser, PATHER, TreeFam, EggNOG, and Roundup. The results show that each human CYP has various numbers of paralogs and orthologs using GeneCards and Ensembl. For example, the paralogs of CYP2A6 include CYP2A7, 2A13, 2B6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C18, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1, 2F1, 2J2, 2R1, 2S1, 2U1, and 2W1; CYP11A1 has 6 paralogs including CYP11B1, 11B2, 24A1, 27A1, 27B1, and 27C1; CYP51A1 has only three paralogs: CYP26A1, 26B1, and 26C1; while CYP20A1 has no paralog. The majority of human CYPs are well conserved from plants, amphibians, fishes, or mammals to humans due to their important functions in physiology and xenobiotic disposition. The data from different approaches are also cross-validated and validated when experimental data are available. These findings facilitate our understanding of the evolutionary relationships and functional implications of the human CYP superfamily in drug discovery.
Project description:BACKGROUND: FK506 binding proteins (FKBPs) and cyclophilins (CYPs) are abundant and ubiquitous proteins belonging to the peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase (PPIase) superfamily, which regulate much of metabolism through a chaperone or an isomerization of proline residues during protein folding. They are collectively referred to as immunophilin (IMM), being present in almost all cellular organs. In particular, a number of IMMs relate to environmental stresses. RESULTS: FKBP and CYP proteins in rice (Oryza sativa cv. Japonica) were identified and classified, and given the appropriate name for each IMM, considering the ortholog-relation with Arabidopsis and Chlamydomonas or molecular weight of the proteins. 29 FKBP and 27 CYP genes can putatively be identified in rice; among them, a number of genes can be putatively classified as orthologs of Arabidopsis IMMs. However, some genes were novel, did not match with those of Arabidopsis and Chlamydomonas, and several genes were paralogs by genetic duplication. Among 56 IMMs in rice, a significant number are regulated by salt and/or desiccation stress. In addition, their expression levels responding to the water-stress have been analyzed in different tissues, and some subcellular IMMs located by means of tagging with GFP protein. CONCLUSION: Like other green photosynthetic organisms such as Arabidopsis (23 FKBPs and 29 CYPs) and Chlamydomonas (23 FKBs and 26 CYNs), rice has the highest number of IMM genes among organisms reported so far, suggesting that the numbers relate closely to photosynthesis. Classification of the putative FKBPs and CYPs in rice provides the information about their evolutional/functional significance when comparisons are drawn with the relatively well studied genera, Arabidopsis and Chlamydomonas. In addition, many of the genes upregulated by water stress offer the possibility of manipulating the stress responses in rice.
Project description:Cytochrome P450 (CYP) monooxygenase superfamily contributes a broad array of biological functions in living organisms. In fungi, CYPs play diverse and pivotal roles in versatile metabolism and fungal adaptation to specific ecological niches. In this report, CYPomes in the 47 genomes of fungi belong to the phyla Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Chytridiomycota, and Zygomycota have been studied. The comparison of fungal CYPomes suggests that generally fungi possess abundant CYPs belonging to a variety of families with the two global families CYP51 and CYP61, indicating individuation of CYPomes during the evolution of fungi. Fungal CYPs show highly conserved characteristic motifs, but very low overall sequence similarities. The characteristic motifs of fungal CYPs are distinguishable from those of CYPs in animals, plants, and especially archaea and bacteria. The four representative motifs contribute to the general function of CYPs. Fungal CYP51s and CYP61s can be used as the models for the substrate recognition sites analysis. The CYP proteins are clustered into 15 clades and the phylogenetic analyses suggest that the wide variety of fungal CYPs has mainly arisen from gene duplication. Two large duplication events might have been associated with the booming of Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. In addition, horizontal gene transfer also contributes to the diversification of fungal CYPs. Finally, a possible evolutionary scenario for fungal CYPs along with fungal divergences is proposed. Our results provide the fundamental information for a better understanding of CYP distribution, structure and function, and new insights into the evolutionary events of fungal CYPs along with the evolution of fungi.
Project description:Increasing use of zebrafish in drug discovery and mechanistic toxicology demands knowledge of cytochrome P450 (CYP) gene regulation and function. CYP enzymes catalyze oxidative transformation leading to activation or inactivation of many endogenous and exogenous chemicals, with consequences for normal physiology and disease processes. Many CYPs potentially have roles in developmental specification, and many chemicals that cause developmental abnormalities are substrates for CYPs. Here we identify and annotate the full suite of CYP genes in zebrafish, compare these to the human CYP gene complement, and determine the expression of CYP genes during normal development.Zebrafish have a total of 94 CYP genes, distributed among 18 gene families found also in mammals. There are 32 genes in CYP families 5 to 51, most of which are direct orthologs of human CYPs that are involved in endogenous functions including synthesis or inactivation of regulatory molecules. The high degree of sequence similarity suggests conservation of enzyme activities for these CYPs, confirmed in reports for some steroidogenic enzymes (e.g. CYP19, aromatase; CYP11A, P450scc; CYP17, steroid 17a-hydroxylase), and the CYP26 retinoic acid hydroxylases. Complexity is much greater in gene families 1, 2, and 3, which include CYPs prominent in metabolism of drugs and pollutants, as well as of endogenous substrates. There are orthologous relationships for some CYP1 s and some CYP3 s between zebrafish and human. In contrast, zebrafish have 47 CYP2 genes, compared to 16 in human, with only two (CYP2R1 and CYP2U1) recognized as orthologous based on sequence. Analysis of shared synteny identified CYP2 gene clusters evolutionarily related to mammalian CYP2 s, as well as unique clusters.Transcript profiling by microarray and quantitative PCR revealed that the majority of zebrafish CYP genes are expressed in embryos, with waves of expression of different sets of genes over the course of development. Transcripts of some CYP occur also in oocytes. The results provide a foundation for the use of zebrafish as a model in toxicological, pharmacological and chemical disease research.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The cytochrome P450 (CYP) superfamily enables terrestrial plants to adapt to harsh environments. CYPs are key enzymes involved in a wide range of metabolic pathways. It is particularly useful to be able to analyse the three-dimensional (3D) structure when investigating the interactions between CYPs and their substrates. However, only two plant CYP structures have been resolved. In addition, no currently available databases contain structural information on plant CYPs and ligands. Fortunately, the 3D structure of CYPs is highly conserved and this has made it possible to obtain structural information from template-based modelling (TBM). DESCRIPTION: The CYP Structure Interface (CYPSI) is a platform for CYP studies. CYPSI integrated the 3D structures for 266 A. thaliana CYPs predicted by three TBM methods: BMCD, which we developed specifically for CYP TBM; and two well-known web-servers, MUSTER and I-TASSER. After careful template selection and optimization, the models built by BMCD were accurate enough for practical application, which we demonstrated using a docking example aimed at searching for the CYPs responsible for ABA 8'-hydroxylation. CYPSI also provides extensive resources for A. thaliana CYP structure and function studies, including 400 PDB entries for solved CYPs, 48 metabolic pathways associated with A. thaliana CYPs, 232 reported CYP ligands and 18 A. thaliana CYPs docked with ligands (61 complexes in total). In addition, CYPSI also includes the ability to search for similar sequences and chemicals. CONCLUSIONS: CYPSI provides comprehensive structure and function information for A. thaliana CYPs, which should facilitate investigations into the interactions between CYPs and their substrates. CYPSI has a user-friendly interface, which is available at http://bioinfo.cau.edu.cn/CYPSI.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) infests farmed and wild salmonid fishes, causing considerable economic damage to the salmon farming industry. Infestations of farmed salmon are controlled using a combination of non-medicinal approaches and veterinary drug treatments. While L. salmonis has developed resistance to most available salmon delousing agents, relatively little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved. Members of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) superfamily are typically monooxygenases, some of which are involved in the biosynthesis and metabolism of endogenous compounds, while others have central roles in the detoxification of xenobiotics. In terrestrial arthropods, insecticide resistance can be based on the enhanced expression of CYPs. The reported research aimed to characterise the CYP superfamily in L. salmonis and assess its potential roles in drug resistance. METHODS:Lepeophtheirus salmonis CYPs were identified by homology searches of the genome and transcriptome of the parasite. CYP transcript abundance in drug susceptible and multi-resistant L. salmonis was assessed by quantitative reverse transcription PCR, taking into account both constitutive expression and expression in parasites exposed to sublethal levels of salmon delousing agents, ecdysteroids and environmental chemicals. RESULTS:The above strategy led to the identification of 25 CYP genes/pseudogenes in L. salmonis, making its CYP superfamily the most compact characterised for any arthropod to date. Lepeophtheirus salmonis possesses homologues of a number of arthropod CYP genes with roles in ecdysteroid metabolism, such as the fruit fly genes disembodied, shadow, shade, spook and Cyp18a1. CYP transcript expression did not differ between one drug susceptible and one multi-resistant strain of L. salmonis. Exposure of L. salmonis to emamectin benzoate or deltamethrin caused the transcriptional upregulation of certain CYPs. In contrast, neither ecdysteroid nor benzo[a]pyrene exposure affected CYP transcription significantly. CONCLUSIONS:The parasite L. salmonis is demonstrated to possess the most compact CYP superfamily characterised for any arthropod to date. The complement of CYP genes in L. salmonis includes conserved CYP genes involved in ecdysteroid biosynthesis and metabolism, as well as drug-inducible CYP genes. The present study does not provide evidence for a role of CYP genes in the decreased susceptibility of the multiresistant parasite strain studied.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The functional and evolutionary diversification of insect cytochrome P450s (CYPs) shaped the success of insects. CYPs constitute one of the largest and oldest gene superfamilies that are found in virtually all aerobic organisms. Because of the availability of whole genome sequence and well functioning RNA interference (RNAi), the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum serves as an ideal insect model for conducting functional genomics studies. Although several T. castaneum CYPs had been functionally investigated in our previous studies, the roles of the majority of CYPs remain largely unknown. Here, we comprehensively analyzed the phylogenetic relationship of all T. castaneum CYPs with genes in other insect species, investigated the CYP6BQ gene cluster organization, function and evolution, as well as examined the mitochondrial CYPs gene expression patterns and intron-exon organization. RESULTS: A total 143 CYPs were identified and classified into 26 families and 59 subfamilies. The phylogenetic trees of CYPs among insects across taxa provided evolutionary insight for the genetic distance and function. The percentage of singleton (33.3%) in T. castaneum CYPs is much less than those in Drosophila melanogaster (52.5%) and Bombyx mori (51.2%). Most members in the largest CYP6BQ gene cluster may make contribution to deltamethrin resistance in QTC279 strain. T. castaneum genome encodes nine mitochondrial CYPs, among them CYP12H1 is only expressed in the final instar larval stage. The intron-exon organizations of these mitochondrial CYPs are highly diverse. CONCLUSION: Our studies provide a platform to understand the evolution and functions of T. castaneum CYP gene superfamily which will help reveal the strategies employed by insects to cope with their environment.
Project description:Glycolipid transfer protein is the prototypical and founding member of the new GLTP superfamily distinguished by a novel conformational fold and glycolipid binding motif. The present investigation provides the first insights into the organization, transcriptional status, phylogenetic/evolutionary relationships of GLTP genes.In human cells, single-copy GLTP genes were found in chromosomes 11 and 12. The gene at locus 11p15.1 exhibited several features of a potentially active retrogene, including a highly homologous (approximately 94%), full-length coding sequence containing all key amino acid residues involved in glycolipid liganding. To establish the transcriptional activity of each human GLTP gene, in silico EST evaluations, RT-PCR amplifications of GLTP transcript(s), and methylation analyses of regulator CpG islands were performed using various human cells. Active transcription was found for 12q24.11 GLTP but 11p15.1 GLTP was transcriptionally silent. Heterologous expression and purification of the GLTP paralogs showed glycolipid intermembrane transfer activity only for 12q24.11 GLTP. Phylogenetic/evolutionary analyses indicated that the 5-exon/4-intron organizational pattern and encoded sequence of 12q24.11 GLTP were highly conserved in therian mammals and other vertebrates. Orthologs of the intronless GLTP gene were observed in primates but not in rodentiates, carnivorates, cetartiodactylates, or didelphimorphiates, consistent with recent evolutionary development.The results identify and characterize the gene responsible for GLTP expression in humans and provide the first evidence for the existence of a GLTP pseudogene, while demonstrating the rigorous approach needed to unequivocally distinguish transcriptionally-active retrogenes from silent pseudogenes. The results also rectify errors in the Ensembl database regarding the organizational structure of the actively transcribed GLTP gene in Pan troglodytes and establish the intronless GLTP as a primate-specific, processed pseudogene marker. A solid foundation has been established for future identification of hereditary defects in human GLTP genes.
Project description:The Cytochrome P450 super family (CYP) is responsible for a wide range of functions in metazoans, having roles in both exogenous and endogenous substrate metabolism. Annelids are known to metabolize polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and produce estrogen. CYPs are postulated to be key enzymes in these processes in annelids. In this study, the CYP complement (CYPome) of the annelid Capitella teleta has been robustly identified and annotated with the genome assembly available. Phylogenetic analyses were performed to understand the evolutionary relationships between CYPs in C. teleta and other species. Predictions of which CYPs are potentially involved in both PAH metabolism and steroidogensis were made based on phylogeny. Annotation of 84 full length and 12 partial CYP sequences predicted a total of 96 functional CYPs in C. teleta. A further 13 CYP fragments were found but these may be pseudogenes. The C. teleta CYPome contained 24 novel CYP families and seven novel CYP subfamilies within existing families. A phylogenetic analysis identified that the C. teleta sequences were found in 9 of the 11 metazoan CYP clans. Two CYPs, CYP3071A1 and CYP3072A1, did not cluster with any metazoan CYP clans. We found xenobiotic response elements (XREs) upstream of C. teleta CYPs related to vertebrate CYP1 (CYP3060A1, CYP3061A1) and from families with reported transcriptional upregulation in response to PAH exposure (CYP4, CYP331). C. teleta had a CYP51A1 with ?65% identity to vertebrate CYP51A1 sequences and has been predicted to have lanosterol 14 ?-demethylase activity. CYP376A1, CYP3068A1, CYP3069A1, and CYP3070A1 were the most appropriate candidates for steroidogenesis genes based on their phylogeny and warrant further analyses, though no specific aromatase (estrogen synthesis) candidates were found. Presence of XREs upstream of C. teleta CYPs may indicate a functional aryl hydrocarbon receptor in C. teleta and candidate CYPs for studies of PAH metabolism.
Project description:Cytochrome P450s (CYPs) encode one of the most diverse enzyme superfamily in nature. They catalyze oxidative reactions of endogenous molecules and exogenous chemicals.We identified CYPs genes through in silico analysis using EST, RNA-Seq and genome databases of channel catfish. Phylogenetic analyses and conserved syntenic analyses were conducted to determine their identities and orthologies. Meta-analysis of RNA-Seq databases was conducted to analyze expression profile of CYP genes following bacterial infection.A full set of 61 CYP genes was identified and characterized in channel catfish. Phylogenetic tree and conserved synteny provided strong evidence of their identities and orthorlogy. Lineage-specific gene duplication was evident in a number of clans in channel catfish. CYP46A1 is missing in the catfish genome as observed with syntenic analysis and RT-PCR analysis. Thirty CYPs were found up- or down-regulated in liver, while seven and eight CYPs were observed regulated in intestine and gill following bacterial infection.We systematically identified and characterized a full set of 61 CYP genes in channel catfish and studied their expression profiles after bacterial infection. While bacterial challenge altered the expression of large numbers of CYP genes, the mechanisms and significance of these changes are not known.This work provides an example to systematically study CYP genes in non-model species. Moreover, it provides a basis for further toxicological and physiological studies in channel catfish.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The search for an optimal experimental model in pharmacology is recently focused on (mini)pigs as they seem not only to be an alternative source of cells and tissues for xenotherapy but also an alternative species for studies on drug metabolism in man due to similarities between (mini) pig and human drug metabolizing systems. The purpose of this work is to characterize minipig liver microsomal cytochromes P450 (CYPs) by comparing their N-terminal sequences with corresponding human orthologs. RESULTS:The microsomal CYPs exhibit similar activities to their human orthologous enzymes (CYP3A4, nifedipine oxidation; 2A6, coumarin 7-hydroxylation; 2D6, bufuralol 1'-hydroxylation; 2E1, p-nitrophenol hydroxylation; and 2C9, tolbutamide hydroxylation). Specific minipig CYP (2A, 2C and 3A) enzymes were partially purified and proteins identified by immunostaining (using antibodies against the respective human CYPs) were used for N-terminal amino acid sequencing. From comparisons, it can be concluded that the sequence of the first 20 amino acids at the N-terminus of minipig CYP2A is highly similar to human CYP2A6 (70% identity). The N-terminal sequence of CYP2C shared about 50% similarity with human 2C9. The results on the minipig liver microsomal CYP3A yielded identical data with those obtained for amino acid sequences of the pig CYP3A29 showing 60% identity with human CYP3A4. CONCLUSIONS:Thus, our results further support the view that minipigs may serve as model animals in pharmacological/toxicological studies with substrates of human CYP enzymes, namely, of the CYP3A and CYP2A forms.