Long-Term School Outcomes of Children and Adolescents With Traumatic Brain Injury.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:To better understand the impact of age at injury, severity of injury, and time since injury on long-term school outcomes of children with traumatic brain injury (TBI). PARTICIPANTS:Four groups of children: complicated mild/moderate TBI (n = 23), severe TBI (n = 56), orthopedic injury (n = 35), and healthy controls (n = 42). Children with TBI were either 2 years postinjury or 6 years postinjury. DESIGN:Cross-sectional design. MEASURES:School records as well as parental ratings of functional academic skills and school competency. RESULTS:Children with severe TBI had consistently high usage of school services and low school competency ratings than children with orthopedic injuries and healthy controls. In contrast, children with complicated-mild/moderate TBI were significantly more likely to receive school support services and have lower competence ratings at 6 years than at 2 years postinjury. Students injured at younger ages had lower functional academic skill ratings than those injured at older ages. CONCLUSIONS:These findings highlight the increasing academic challenges faced over time by students with complicated-mild/moderate TBI and the vulnerability of younger children to poorer development of functional academic skills.
Project description:This study examined how the family environment predicts long-term academic and behavioral functioning in school following traumatic brain injury (TBI) in early childhood.Using a concurrent cohort, prospective design, 15 children with severe TBI, 39 with moderate TBI, and 70 with orthopedic injury (OI) who were injured when they were 3-7 years of age were compared on tests of academic achievement and parent and teacher ratings of school performance and behavior on average 6.83 years postinjury. Soon after injury and at the longer term follow-up, families completed measures of parental psychological distress, family functioning, and quality of the home environment. Hierarchical linear regression analyses examined group differences in academic outcomes and their associations with measures of the early and later family environment.The severe TBI group, but not the moderate TBI group, performed worse than did the OI group on all achievement tests, parent ratings of academic performance, and teacher ratings of internalizing problems. Higher quality early and late home environments predicted stronger academic skills and better classroom behavior for children with both TBI and OI. The early family environment more consistently predicted academic achievement, whereas the later family environment more consistently predicted classroom functioning. The quality of the home environment predicted academic outcomes more strongly than did parental psychological distress or family functioning.TBI in early childhood has long-term consequences for academic achievement and school performance and behavior. Higher quality early and later home environments predict better school outcomes for both children with TBI and children with OI. (PsycINFO Database Record
Project description:The present study utilized ecobehavioral assessment to examine classroom functioning several years following early childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI) or orthopedic injury (OI) and its association with injury factors, neuropsychological abilities, and academic performance.Participants included 39 children with moderate to severe TBI and 51 children with OI sustained between ages 3 and 7 years. At 7.2 (± 1.3) years post injury, ecobehavioral assessment was used to examine classroom functioning. Additional outcomes included neuropsychological tests, parent and teacher ratings of dysexecutive behavior, and teacher ratings of academic performance. Groups were compared on measures controlling for demographic characteristics, and associations among outcomes were examined using linear regression.Children with TBI showed lower academic engagement relative to children with OI, as well as more frequent individual teacher attention for children with more severe injuries. For children with TBI, difficulties in classroom functioning were associated with lower cognitive flexibility and higher parent and teacher ratings of dysexecutive behavior. Lower scores on a test of fluid reasoning and a greater frequency of individual teacher attention were also associated with lower academic performance in children with TBI.Difficulties in classroom functioning are evident several years after early childhood TBI and were associated with greater injury severity, neuropsychological weaknesses, and poorer academic performance. Children with impaired cognitive flexibility and fluid reasoning skills were at greatest risk for these difficulties and associated weaknesses in academic performance. Instructional interactions may be a potential target for intervention to promote academic progress in at-risk children. (PsycINFO Database Record
Project description:Parent behaviors moderate the adverse consequences of pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI); however, it is unknown how these moderating effects change over time. This study examined the moderating effect of observed parent behaviors over time since injury on the relation between TBI and behavioral outcomes. Participants included children, ages 3-7 years, hospitalized for moderate (n = 52) or severe (n = 20) TBI or orthopedic injury (OI; n = 95). Parent-child dyads were videotaped during structured task and free play conditions, and parents completed child behavior ratings. Linear mixed models using a lagged, time-varying moderator analysis examined the relationship of observed parent behaviors at the baseline, 6-month, and 12-month assessments to child behavior problems at 6 months, 12 months, and 18 months postinjury, after controlling for preinjury levels of child behavior problems. The effect of TBI on behavior was exacerbated by less favorable parent behaviors, and buffered by more favorable parent behaviors, in children with severe TBI over the first 12 months postinjury. By 18 months postinjury, however, the moderating effect of parent behaviors diminished, such that children with severe TBI showed more behavior problems relative to children with moderate TBI or OI regardless of parent behaviors or in response to parent behaviors that were initially protective. The results suggest that the moderating effects of the family environment are complex and likely vary in relation to both recovery and developmental factors, with potentially important implications for targets and timing of intervention. (PsycINFO Database Record
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To elucidate the association of a functional catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) genotype (rs4680) with recovery of executive functions up to 18 months after early childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI) compared with an orthopedic injury (OI) group. SETTING:Outpatient. PARTICIPANTS:A total of 134 children with a moderate to severe TBI (n = 63) or OI (n = 71) between the ages of 3 and 6 years who were followed 18 months postinjury. DESIGN:Case-comparison, longitudinal cohort MAIN MEASURES:: The Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function, developmental NEuroPSYchological Assessment (NEPSY) of Verbal Fluency, and a modified Stroop Test for young children (Shape School). RESULTS:The low-activity COMT enzyme genotype (AA) was associated with better scores on the developmental NEPSY of Verbal Fluency (F = 3.80; P = .02) and the Shape School (F = 2.89; P = .06) in all participants when controlling for injury type (TBI vs OI) over the first 18 months after injury. Injury type (TBI vs OI) did not significantly moderate the effect of the COMT genotypes on executive function recovery. CONCLUSION:This study provides preliminary evidence for a role of COMT genotypes in long-term recovery of executive function after pediatric TBI and OI. Larger studies are needed to determine the exact link between genetic variation in the COMT gene and TBI recovery in children.
Project description:Children under 4 years of age have the highest incidence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) among the non-elderly and may be at high risk of poor developmental outcomes. We prospectively enrolled a cohort of children injured before 31 months old with TBI or orthopedic injury (OI), from 2013 to 2015 at two pediatric level 1 trauma centers to study very young children's developmental outcomes after injury. We used Ages & Stages-3 and Ages & Stages: Social-Emotional screening tools to measure children's development at pre-injury and 3 and 12 months post-injury. The cohort included 123 children with TBI categorized as mild (n?=?48), complicated-mild or moderate (n?=?54), and severe (n?=?21) and 45 children with OI. Generalized linear models examined effects of injury severity and age at injury controlling for pre-injury ratings. Children with mild or complicated-mild/moderate TBI generally remained on developmental track. Compared to OI, children with severe TBI tended to have a negative developmental trajectory with decrements in communication (-7.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], -13.7, -0.48), gross motor (-15.2; 95% CI, -21.1, -9.19), problem solving (-11.6; 95% CI, -17.9, -5.29), personal-social (-16.8; 95% CI, -22.8, -10.8), and social-emotional (21.0; 95% CI, 7.32, 34.7) domains 12 months post-injury. Developmental effects from TBI differed by age at injury: Infants had more difficulties than older children in communication and problem-solving domains. Despite low developmental scores in 28% of the cohort, only 5% were receiving Early Childhood Intervention (ECI) services 12 months after injury. Early age at injury is a vulnerability factor after TBI. Young age and severe injury should prompt evaluation for ECI.
Project description:This study examined whether executive function and theory of mind mediate the effects of pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) on social adjustment, relative to children with orthopedic injury (OI). Participants included 19 children with severe TBI, 41 children with complicated mild/moderate TBI, and 57 children with OI. They completed measures of executive function, as well as cognitive, affective, and conative theory of mind. Parents provided ratings of children's social adjustment. Children with severe TBI performed more poorly than children with OI on executive function and theory of mind tasks and were rated by parents as having more behavioral symptoms and worse communication and social skills. Executive function and theory of mind were positively correlated with social skills and communication skills, and negatively correlated with behavioral symptoms. In multiple mediator models, theory of mind and executive function were not significant direct predictors of any measure of social adjustment, but mediated the association between injury and adjustment for children with severe TBI. Theory of mind was a significant independent mediator when predicting social skills, but executive function was not. TBI in children, particularly severe injury, is associated with poor social adjustment. The impact of TBI on children's social adjustment is likely mediated by its effects on executive function and theory of mind.
Project description:Research reveals mixed results regarding the utility of standardized cognitive and academic tests to predict educational outcomes in youth following a traumatic brain injury (TBI). Yet, deficits in everyday school-based outcomes are prevalent after pediatric TBI. The current study used path modeling to test the hypothesis that parent ratings of adolescents’ daily behaviors associated with executive functioning (EF) would predict long-term functional educational outcomes following pediatric TBI, even when injury severity and patient demographics were included in the model. Furthermore, we contrasted the predictive strength of the EF behavioral ratings with that of a common measure of verbal memory. A total of 132 adolescents who were hospitalized for moderate to severe TBI were recruited to participate in a randomized clinical intervention trial. EF ratings and verbal memory were measured within 6 months of the injury; functional educational outcomes were measured 12 months later. EF ratings and verbal memory added to injury severity in predicting educational competence post injury but did not predict post-injury initiation of special education. The results demonstrated that measurement of EF behaviors is an important research and clinical tool for prediction of functional outcomes in pediatric TBI.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To examine catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) rs4680 genotypes as moderators of the effects of parenting style on postinjury changes in parent behavior ratings of executive dysfunction following moderate to severe early childhood traumatic brain injury. SETTING:Research was conducted in an outpatient setting. PARTICIPANTS:Participants included children admitted to hospital with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (n = 55) or orthopedic injuries (n = 70) between ages 3 and 7 years. DESIGN:Prospective cohort followed over 7 years postinjury. MAIN MEASURES:Parenting Practices Questionnaire and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning obtained at baseline, 6, 12, and 18 months, and 3.5 and 6.8 years postinjury. DNA was collected from saliva samples, purified using the Oragene (DNA Genotek, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada) OG-500 self-collection tubes, and analyzed using TaqMan (Applied Biosystems, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Waltham, Massachusetts) assay protocols to identify the COMT rs4680 polymorphism. RESULTS:Linear mixed models revealed a significant genotype × parenting style × time interaction (F = 5.72, P = .02), which suggested that the adverse effects of authoritarian parenting on postinjury development of executive functioning were buffered by the presence of the COMT AA genotype (lower enzyme activity, higher dopamine levels). There were no significant associations of executive functioning with the interaction between genotype and authoritative or permissive parenting ratings. CONCLUSION:The lower activity COMT rs4680 genotype may buffer the negative effect of authoritarian parenting on long-term executive functioning following injury in early childhood. The findings provide preliminary evidence for associations of parenting style with executive dysfunction in children and for a complex interplay of genetic and environmental factors as contributors to decreases in these problems after traumatic injuries in children. Further investigation is warranted to understand the interplay among genetic and environmental factors related to recovery after traumatic brain injury in children.
Project description:To investigate recovery of medical decision-making capacity (MDC) over 6 months in persons with traumatic brain injury (TBI) stratified by injury severity.Longitudinal study comparing controls and patients with TBI 1 month after injury (t1) and 6 months after injury (t2).Inpatient TBI rehabilitation unit and outpatient neurology department.Participants (N=151) consisted of control subjects (n=60) and patients with TBI (n=91) stratified by injury severity: mild TBI (mTBI; n=27), complicated mild TBI (cmTBI; n=20), and moderate/severe TBI (msevTBI; n=44).Not applicable.We used the Capacity to Consent to Treatment Instrument to evaluate MDC performance on 5 consent standards (expressing choice, reasonable choice, appreciation, reasoning, and understanding). We also assigned capacity impairment ratings on the consent standards to each participant with TBI using cut scores referenced to control performance.Control performance was stable across time on the consent standards. Patients with mTBI and cmTBI performed below controls on the understanding standard at t1 but not t2. Patients with msevTBI performed below controls on appreciation, reasoning, and understanding at t1, and on appreciation and understanding at t2, but showed substantial improvement over time.Regardless of injury severity, all groups with TBI demonstrated baseline impairment of MDC with subsequent partial or full recovery of MDC over a 6-month period. However, a sizeable proportion of individual patients with TBI in each group continued to demonstrate capacity compromise at 6 months postinjury. Clinically, this finding suggests that individuals with TBI, regardless of injury severity, need continued monitoring regarding MDC for at least 6 months after injury.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:This prospective longitudinal study investigated sleep disturbance (SD) and internalizing problems after traumatic injury, including traumatic brain injury (TBI) or extracranial/bodily injury (EI) in children and adolescents, relative to typically developing (TD) children. We also examined longitudinal relations between SD and internalizing problems postinjury. METHOD:Participants (N = 87) ages 8-15 included youth with TBI, EI, and TD children. Injury groups were recruited from a Level 1 trauma center after sustaining vehicle-related injuries. Parent-reported SD and internalizing problems were assessed at preinjury/baseline, and 6 and 12 months postinjury. Linear mixed models evaluated the relation of group and time of assessment on outcomes. RESULTS:Controlling for age, the combined traumatic injury group experienced significantly higher postinjury levels of SD (p = .042) and internalizing problems (p = .024) than TD children; however, TBI and EI injury groups did not differ from each other. Injury severity was positively associated with SD in the EI group only, but in both groups SD was associated with additional postinjury sequelae, including fatigue and externalizing behavior problems. Internalizing problems predicted subsequent development of SD but not vice versa. The relation between injury and SD 1 year later was consistent with mediation by internalizing problems at 6 months postinjury. CONCLUSIONS:Children with both types of traumatic injury demonstrated higher SD and internalizing problems than healthy children. Internalizing problems occurring either prior to or following pediatric injury may be a risk factor for posttraumatic SD. Consequently, internalizing problems may be a promising target of intervention to improve both SD and related adjustment concerns. (PsycINFO Database Record