Mechanistic study of TRPM2-Ca(2+)-CAMK2-BECN1 signaling in oxidative stress-induced autophagy inhibition.
ABSTRACT: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been commonly accepted as inducers of autophagy, and autophagy in turn is activated to relieve oxidative stress. Yet, whether and how oxidative stress, generated in various human pathologies, regulates autophagy remains unknown. Here, we mechanistically studied the role of TRPM2 (transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M member 2)-mediated Ca(2+) influx in oxidative stress-mediated autophagy regulation. On the one hand, we demonstrated that oxidative stress triggered TRPM2-dependent Ca(2+) influx to inhibit the induction of early autophagy, which renders cells more susceptible to death. On the other hand, oxidative stress induced autophagy (and not cell death) in the absence of the TRPM2-mediated Ca(2+) influx. Moreover, in response to oxidative stress, TRPM2-mediated Ca(2+) influx activated CAMK2 (calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II) at levels of both phosphorylation and oxidation, and the activated CAMK2 subsequently phosphorylated BECN1/Beclin 1 on Ser295. Ser295 phosphorylation of BECN1 in turn decreased the association between BECN1 and PIK3C3/VPS34, but induced binding between BECN1 and BCL2. Clinically, acetaminophen (APAP) overdose is the most common cause of acute liver failure worldwide. We demonstrated that APAP overdose also activated ROS-TRPM2-CAMK2-BECN1 signaling to suppress autophagy, thereby causing primary hepatocytes to be more vulnerable to death. Inhibiting the TRPM2-Ca(2+)-CAMK2 cascade significantly mitigated APAP-induced liver injury. In summary, our data clearly demonstrate that oxidative stress activates the TRPM2-Ca(2+)-CAMK2 cascade to phosphorylate BECN1 resulting in autophagy inhibition.
Project description:Acetaminophen (APAP) is a safe analgesic antipyretic drug at prescribed doses. Its overdose, however, can cause life-threatening liver damage. Though, involvement of oxidative stress is widely acknowledged in APAP-induced hepatocellular death, the mechanism of this increased oxidative stress and the associated alterations in Ca(2+) homeostasis are still unclear. Among members of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels activated in response to oxidative stress, we here identify that redox-sensitive TRPV1, TRPC1, TRPM2, and TRPM7 channels underlie Ca(2+) entry and downstream cellular damages induced by APAP in human hepatoma (HepG2) cells. Our data indicate that APAP treatment of HepG2 cells resulted in increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, glutathione (GSH) depletion, and Ca(2+) entry leading to increased apoptotic cell death. These responses were significantly suppressed by pretreatment with the ROS scavengers N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) and 4,5-dihydroxy-1,3-benzene disulfonic acid disodium salt monohydrate (Tiron), and also by preincubation of cells with the glutathione inducer Dimethylfumarate (DMF). TRP subtype-targeted pharmacological blockers and siRNAs strategy revealed that suppression of either TRPV1, TRPC1, TRPM2, or TRPM7 reduced APAP-induced ROS formation, Ca(2+) influx, and cell death; the effects of suppression of TRPV1 or TRPC1, known to be activated by oxidative cysteine modifications, were stronger than those of TRPM2 or TRPM7. Interestingly, TRPV1 and TRPC1 were labeled by the cysteine-selective modification reagent, 5,5'-dithiobis (2-nitrobenzoic acid)-2biotin (DTNB-2Bio), and this was attenuated by pretreatment with APAP, suggesting that APAP and/or its oxidized metabolites act directly on the modification target cysteine residues of TRPV1 and TRPC1 proteins. In human liver tissue, TRPV1, TRPC1, TRPM2, and TRPM7 channels transcripts were localized mainly to hepatocytes and Kupffer cells. Our findings strongly suggest that APAP-induced Ca(2+) entry and subsequent hepatocellular death are regulated by multiple redox-activated cation channels, among which TRPV1 and TRPC1 play a prominent role.
Project description:Excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by hyperglycemia increased the secretion of interleukin-1? (IL-1?), which contributes to the pathogenesis of diabetes and its complications. Although high glucose (HG)-induced oxidative stress and aberrant Ca<sup>2+</sup> channels activity causes an increase in transmembrane Ca<sup>2+</sup> influx, however the relative contribution of Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels is not well studied. Here, we identified that HG (30?mM glucose for 48?h) induced the activation of the NLRP3-ASC inflammasome, leading to caspase-1 activation, and IL-1? and IL-18 secretion in human monocytic cell lines. Moreover, we used a hyperglycemia model in U937 monocytes, showing that the activation of TRPM2 was augmented, and TRPM2-mediated Ca<sup>2+</sup> influx was critical for NLRP3 inflammasome activation. This pathway involved NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS production and TXNIP-NLRP3 inflammasome pathway. Furthermore, the inhibition of TRPM2 reduced ROS production and lowered NADPH oxidase activity via cooperatively interaction with p47 phox in response to HG. These results provided a mechanistic linking between TRPM2-mediated Ca<sup>2+</sup> influx and p47 phox signaling to induce excess ROS production and TXNIP-mediated NLRP3 inflammasome activation under HG, and suggested that TRPM2 represented a potential target for alleviating NLRP3 inflammasome activation related to hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress in Type 2 diabetes Mellitus (T2DM).
Project description:Transient receptor potential channel M2 (TRPM2) is a Ca<sup>2+</sup>-permeable channel that is activated by reactive oxygen species (ROS). In many cell types, ROS activate TRPM2 to induce excessive Ca<sup>2+</sup> influx, resulting in Ca<sup>2+</sup> overload and consequent cell death. Recent studies suggest that TRPM2 may also regulate autophagy in pericytes and cancer cells by acting on the early step of autophagy, i.e. autophagic induction. However, there is no report on the role of TRPM2 in autophagic degradation, which is the late stage of autophagy. In the present study, we found abundant TRPM2 expression in lysosomes/autolysosomes in the primary cultured mouse aortic smooth muscle cells (mASMCs). Nutrient starvation stimulated autophagic flux in mASMCs mainly by promoting autophagic degradation. This starvation-induced autophagic degradation was reduced by TRPM2 knockout. Importantly, starvation-induced lysosomal/autolysosomal acidification and cell death were also substantially reduced by TRPM2 knockout. Taken together, the present study uncovered a novel mechanism that lysosomal TRPM2 facilitates lysosomal acidification to stimulate excessive autolysosome degradation and consequent cell death.
Project description:On the cellular level, oxidative stress may cause various responses, including autophagy and cell death. All of these outcomes involve disturbed Ca(2+) signaling. Here we show that the nuclear enzymes poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) and PARP2 control cytosolic Ca(2+) shifts from extracellular and intracellular sources associated with autophagy or cell death. The different Ca(2+) signals arise from the transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2) channels located in the cellular and lysosomal membranes. They induce specific stress kinase responses of canonical autophagy and cell death pathways. Autophagy is under the control of PARP1, which operates as an autophagy suppressor after oxidative stress. Cell death is activated downstream of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and AKT, whereas cell survival correlates with the phosphorylation of p38, stress-activated protein kinase/Jun amino-terminal kinase (SAPK/JNK), and cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB) with its activating transcription factor (ATF-1). Our results highlight an important role for PARP1 and PARP2 in the epigenetic control of cell death and autophagy pathways.
Project description:Transient receptor potential melastatin-2 (TRPM2) channel is a nonselective cation channel that mediates influx of Ca(2+) and Na(+) with relative permeability of PCa:PNa ?0.6 in response to cellular oxidative stress. As angiogenesis and ischemic neovascularization are both significantly dependent on oxidant signaling, here we investigated the possible role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced reactive oxygen species production in activating TRPM2-dependent Ca(2+) signaling and in the mechanism of angiogenesis and ischemic neovascularization.We observed that VEGF stimulation rapidly induced the association of TRPM2 and cellular Src kinase with vascular endothelial-cadherin forming a signalplex at vascular endothelial-cadherin junctions in endothelial cells. Using endothelial cells isolated from TRPM2(-/-) mice or after small interfering RNA depletion of TRPM2, we demonstrated that TRPM2-activated Ca(2+) signaling was required for cellular Src kinase-induced phosphorylation of vascular endothelial-cadherin at Y658 and Y731, the crucial sites involved in vascular endothelial-cadherin internalization in response to VEGF. VEGF-induced reactive oxygen species generation activated TRPM2-induced Ca(2+) entry, whereas the reactive oxygen species-insensitive TRPM2 mutant (C1008?A) showed impaired Ca(2+) entry. Endothelial cells depleted of TRPM2 also displayed significantly perturbed migratory phenotype and impaired activation of cellular Src in response to VEGF. TRPM2(-/-) mice reconstituted with wild-type myeloid cells demonstrated aberrant angiogenesis and neovascularization in the hindlimb ischemia model as compared with wild-type mice.VEGF-induced angiogenesis and postischemic neovascularization in mice required reactive oxygen species generation in endothelial cells and resultant TRPM2 activation. Thus, our findings provide novel insight into the role of TRPM2 in mechanism of angiogenesis and ischemic neovascularization.
Project description:Silica nanoparticles (NPs) have remarkable applications. However, accumulating evidence suggests NPs can cause cellular toxicity by inducing ROS production and increasing intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i), but the underlying molecular mechanism is largely unknown. Transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2) channel is known to be a cellular redox potential sensor that provides an important pathway for increasing the [Ca(2+)]i under oxidative stress. In this study, we examined the role of TRPM2 channel in silica NPs-induced oxidative stress and cell death. By quantitation of cell viability, ROS production, [Ca(2+)]i, and protein identification, we showed that TRPM2 channel is required for ROS production and Ca(2+) increase induced by silica NPs through regulating NADPH oxidase activity in HEK293 cells. Strikingly, HEK293 cells expressing low levels of TRPM2 were more susceptible to silica NPs than those expressing high levels of TRPM2. Macrophages from young mice showed significantly lower TRPM2 expression than those from senescent mice and had significantly lower viability after silica NPs exposure than those from senescent ones. Taken together, these findings demonstrate for the first time that TRPM2 channel acts as an oxidative stress sensor that plays a dual role in silica NPs-induced cytotoxicity by differentially regulating the NADPH oxidase activity and ROS generation.
Project description:Macroautophagy/autophagy is a highly conserved self-digestion pathway that plays an important role in cytoprotection under stress conditions. Autophagy is involved in hepatotoxicity induced by acetaminophen (APAP) in experimental animals and in humans. APAP also causes ototoxicity. However, the role of autophagy in APAP-induced auditory hair cell damage is unclear. In the present study, we investigated autophagy mechanisms during APAP-induced cell death in a mouse auditory cell line (HEI-OC1) and mouse cochlear explant culture. We found that the expression of LC3-II protein and autophagic structures was increased in APAP-treated HEI-OC1 cells; however, the degradation of SQSTM1/p62 protein, the yellow puncta of mRFP-GFP-LC3 fluorescence, and the activity of lysosomal enzymes decreased in APAP-treated HEI-OC1 cells. The degradation of p62 protein and the expression of lysosomal enzymes also decreased in APAP-treated mouse cochlear explants. These data indicate that APAP treatment compromises autophagic degradation and causes lysosomal dysfunction. We suggest that lysosomal dysfunction may be directly responsible for APAP-induced autophagy impairment. Treatment with antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) partially alleviated APAP-induced autophagy impairment and apoptotic cell death, suggesting the involvement of oxidative stress in APAP-induced autophagy impairment. Inhibition of autophagy by knocking down of Atg5 and Atg7 aggravated APAP-induced ER and oxidative stress and increased apoptotic cell death. This study provides a better understanding of the mechanism responsible for APAP ototoxicity, which is important for future exploration of treatment strategies for the prevention of hearing loss caused by ototoxic medications.
Project description:CAV1/Caveolin1, an integral membrane protein, is involved in caveolae function and cellular signaling pathways. Here, we report that CAV1 is a positive regulator of autophagy under oxidative stress and cerebral ischemic injury. Treatment with hydrogen peroxide enhanced autophagy flux and caused the localization of BECN1 to the mitochondria, whereas these changes were impaired in the absence of CAV1. Among many autophagy signals, only LC3 foci formation in response to hydrogen peroxide was abolished by CAV1 deficiency. Under oxidative stress, CAV1 interacted with a complex of BECN1/VPS34 through its scaffolding domain, and this interaction facilitated autophagosome formation. Interestingly, the phosphorylation of CAV1 at tyrosine-14 was essential for the interaction with BECN1 and their localization to the mitochondria, and the activation of autophagy in response to hydrogen peroxide. In addition, the expression of a phosphatase PTPN1 reduced the phosphorylation of CAV1 and inhibited autophagy. Further, compared to that in wild-type mice, autophagy was impaired and cerebral infarct damage was aggravated in the brain of Cav1 knockout mice. These results suggest that the phosphorylated CAV1 functions to activate autophagy through binding to the BECN1/VPS34 complex under oxidative stress and to protect against ischemic damage.
Project description:Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated under various pathological conditions such as renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and provoke damage to multiple cellular organelles and processes. Overproduction of ROS causes oxidative stress and contributes to damages of renal proximal tubular cells (PTC), which are the main cause of the pathogenesis of renal I/R injury. Autophagy is a dynamic process that removes long-lived proteins and damaged organelles via lysosome-mediated degradation, which has an antioxidant effect that relieves oxidative stress. The canonical transient receptor potential channel 6 (TRPC6), a nonselective cation channel that allows passage of Ca<sup>2+</sup>, plays an important role in renal disease. Yet, the relationship between TRPC6 and autophagy, as well as their functions in renal oxidative stress injury, remains unclear. In this study, we found that oxidative stress triggered TRPC6-dependent Ca<sup>2+</sup> influx in PTC to inhibit autophagy, thereby rendering cells more susceptible to death. We also demonstrated that TRPC6 knockout (TRPC6<sup>-/-</sup>) or inhibition by SAR7334, a TRPC6-selective inhibitor, increased autophagic flux and mitigated oxidative stress-induced apoptosis of PTC. The protective effects of TRPC6 ablation were prevented by autophagy inhibitors Chloroquine and Bafilomycin A1. Moreover, this study also shows that TRPC6 blockage promotes autophagic flux via inhibiting the PI3K/Akt/mTOR and ERK1/2 signaling pathways. This is the first evidence showing that TRPC6-mediated Ca<sup>2+</sup> influx plays a novel role in suppressing cytoprotective autophagy triggered by oxidative stress in PTC, and it may become a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of renal oxidative stress injury in the future.
Project description:Reactive oxygen species (ROS) induce chemokines responsible for the recruitment of inflammatory cells to sites of injury or infection. Here we show that the plasma membrane Ca(2+)-permeable channel TRPM2 controls ROS-induced chemokine production in monocytes. In human U937 monocytes, hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) evokes Ca(2+) influx through TRPM2 to activate Ca(2+)-dependent tyrosine kinase Pyk2 and amplify Erk signaling via Ras GTPase. This elicits nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-kappaB essential for the production of the chemokine interleukin-8 (CXCL8). In monocytes from Trpm2-deficient mice, H(2)O(2)-induced Ca(2+) influx and production of the macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (CXCL2), the mouse CXCL8 functional homolog, were impaired. In the dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis inflammation model, CXCL2 expression, neutrophil infiltration and ulceration were attenuated by Trpm2 disruption. Thus, TRPM2 Ca(2+) influx controls the ROS-induced signaling cascade responsible for chemokine production, which aggravates inflammation. We propose functional inhibition of TRPM2 channels as a new therapeutic strategy for treating inflammatory diseases.