Quantifying Microvascular Density and Morphology in Diabetic Retinopathy Using Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography.
ABSTRACT: To quantify changes in retinal microvasculature in diabetic retinopathy (DR) by using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography angiography (SD-OCTA).Retrospective, cross-sectional, observational study of healthy and diabetic adult subjects with and without DR. Retinal microvascular changes were assessed by using SD-OCTA images and an intensity-based optical microangiography algorithm. A semiautomated program was used to calculate indices of microvascular density and morphology in nonsegmented and segmented SD-OCTA images. Microvascular density was quantified by using skeleton density (SD) and vessel density (VD), while vessel morphology was quantified as fractal dimension (FD) and vessel diameter index (VDI). Statistical analyses were performed by using the Student's t-test or analysis of variance with post hoc Tukey honest significant difference tests for multiple comparisons.Eighty-four eyes with DR and 14 healthy eyes were studied. Spearman's rank test demonstrated a negative correlation between DR severity and SD, VD, and FD, and a positive correlation with VDI (? = -0.767, -0.7166, -0.768, and +0.5051, respectively; P < 0.0001). All parameters showed high reproducibility between graders (ICC = 0.971, 0.962, 0.937, and 0.994 for SD, VD, FD, and VDI, respectively). Repeatability (?) was greater than 0.99 for SD, VD, FD, and VDI.Vascular changes in DR can be objectively and reliably characterized with SD, VD, FD, and VDI. In general, decreasing capillary density (SD and VD), branching complexity (FD), and increasing average vascular caliber (VDI) were associated with worsening DR. Changes in capillary density and morphology were significantly correlated with diabetic macular edema.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>To quantitatively evaluate the retinal microvasculature in human subjects with retinal venous occlusions (RVO) using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA).<h4>Design</h4>Retrospective, cross-sectional, observational case series.<h4>Participants</h4>Sixty subjects (84 eyes) were included (20 BRVO, 14 CRVO, 24 unaffected fellow eyes, and 26 controls).<h4>Methods</h4>OCTA was performed on a prototype, spectral domain-OCTA system in the 3x3mm central macular region. Custom software was used to quantify morphology and density of retinal capillaries using four quantitative parameters. The vasculature of the segmented retinal layers and nonsegmented whole retina were analyzed.<h4>Main outcome measures</h4>Fractal dimension (FD), vessel density (VD), skeletal density (SD), and vessel diameter index (VDI) within the segmented retinal layers and nonsegmented whole retina vasculature.<h4>Results</h4>Nonsegmented analysis of RVO eyes demonstrated significantly lower FD (1.64±0.01 vs 1.715±0.002; p<0.001), VD (0.32±0.01 vs 0.432±0.002; p<0.001), and SD (0.073±0.004 vs 0.099±0.001; p<0.001) compared to controls. Compared to the fellow eye, FD, VD and SD were lower (p<0.001), and VDI was higher (p<0.001). FD, VD, and SD progressively decreased as the extent (or type) of RVO increased (control vs BRVO vs CRVO; p<0.001). In the unaffected fellow eye FD, VD and SD showed significant differences when compared to control eyes or affected RVO eyes (p<0.001).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Quantitative OCTA of the central 3x3mm macular region demonstrates significant differences in capillary density and morphology among subjects with BRVO and CRVO compared to controls or unaffected fellow eyes in all vascular layers. The unaffected fellow eyes also demonstrate significant differences when compared to controls. OCTA allows for noninvasive, layer-specific, quantitative evaluation of RVO-associated microvascular changes.
Project description:Early microvascular damage in diabetes (e.g. capillary nonperfusion and ischemia) can now be assessed and quantified with optical coherence tomography-angiography (OCT-A). The morphology of vascular tissue is indeed affected by different factors; however, there is a paucity of data examining whether OCT-A metrics are influenced by ocular, systemic and demographic variables in subjects with diabetes. We conducted an observational cross-sectional study and included 434 eyes from 286 patients with diabetes. Foveal avascular zone (FAZ) area, FAZ circularity, total and parafoveal vessel density (VD), fractal dimension (FD), and vessel diameter index (VDI) from the superficial capillary plexus OCT-angiogram were measured by a customized automated image analysis program. We found that diabetic retinopathy (DR) severity was associated with increased FAZ area, decreased FAZ circularity, lower VD, lower FD, and increased VDI. Enlarged FAZ area was correlated with shorter axial length and thinner central subfield macular thickness. Decreased FAZ circularity was correlated with a reduction in visual function. Decreased VD was correlated with thinner macular ganglion-cell inner plexiform layer. Increased VDI was correlated with higher fasting glucose level. We concluded that the effects of ocular and systemic factors in diabetics should be taken into consideration when assessing microvascular alterations via OCT-A.
Project description:To quantify retinal capillary density and morphology in uveitis using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography angiography (SD-OCTA).Cross-sectional, observational study.Healthy and uveitic subjects were recruited from 2 tertiary care eye centers. Prototype SD-OCTA devices (Cirrus; Carl Zeiss Meditec, Inc, Dublin, California, USA) were used to generate 3 × 3-mm2 OCTA images centered on the fovea. Subjects were placed into 3 groups based on the type of optical microangiography (OMAG) algorithm used for image processing (intensity and/or phase) and type of retinal segmentation (automatic or manual). A semi-automated method was used to calculate skeleton density (SD), vessel density (VD), fractal dimension (FD), and vessel diameter index (VDI). Retinal vasculature was assessed in the superficial retinal layer (SRL), deep retinal layer (DRL), and nonsegmented retinal layer (NS-RL). A generalized estimating equations model was used to analyze associations between the OCTA measures and disease status within each retinal layer. A P value < .05 was accepted as significant. Reproducibility and repeatability were assessed using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC).The SD, VD, and FD of the parafoveal capillaries were lower in uveitic eyes compared with healthy eyes in all retinal segments. In addition, SD and VD were significantly lower in the DRL of subjects with uveitic macular edema. There was no correlation in any capillary parameters and anatomic classification of uveitis.Quantitative analysis of parafoveal capillary density and morphology in uveitis demonstrates significantly lower capillary density and complexity. SD-OCTA algorithms are robust enough to detect these changes and can provide a novel diagnostic index of disease for uveitis subjects.
Project description:Purpose:To identify microvascular and neural parameters related to the severity of diabetic retinopathy (DR) by using optical coherence tomography angiography in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods:This cross-sectional study included 110 eyes (63 patients) with no DR, 46 eyes (33 patients) with mild nonproliferative DR, 36 eyes (23 patients) with moderate nonproliferative DR, 36 eyes (22 patients) with severe nonproliferative DR, and 31 eyes (19 patients) with proliferative DR. The optical coherence tomography angiography images were processed to quantify the foveal avascular zone parameters, macular vessel density (VD), retinal thickness, peripapillary VD, retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, and ganglion cell complex thickness. A LASSO-based continuation ratio model was used to select the most clinically relevant parameters for predicting the stage of DR. Results:The regression model identified a set of regional parameters for each scanning pattern that identified the DR severity, including foveal avascular zone perimeter; FD-300; temporal perifoveal superficial capillary plexus VD and retinal thickness; temporal and nasal parafoveal deep capillary plexus VD; peripapillary VD in the temporal superior, nasal inferior, and temporal inferior sectors; temporal superior and nasal inferior retinal nerve fiber layer thickness; ganglion cell complex thickness; and FLV, which changed significantly with the progression of DR. Furthermore, two combined blocks exhibited different sensitive parameters to differentiate between the groups based on DR severity. Similar results were obtained in eyes without diabetic macular edema. Conclusions:We identified microvascular and neural parameters related to the severity of DR using optical coherence tomography angiography, suggesting their potential clinical application for better screening and staging of DR.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>The purpose of this study was to evaluate differences in optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) metrics in the superficial (SCP), intermediate (ICP), and deep (DCP) vascular plexuses across diabetic retinopathy (DR) severity levels.<h4>Methods</h4>This was a cross sectional observational retrospective chart review study. Eligible patients with diabetes who underwent same day RTVue XR Avanti OCTA, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), and 200-degree Optos ultrawide field color imaging. SCP, ICP, and DCP vessel density (VD) and vessel length density (VLD) were assessed using 3-D projection artifact removal software (PAROCTA) software.<h4>Results</h4>Of 396 eyes (237 patients), 16.1% had no DR, 26.9% mild nonproliferative DR (NPDR), 21.1% moderate NPDR, 12.1% severe NPDR, 10.1% proliferative DR (PDR) without panretinal photocoagulation (PRP), and 13.4% PDR with PRP. When comparing mild NPDR to no DR eyes, ICP and DCP VD and VLD were significantly lower, but there was no difference for SCP metrics. In eyes with more severe DR, there were significant differences in SCP VD and VLD between DR severity levels (mild versus moderate NPDR: VD 35.45 ± 3.31 vs. 34.14 ± 3.38, P = 0.008 and VLD 17.59 ± 1.83 vs. 16.80 ± 1.83, P = 0.003; moderate versus severe NPDR: VLD 16.80 ± 1.83 vs. 15.79 ± 1.84, P = 0.019), but no significant differences in ICP or DCP.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Although VD of each of the three individual layers decreases with increasing DR severity, DR severity has a substantially different effect on OCTA parameters within each layer. Vascular changes in eyes with no to early DR were present primarily in the deeper vascular layers, whereas in eyes with advanced DR the opposite was observed. This study highlights the effects of ICP and the importance of assessing SCP and DCP changes independently across each DR severity level.
Project description:BACKGROUND:To investigate the effects of deep learning denoising on quantitative vascular measurements and the quality of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) images. METHODS:U-Net-based deep learning denoising with an averaged OCTA data set as teacher data was used in this study. One hundred and thirteen patients with various retinal diseases were examined. An OCT HS-100 (Canon inc., Tokyo, Japan) performed a 3 × 3 mm2 superficial capillary plexus layer slab scan centered on the fovea 10 times. A single-shot image was defined as the original image and the 10-frame averaged image and denoised image generated from the original image using deep learning denoising for the analyses were obtained. The main parameters measured were the OCTA image acquisition time, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR), vessel density (VD), vessel length density (VLD), vessel diameter index (VDI), and fractal dimension (FD) of the original, averaged, and denoised images. RESULTS:One hundred and twelve eyes of 108 patients were studied. Deep learning denoising removed the background noise and smoothed the rough vessel surface. The image acquisition times for the original, averaged, and denoised images were 16.6 ± 2.4, 285 ± 38, and 22.1 ± 2.4 s, respectively (P < 0.0001). The CNR and PSNR of the denoised image were significantly higher than those of the original image (P < 0.0001). There were significant differences in the VLD, VDI, and FD (P < 0.0001) after deep learning denoising. CONCLUSIONS:The deep learning denoising method achieved high speed and high quality OCTA imaging. This method may be a viable alternative to the multiple image averaging technique.
Project description:Objective:To evaluate macular perfusion changes following intravitreal bevacizumab injections for diabetic macular edema (DME) using spectral domain optical coherence tomography angiography (SD-OCTA). Methods:This study was a prospective noncomparative interventional case series. Treatment naïve patients with DME underwent full ophthalmological examination and SD-OCTA scanning at baseline and after 3 intravitreal bevacizumab injections. Both the 6?×?6 and 3?×?3?mm macular scan protocols were used. Pretreatment and posttreatment OCTA images were automatically aligned using a commercially available retina alignment software (i2k Align Retina software); then the fractal dimension (FD), vascular density (VD), and skeleton VD changes were obtained at the full retinal thickness (Full) and superficial (SCP) and deep (DCP) capillary plexuses after processing images using a semiautomated program. The foveal avascular zone (FAZ) was manually measured and FD was calculated using the FracLac plugin of ImageJ. Results:Forty eyes of 26 patients were included. Following injections, there were an 8.1% increase in FAZ, 1.3% decrease in FD-Full and FD-SCP, 1.9% decrease in FD-DCP, 8% decrease in VD-Full, 9.1% decrease in VD-SCP, 10.6% decrease in VD-DCP, 13.3% decrease in skeleton VD-Full, 12.5% decrease in skeleton VD-SCP, and 16.3% decrease in skeleton VD-DCP in the 6?×?6?mm macular area and a 2.6% decrease in FD-Full, 3.4% decrease in FD-SCP, 11.5% decrease in VD-Full, 14.3% decrease in VD-SCP, and 25.1% decrease in skeleton VD-SCP in the 3?×?3?mm macular area which were all statistically significant (p < 0.05). Using univariate and multivariate analysis, the pretreatment FD, VD, and skeleton VD at each capillary layer significantly negatively correlated with the change in FD, VD, and skeleton VD at the corresponding capillary layer, respectively (p < 0.05). Conclusion:OCTA is a useful noninvasive tool for quantitative evaluation of macular perfusion changes following DME treatment. This trial is registered with NCT03246152.
Project description:Diabetic macular ischemia (DMI) is a phenotype of diabetic retinopathy (DR) associated with chronic hypoxia of retinal tissue. The goal of this prospective observational study was to report evidence of photoreceptor abnormalities using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO) in eyes with DR in the setting of deep capillary plexus (DCP) non-perfusion. Eleven eyes from 11 patients (6 women, age 31-68), diagnosed with DR without macular edema, underwent optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) and AOSLO imaging. One patient without OCTA imaging underwent fluorescein angiography to characterize the enlargement of the foveal avascular zone. The parameters studied included photoreceptor heterogeneity packing index (HPi) on AOSLO, as well as DCP non-perfusion and vessel density on OCTA. Using AOSLO, OCTA and spectral domain (SD)-OCT, we observed that photoreceptor abnormalities on AOSLO and SD-OCT were found in eyes with non-perfusion of the DCP on OCTA. All eight eyes with DCP non-flow on OCTA showed photoreceptor abnormalities on AOSLO. Six of the eight eyes also had outer retinal abnormalities on SD-OCT. Three eyes with DR and robust capillary perfusion of the DCP had normal photoreceptors on SD-OCT and AOSLO. Compared to eyes with DR without DCP non-flow, the eight eyes with DCP non-flow had significantly lower HPi (P = 0.013) and parafoveal DCP vessel density (P = 0.016). We found a significant correlation between cone HPi and parafoveal DCP vessel density (r = 0.681, P = 0.030). Using a novel approach with AOSLO and OCTA, this study shows an association between capillary non-perfusion of the DCP and abnormalities in the photoreceptor layer in eyes with DR. This observation is important in confirming the significant contribution of the DCP to oxygen requirements of photoreceptors in DMI, while highlighting the ability of AOSLO to detect subtle photoreceptor changes not always visible on SD-OCT.
Project description:Purpose:The purpose of this study was to evaluate specifically in type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) individuals the relationship between perifoveal superficial capillary plexus (SCP) parameters assessed by optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) and diabetic retinopathy (DR) grade. Methods:Cross-sectional analysis of a large scale prospective OCTA trial cohort (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03422965). A total of 1186 eyes (593 individuals), 956 type 1 DM eyes (478 patients), and 230 control eyes (115 healthy volunteers) were included in this study. DR stage was graded according to the International Classification. OCTA imaging was performed with a commercially available device (Cirrus HD-OCT). Vessel density (VD), perfusion density (PD), and foveal avascular zone (FAZ) area, perimeter and circularity measurements were quantified in the SCP and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed for each OCTA parameter. Results:VD and PD (in both 3 × 3 and 6 × 6 mm captures) were inversely associated with DR stage (P < 0.001 in all cases) in a multiple regression analysis after controlling by age, gender, signal strength index, axial length, and DM duration. Greater FAZ area and perimeter and conversely lower circularity measurements were observed as DR severity increased in both scanning protocols (P < 0.05 in all cases). Conclusions:In type 1 DM individuals, OCTA provides an objective, continuous, and reliable method for accurate quantification of VD, PD, and FAZ parameters in the SCP, which ultimately correlate with DR stages. Translational Relevance:Objective OCTA measurements of the retinal microvasculature could substitute the clinical DR classification in patients with type 1 DM, identify patients at risk of DR progression, and inform treatment decisions to modify the evolution of the disease.
Project description:Purpose:To investigate the microvascular changes in macular retina and choriocapillaris (CC) in diabetic eyes without retinopathy using swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography (SS-OCTA). Methods:A commercial SS-OCTA system was used to collect 6 × 6-mm macular scans from patients. Three depth-resolved retinal slabs and a CC slab were segmented by a validated semiautomated algorithm. Retinal vessel area density, vessel skeleton density, and nonperfusion area were calculated on segmented retinal slabs. Foveal avascular zone was automatically measured based on en face image of the whole retinal layer. For CC quantification, the percentage of flow deficits (FD%) and the flow deficit (FD) sizes were measured. Results:Sixteen eyes from 16 diabetic patients without clinically detectable retinopathy and 16 eyes from 16 age-matched nondiabetic controls were included. There was no significant difference between the two groups in all retinal vessel quantitative parameters (all P > 0.05). However, the mean FD% and mean FD sizes were significantly increased in CC in the central 1.0-mm disk (P = 0.011 and P = 0.017, respectively), the central 1.5-mm rim (P = 0.003 and P = 0.009, respectively), the central 2.5-mm rim (P = 0.018 and P = 0.020, respectively), and the entire 5.0-mm disk (P = 0.009 and P = 0.008, respectively) in diabetic eyes compared with controls. Conclusions:CC perfusion in the macula is decreased in diabetic patients without retinopathy as compared to age-matched normal controls. Decreased CC perfusion in the macula may be an early indicator of otherwise clinically undetectable diabetic vasculopathy.