Mesenchymal Stromal Cells from Osteoarthritic Synovium Are a Distinct Population Compared to Their Bone-Marrow Counterparts regarding Surface Marker Distribution and Immunomodulation of Allogeneic CD4+ T-Cell Cultures.
ABSTRACT: Introduction. The participation of an inflammatory joint milieu has been described in osteoarthritis (OA) pathogenesis. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) play an important role in modulating inflammatory processes. Based on previous studies in an allogeneic T-cell coculture model, we aimed at further determining the role of synovial MSCs in OA pathogenesis. Methods. Bone-marrow (BM) and synovial membrane (SM) MSCs from hip joints of late stage OA patients and CD4+ T-cells from healthy donors were analysed regarding surface marker expression before and after coculture. Proliferation upon CD3/CD28 stimulation and cytokine analyses were compared between MSCs. Results. SM-MSCs differed from BM-MSCs in several surface markers and their osteogenic differentiation potential. Cocultures of both MSCs with CD4+ T-cells resulted in recruitment of CD45RA+ FoxP3+ regulatory T-cells. Upon stimulation, only SM-MSCs suppressed CD4+ T-cell proliferation, while both SM-MSCs and BM-MSCs modified cytokine profiles through suppressing IL-2 and TNF-? as well as increasing IL-6 secretion. Conclusions. Synovial MSCs from OA joints are a unique fraction that can be distinguished from their bone-marrow derived counterparts. Their unique ability to suppress CD3/CD28 induced CD4+ T-cell proliferation makes them a potential target for future therapeutic approaches.
Project description:Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) are considered a good source for cellular therapy in cartilage repair. But, their potential to repair the extracellular matrix, in an osteoarthritic environment, is still controversial. In osteoarthritis (OA), anti-inflammatory action and extracellular matrix production are important steps for cartilage healing. This study examined the interaction of BM-MSC and OA-chondrocyte on the production of hyaluronan and inflammatory cytokines in a Transwell system. We compared cocultured BM-MSCs and OA-chondrocytes with the individually cultured controls (monocultures). There was a decrease in BM-MSCs cell count in coculture with OA-chondrocytes when compared to BM-MSCs alone. In monoculture, BM-MSCs produced higher amounts of hyaluronan than OA-chondrocytes and coculture of BM-MSCs with OA-chondrocytes increased hyaluronan production per cell. Hyaluronan synthase-1 mRNA expression was upregulated in BM-MSCs after coculture with OA-chondrocytes, whereas hyaluronidase-1 was downregulated. After coculture, lower IL-6 levels were detected in BM-MSCs compared with OA-chondrocytes. These results indicate that, in response to coculture with OA-chondrocytes, BM-MSCs change their behavior by increasing production of hyaluronan and decreasing inflammatory cytokines. Our results indicate that BM-MSCs per se could be a potential tool for OA regenerative therapy, exerting short-term effects on the local microenvironment even when cell:cell contact is not occurring.
Project description:INTRODUCTION: CD4?CD25?/highCD127low/? regulatory T cells (Tregs) play a crucial role in maintaining peripheral tolerance. Data about the frequency of Tregs in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are contradictory and based on the analysis of peripheral blood (PB) and synovial fluid (SF). Because Tregs exert their anti-inflammatory activity in a contact-dependent manner, the analysis of synovial membrane (SM) is crucial. Published reports regarding this matter are lacking, so we investigated the distribution and phenotype of Tregs in concurrent samples of SM, SF and PB of RA patients in comparison to those of osteoarthritis (OA) patients. METHODS: Treg frequency in a total of 40 patients (18 RA and 22 OA) matched for age and sex was assessed by flow cytometry. Functional status was assessed by analysis of cell surface markers representative of activation, memory and regulation. RESULTS: CD4? T cells infiltrate the SM to higher frequencies in RA joints than in OA joints (P?=?0.0336). In both groups, Tregs accumulate more within the SF and SM than concurrently in PB (P?<?0.0001). Relative Treg frequencies were comparable in all compartments of RA and OA, but Treg concentration was significantly higher in the SM of RA patients (P?=?0.025). Both PB and SM Tregs displayed a memory phenotype (CD45RO?RA?), but significantly differed in activation status (CD69 and CD62L) and markers associated with Treg function (CD152, CD154, CD274, CD279 and GITR) with only minor differences between RA and OA. CONCLUSIONS: Treg enrichment into the joint compartment is not specific to inflammatory arthritis, as we found that it was similarly enriched in OA. RA pathophysiology might not be due to a Treg deficiency, because Treg concentration in SM was significantly higher in RA. Synovial Tregs represent a distinct phenotype and are activated effector memory cells (CD62L?CD69?), whereas peripheral Tregs are resting central memory cells (CD62L?CD69?).
Project description:Despite the growing body of literature demonstrating a crucial role of T helper cell (Th) responses in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA), only few clinical studies have assessed interactions between Th cells and OA-related symptoms. Yet, the inclusion of clinical data in the interpretation of cellular analyses of Th cell infiltration is essential to reveal the mechanisms underlying the complex pathophysiology of OA pain and disability. Thus, the aim of the study was to analyze the infiltration pattern of Th cells in systemic (peripheral blood) and joint-derived (synovial membrane and fluid) samples from patients with knee OA in relation to OA-induced pain and disability. Therefore, radiographic OA severity, knee pain and function of 47 OA patients undergoing knee arthroplasty were evaluated prior to surgery. In parallel, samples of peripheral blood (PB), synovial membrane (SM) and synovial fluid (SF) were harvested and analyzed for different Th subsets using flow cytometry. According to surface marker expression Th cells (CD3+ CD4+ CD8-) were assigned to the Th subsets Th1 (CXCR3+, CCR5+), Th2 (CCR3+, CCR4+) and Th17 (CD161+, CCR6+). Interestingly, infiltration of the SM with all Th subtypes (Th1, Th2, Th17) significantly correlated with OA-induced disability. Most importantly, synovial CCR5+ and CCR3+ Th cell infiltration was associated with OA-related knee pain and disability. Furthermore, higher percentage rates of CXCR3+ Th cells in all tissue samples (PB, SM, SF) showed significant associations with OA severity. In contrast, increasing percentage rates of CD161+ Th cells in SM samples corresponded to a better functional outcome. In conclusion, the current study provides an extensive profile of the Th cell infiltration pattern in PB, SF and SM from patients with clinically relevant knee OA. Th cell infiltration of the SM might play a crucial role not only in the pathogenesis of OA but also in the development of OA-related knee pain and disability.
Project description:The aim was to investigate CD4+T-cell subsets, immune cells and their cytokine profiles in blood and synovial compartments in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and inflammatory osteoarthritis (OA) to define specific immune signatures.Peripheral blood, synovial fluid (SF) and synovial membranes (SM) of RA and OA patients were analyzed. CD4+T-cell subset frequencies were determined by flow cytometry, and cytokine concentrations in serum and SF were measured by ELISA.In peripheral blood, OA patients had altered frequencies of regulatory T-cell subsets, and higher frequencies of Th17 and of Th1/17 cells than RA patients. In the synovial compartment of OA patients, conventional Th17 cells were largely excluded, while Th1/17 cells were enriched and more frequent than in RA patients. Conversely, in the synovial compartment of RA patients, regulatory T cells and Tfh cells were enriched and more frequent then in OA patients. IL-17 and Blys were increased both in serum and SF of RA patients, and correlated with autoantibodies and disease activity. Notably, Blys levels were already significantly elevated in RA patients with low disease activity score in 28 joints (DAS28) and without autoantibody positivity.Although patients with inflammatory OA have immune activation in the synovial compartment, they display different T-cell subset frequencies and cytokine profiles. Soluble mediators such as Blys might help to discriminate mild clinical forms of RA from inflammatory OA particularly at the onset of the disease.
Project description:BACKGROUND AIMS:With the increasing use of cell therapies involving immune modulatory cells, there is a need for a simple standardized method to evaluate and compare the suppressive potency of different cell products. We used the Karpas 299 (K299) cell line as the reference suppressor cell to develop a standardized suppression assay to quantify the immune-modulatory capacity of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs). METHODS:Healthy donor CD4 T cells were co-cultured with the K299 cell line or with third-party BM-MSCs. After stimulation with anti-CD3/CD28 beads, CD154 activation and proliferation of CD4 T cells were measured to calculate suppression. RESULTS:The K299 cell line reproducibly suppressed both the activation and proliferation of healthy donor CD4 T cells in a dose-dependent manner. A rapid (16-h) assay that was based on activation-suppression was selected for development. In replicate testing, there was an inherent variability of suppression of 11% coefficient of variation between different responder T cells. Suppression by BM-MSCs on different responders correlated with suppression by K299. We therefore used K299 suppression as the reference to define suppression potency of BM-MSCs in K299 Suppression Units. We found that inter-donor variability, passage number, method of manufacture and exposure of BM-MSCs to steroids or interferon-? all affected BM-MSC potency of suppression. CONCLUSIONS:This method provides a platform for standardizing suppressor function to facilitate comparisons between laboratories and for use as a cell product release assay.
Project description:Progressive loss of joint function in osteoarthritis (OA) is driven by degenerative and inflammatory processes and their complex interaction. Decoding the link between degeneration and inflammation is one of the most exciting approaches in understanding OA pathophysiology and holds the promise to open new therapeutic avenues. The overarching goal of this project was to analyze the impact of mononuclear cells (MNC) on enzymatic chondrodestructive processes (MMP/ADAMTS) in OA. Synovial membrane (SM), articular cartilage (AC) and peripheral blood (PB) were obtained from a total of 21 patients with advanced knee OA who underwent arthroplastic surgery. In supernatants of native synovial cell cultures, T cell-depleted synovial cell cultures and macrophage-depleted synovial cell cultures, the concentrations of various metalloproteinases were examined by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Furthermore, ELISA was used to analyze concentrations of metalloproteinases in supernatants of chondrocyte monocultures and chondrocyte co-cultures with CD4+CD127dim/- enriched peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), Treg depleted CD4+CD25-CD127dim/- enriched PBMC and CD4+CD25+CD127dim/- Treg. Compared to native synovial cell culture, T cell depletion led to significantly lower levels of MMP1, MMP3 and MMP-9 and macrophage depletion led to a significant decline of MMP1, MMP3, MMP9 and ADAMTS-5 concentration. Compared to T cell depletion, macrophage depletion resulted in a significantly stronger reduction of MMP1, MMP3, MMP9 and ADAMTS5. In chondrocyte co-culture with CD4+CD127dim/- enriched PBMC the concentration of MMP1 and ADAMTS5 was significantly increased compared to chondrocyte monoculture. No significant differences were found between chondrocyte monoculture and chondrocyte coculture with Treg as well as between co-culture with CD4+CD127dim/- enriched PBMC containing Treg and co-culture with Treg-depleted CD4+CD25-CD127dim/- enriched PBMC. In conclusion, our data suggests that both synovial macrophages and T cells have a catabolic potential by inducing the release of chondrodestructive metalloproteinases in OA synovium. This study also supports the hypothesis that MNC affect the release of metalloproteinases by chondrocytes and are hereby involved in the cartilageinduced chondrodestructive process. In this study no suppressive effect of Treg was shown.
Project description:Mesenchymal stem cells derived from the synovial membrane (synovial MSCs) are a candidate cell source for regenerative medicine of cartilage and menisci due to their high chondrogenic ability. Regenerative medicine can be expected for RA patients with the inflammation well-controlled as well as OA patients and transplantation of synovial MSCs would also be a possible therapeutic treatment. Some properties of synovial MSCs vary dependent on the diseases patients have, and whether or not the pathological condition of RA affects the chondrogenesis of synovial MSCs remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to compare the properties of primary synovial MSCs between RA and OA patients.Human synovial tissue was harvested during total knee arthroplasty from the knee joints of eight patients with RA and OA respectively. Synovial nucleated cells were cultured for 14 days. Total cell yields, surface markers, and differentiation potentials were analyzed for primary synovial MSCs.Nucleated cell number per 1 mg synovium was 8.4?±?3.9 thousand in RA and 8.0?±?0.9 thousand in OA. Total cell number after 14-day culture/1 mg synovium was 0.7?±?0.4 million in RA and 0.5?±?0.3 million in OA, showing no significant difference between in RA and OA. Cells after 14-day culture were mostly positive for CD44, CD73, CD90, CD105, negative for CD45 both in RA and OA. There was no significant difference for the cartilage pellet weight and sGAG content per pellet between in RA and OA. Both oil red O-positive colony rate and alizarin red-positive colony rate were similar in RA and OA.Yields, surface markers and chondrogenic potential of primary synovial MSCs in RA were comparable to those in OA. Synovium derived from RA patients can be the cell source of MSCs for cartilage and meniscus regeneration.
Project description:Mesenchymal stem or stromal cells (MSCs) exert chondroprotective effects in preclinical models of osteoarthritis (OA). Most of their therapeutic effects are mediated via soluble mediators, which can be conveyed within extracellular vesicles (EVs). The objective of the study was to compare the respective role of exosomes (Exos) or microvesicles/microparticles (MPs) in OA. MPs and Exos were isolated from bone marrow murine BM-MSCs through differential centrifugation. Effect of MPs or Exos was evaluated on OA-like murine chondrocytes and chondroprotection was quantified by RT-qPCR. In OA-like chondrocytes, BM-MSC-derived MPs and Exos could reinduce the expression of chondrocyte markers (type II collagen, aggrecan) while inhibiting catabolic (MMP-13, ADAMTS5) and inflammatory (iNOS) markers. Exos and MPs were also shown to protect chondrocytes from apoptosis and to inhibit macrophage activation. In vivo, Exos or MPs were injected in the collagenase-induced OA (CIOA) model and histomorphometric analyses of joints were performed by µCT and confocal laser microscopy. BM-MSCs, MPs and Exos equally protected mice from joint damage. In conclusion, MPs and Exos exerted similar chondroprotective and anti-inflammatory function in vitro and protected mice from developing OA in vivo, suggesting that either Exos or MPs reproduced the main therapeutic effect of BM-MSCs.
Project description:Mid-substance rupture of the canine cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CR) and associated stifle osteoarthritis (OA) is an important veterinary health problem. CR causes stifle joint instability and contralateral CR often develops. The dog is an important model for human anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture, where rupture of graft repair or the contralateral ACL is also common. This suggests that both genetic and environmental factors may increase ligament rupture risk. We investigated use of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) to reduce systemic and stifle joint inflammatory responses in dogs with CR. Twelve dogs with unilateral CR and contralateral stable partial CR were enrolled prospectively. BM-MSCs were collected during surgical treatment of the unstable CR stifle and culture-expanded. BM-MSCs were subsequently injected at a dose of 2x106 BM-MSCs/kg intravenously and 5x106 BM-MSCs by intra-articular injection of the partial CR stifle. Blood (entry, 4 and 8 weeks) and stifle synovial fluid (entry and 8 weeks) were obtained after BM-MSC injection. No adverse events after BM-MSC treatment were detected. Circulating CD8+ T lymphocytes were lower after BM-MSC injection. Serum C-reactive protein (CRP) was decreased at 4 weeks and serum CXCL8 was increased at 8 weeks. Synovial CRP in the complete CR stifle was decreased at 8 weeks. Synovial IFN? was also lower in both stifles after BM-MSC injection. Synovial/serum CRP ratio at diagnosis in the partial CR stifle was significantly correlated with development of a second CR. Systemic and intra-articular injection of autologous BM-MSCs in dogs with partial CR suppresses systemic and stifle joint inflammation, including CRP concentrations. Intra-articular injection of autologous BM-MSCs had profound effects on the correlation and conditional dependencies of cytokines using causal networks. Such treatment effects could ameliorate risk of a second CR by modifying the stifle joint inflammatory response associated with cranial cruciate ligament matrix degeneration or damage.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:A population of synovial inflammatory dendritic cells (infDCs) has recently been identified in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and is thought to be monocyte-derived. Here, we investigated the role and source of granulocyte macrophage-colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in the differentiation of synovial infDC in RA. METHODS:Production of GM-CSF by peripheral blood (PB) and synovial fluid (SF) CD4+ T cells was assessed by ELISA and flow cytometry. In vitro CD4+ T-cell polarisation experiments were performed with T-cell activating CD2/CD3/CD28-coated beads in the absence or presence of pro-Th1 or pro-Th17 cytokines. CD1c+ DC and CD16+ macrophage subsets were flow-sorted and analysed morphologically and functionally (T-cell stimulatory/polarising capacity). RESULTS:RA-SF CD4+ T cells produced abundant GM-CSF upon stimulation and significantly more than RA-SF mononuclear cells depleted of CD4+ T cells. GM-CSF-producing T cells were significantly increased in RA-SF compared with non-RA inflammatory arthritis SF, active RA PB and healthy donor PB. GM-CSF-producing CD4+ T cells were expanded by Th1-promoting but not Th17-promoting conditions. Following coculture with RA-SF CD4+ T cells, but not healthy donor PB CD4+ T cells, a subpopulation of monocytes differentiated into CD1c+ infDC; a process dependent on GM-CSF. These infDC displayed potent alloproliferative capacity and enhanced GM-CSF, interleukin-17 and interferon-? production by CD4+ T cells. InfDC with an identical phenotype to in vitro generated cells were significantly enriched in RA-SF compared with non-RA-SF/tissue/PB. CONCLUSIONS:We demonstrate a therapeutically tractable feedback loop of GM-CSF secreted by RA synovial CD4+ T cells promoting the differentiation of infDC with potent capacity to induce GM-CSF-producing CD4+ T cells.