Effects of remifentanil and remifentanil-alfentanil administration on emergence agitation after brief ophthalmic surgery in children.
ABSTRACT: Sevoflurane is commonly usedin pediatric anesthesia due to its non-irritating airway properties, and rapid induction and emergence. However, it is associated with emergence agitation (EA) in children. EA may cause injury to the child or damage to the surgical site and is a cause of stress to both caregivers and families. The efficacy of remifentanil and additional alfentanil on EA in the pediatric patients underwent ophthalmic surgery with sevofluraneanesthesiawas not well evaluated to date. This study was designed to compare the effects of remifentanil and remifentanil plus alfentanil on EA in children undergoing ophthalmic surgery with sevofluraneanesthesia.Children (aged 3-9 years) undergoing ophthalmic surgery undersevoflurane anesthesia were randomly assigned to group S (sevoflurane alone), group R (sevofluraneandremifentanil infusion, 0.1 ?g/kg/min), or group RA (sevoflurane withremifentanil infusion and intravenous injection of alfentanil 5 ?g/kg 10 min before the end of surgery). Mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), and sevoflurane concentration were checked every 15 min after induction of anesthesia. The incidence of EA, time to extubation from discontinuation of sevoflurane inhalation, and time to discharge from the postanesthesia care unit was assessed.The incidence of EA was significantly lower in groups R (32 %, 11/34; P?=?0.01) and RA (31 %, 11/35; P?=?0.008) than group S (64 %, 21/33). The time to extubation was prolonged in group RA (11.2?±?2.3 min; P?=?0.004 and P?=?0.016) compared with groups S (9.2?±?2.3 min) andR (9.5?±?2.4 min). MAP and HR were similar in all three groups, apart from a reduction in HR at 45 min in groups R and RA. However, the sevoflurane concentration was lower in groups R and RA than group S (P?
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Remifentanil is widely used for ultrasound-guided percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of small hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We determined whether dexmedetomidine could be an alternative to remifentanil for RFA of HCC under general anesthesia with sevoflurane.<h4>Methods</h4>We prospectively randomized patients scheduled to undergo RFA for HCC to a dexmedetomidine (DEX) group or remifentanil (REMI) group (47 patients each). In the DEX group, a bolus infusion (0.4 ?g kg<sup>-?1</sup>) was started 15 min before anesthesia induction and continued at 0.2 ?g kg<sup>-?1</sup> h<sup>-?1</sup> until 10 min before the end of surgery. In the REMI group, 3 ?g kg<sup>-?1</sup> h<sup>-?1</sup> of remifentanil was administered from 15 min before anesthesia induction to the end of the surgery. The primary endpoint was postoperative pain intensity. Secondary endpoints included analgesic requirement, postoperative liver function, patient comfort, and hemodynamic changes. Group allocation was concealed from patients and data analysts but not from anesthesiologists.<h4>Results</h4>Postoperative pain intensity, analgesic consumption, comfort, liver function, and time to emergence and extubation did not differ between the two groups. Heart rate, but not mean arterial pressure, was significantly lower in the DEX group than in the REMI group, at 1 min after intubation and from 30 min after the start of the surgery until anesthesia recovery. Sevoflurane concentration and dosage were significantly lower in the DEX group than in the REMI group.<h4>Conclusion</h4>During RFA for HCC, low-dose dexmedetomidine reduced the heart rate and need for inhalational anesthetics, without exacerbating postoperative discomfort or liver dysfunction. Although it did not exhibit outstanding advantages over remifentanil in terms of pain management, dexmedetomidine could be a safe alternative adjuvant for RFA under sevoflurane anesthesia.<h4>Trial registration</h4>Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, ChiCTR-OPC-15006613 . Registered on 16 June 2015.
Project description:The aim of the present study was to observe whether dexmedetomidine (DEX) combined with sufentanil decreased emergence agitation (EA) in children receiving sevoflurane anesthesia for cleft palate repair surgery. Children undergoing elective cleft palate repair surgery were randomly allocated into the DEX + sufentanil group (group DS; n=50) and the normal saline + fentanyl group (group SF; n=50). Patients in group DS were treated with 0.5 µg/kg DEX prior to induction of anesthesia, whereas patients in group SF received an equal volume of normal saline. Sufentanil (0.2 µg/kg) was administered to induce anesthesia, and 30 min before the end of surgery for patients in group DS. Fentanyl (2 µg/kg) was administered at the same time point for patients in group SF. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), duration of surgery and anesthesia, and the dosage of remifentanil were assessed. EA score, Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium (PAED) score and the Children and Infants Postoperative Pain Scale (CHIPPS) score were documented every 15 min in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU). The number of cases requiring fentanyl (1 µg/kg) and the recovery profile data were analyzed. Compared with group DS (P<0.05) and the baseline (P<0.05), HR and MAP were significantly increased in group SF immediately following tracheal intubation and extubation. Mean values of maximum EA, PAED and CHIPPS scores were significantly reduced in group DS compared with group SF at 0 (P<0.01), 15 (P<0.05), and 30 min (P<0.05) after arrival at PACU. The incidence of EA in group SF was significantly increased compared with group DS (P<0.05). The dosage of remifentanil during the surgery and the number of cases requiring fentanyl (1 µg/kg) in group DS were significantly decreased compared with group SF (P<0.05). The findings of the present study suggested that DEX combined with sufentanil was able to effectively decrease the incidence of EA in children receiving sevoflurane anesthesia for cleft palate repair surgery.
Project description:We conducted a prospective, randomized, multicenter study to evaluate the differences in the blocking effect of different doses of rocuronium between sevoflurane- or propofol-remifentanil anesthesia in an Asian population.A total of 368 ASA I-II patients was enrolled. Anesthesia was induced with 2.0 mg/kg propofol and 0.1 μg/kg/min remifentanil (TIVA) or 5.0 vol.% sevoflurane with 0.1 μg/kg/min remifentanil (SEVO). Tracheal intubation was facilitated at 180 s after the administration of rocuronium at 0.3, 0.6, or 0.9 mg/kg and then intubation condition was evaluated. The time to maximum block and recovery profile were monitored by TOF stimulation of the ulnar nerve and by recording the adductor pollicis response using acceleromyography.The numbers of patients with clinically acceptable intubation conditions were 41, 82, and 97 % (TIVA) and 34, 85, and 90 % (SEVO) at each dose of rocuronium, respectively. There were no significant differences in the time to maximum block between groups at each rocuronium dose. There were significant differences in the recovery to a train-of-four ratio of 90 % between the groups: 42.7 (19.5), 74.8 (29.9), and 118.4 (35.1) min (TIVA) and 66.5 (39.3), 110.2 (43.5), and 144.4 (57.5) min (SEVO) at 0.3, 0.6, and 0.9 mg/kg, respectively (P < 0.001).There are no significant differences in intubation conditions between propofol-remifentanil and sevoflurane-remifentanil anesthesia at the same dose of rocuronium. The type of anesthetic does not significantly influence the time to maximum block by rocuronium. Rocuronium at a dose of 0.9 mg/kg should be used for better intubation conditions with both anesthesia regimens in an Asian population.UMIN-CTR Clinical Trial ( http://www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/index.htm ; UMIN#000007289 ; date of registration 14(th) February 2012).
Project description:Background: Combination of dexmedetomidine and opioid may be an alternative to high-dose opioid in attenuating cough during emergence from anesthesia, while also reducing the adverse effects of high-dose opioid. We tested the hypothesis that a single-dose of dexmedetomidine combined with low-dose remifentanil infusion during emergence would not be inferior to high-dose remifentanil infusion alone in attenuating cough after thyroidectomy. Methods: One hundred sixty-nine patients undergoing thyroidectomy were enrolled and randomized in a 1:1 ratio into group DR or group R. Each patient received an infusion of dexmedetomidine (0.5 μg/kg) and low-dose remifentanil infusion of effect-site concentration (Ce) at 1 ng/mL or normal saline and high-dose remifentanil infusion of Ce at 2 ng/mL for 10 min at the end of surgery. Remifentanil was maintained until tracheal extubation. Primary endpoint was the severity of coughing, which was assessed for non-inferiority using a four-point scale at the time of extubation. For comparison of coughing incidence during emergence, coughing grade was also measured at three times: before extubation, at extubation, and after extubation. Time to awakening, hemodynamic and respiratory profile, pain, and postoperative nausea and vomiting were also evaluated for superiority. Results: The 95% confidence intervals for differences in cough grade during tracheal extubation were <0.9, indicating non-inferiority of the single dose of dexmedetomidine combined with low-dose remifentanil infusion. The incidence of coughing was similar in the two groups. Hemodynamic changes during tracheal extubation were attenuated, but emergence from anesthesia was delayed, in group DR. Use of rescue antiemetic was similar in both groups, but the incidence of vomiting was less in group DR. Conclusion: A single-dose of dexmedetomidine (0.5 μg/kg) combined with low-dose remifentanil infusion at 1 ng/mL of Ce during emergence from sevoflurane-remifentanil anesthesia was not inferior to high-dose remifentanil infusion alone at 2 ng/mL of Ce with regard to suppressing cough.
Project description:It is skeptical about cardioprotective property of sevoflurane in patients undergoing noncardiac surgery, especially in the elderly patients with coronary heart disease. We hypothesized that long duration of sevoflurane inhalation in noncardiac surgery could ameliorate myocardial damage in such patients.This was a randomized, prospective study. One hundred twenty-one elderly patients with coronary heart disease were randomly allocated into two groups. Maintenance of anesthesia was achieved by sevoflurane inhalation (Group S) or propofol-remifentanil respectively (Group PR). Serum cardiac troponin I (cTnI) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) were measured before anesthesia induction (T0), 8 h (T1) and 24 h (T2) after anesthesia respectively. The perioperative cardiac output, complications and postoperative 3-month follow-up from end of surgery were recorded.Between the two groups, there were no statistical differences in the values of cTnI and BNP during the study. However, The area under the curve of cTnI values over 24 h after operation was less in Group S. Group PR had lower cardiac output and consumed more amount of phenylephrine during the study (P < 0.05).Compared with the group PR, sevoflurane had no benefit in the myocardial protection for the elderly patients with CHD. However, Sevoflurane showed advantage in maintaining hemodynamic stability during the operative period.Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, ChiCTR-IPR-16008871 , 21 July 2016.
Project description:One-lung ventilation during thoracic surgery frequently disturbs normal systemic oxygenation. However, the effect of anesthetics on arterial oxygenation during one-lung ventilation has not been well established in human study. In this clinical trial, we investigated whether a difference between desflurane-remifentanil and propofol-remifentanil anesthesia can be observed with regard to oxygenation during one-lung ventilation for thoracoscopic surgery.Adult patients with lung cancer, scheduled for video-assisted thoracoscopic lobectomy without preoperative oxygen support, were screened and randomized to receive desflurane or propofol, with remifentanil continuous infusion in both groups. Mechanical ventilation was performed with tidal volume of 8 ml/kg and FIO2 0.5 during two-lung ventilation, and 6 ml/kg and 1.0 during one-lung ventilation, both with positive end-expiratory pressure of 5 cmH2O. Arterial blood gas analysis was performed preoperatively, during two-lung ventilation, and after 15, 30, 45, and 60 min of one-lung ventilation. The primary endpoint was PaO2 at 30 min after initiating one-lung ventilation. Statistical analyses included the independent t-test for the primary endpoint and a mixed model with a post-hoc analysis to evaluate the serial changes in values.Patients were recruited between July 9 and December 2, 2014. In total, 103 patients were analyzed (n?=?52 in desflurane group and n?=?51 in propofol group). The primary endpoint, PaO2 at 30 min of one-lung ventilation was lower in the desflurane group than the propofol group (170?±?72 vs. 202?±?82 mmHg; p?=?0.039). Serial changes in PaO2 during one-lung ventilation showed lower levels during desflurane anesthesia compared with propofol anesthesia (mean difference, 45 mmHg; 95% confidence interval, 16-75 mmHg; p?=?0.003).In conclusion, desflurane-remifentanil anesthesia resulted in decreased arterial oxygenation compared with that of propofol-remifentanil anesthesia during one-lung ventilation for thoracoscopic surgery in patients with lung cancer.ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02191371 , registered on July 7, 2014.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Endotracheal intubation for general anesthesia causes postoperative sore throat (POST). This study is designed to evaluate the effect of high-dose remifentanil on the incidence of POST in patients after general anesthesia. METHODS:Ninety-two patients scheduled for orthopedic lower extremity surgery under general anesthesia were randomly assigned into 1 of 2 groups. In the high-dose remifentanil (HR) group (n?=?46), remifentanil was infused at a rate of 0.25??g/kg/min and subsequently increased or decreased by 0.05??g/kg/min per clinical demand. In the low-dose remifentanil (LR) group (n?=?46), remifentanil was infused at a rate of 0.05??g/kg/min. The incidence of POST was monitored at 0, 2, 4, and 24 hours postoperatively. Complications regarding opioids were compared between groups. RESULTS:The overall incidence of POST was higher in the HR group compared with that in the LR group [33 (72%) vs 18 (39%), P?=?.022]. The incidence of POST at 0, 2, and 24?hours after surgery was higher in the HR group compared with that in the LR group (P?<?.001, P?=?.001, and P?=?.001, respectively). The incidence of postoperative nausea, vomiting, drowsiness, and headache was similar between the groups. The incidence of postoperative shivering was higher in the HR group than in the LR group [10 (22%) vs 2 (4%), difference 17%, 95% CI 2%-33%, P?=?.027]. CONCLUSION:A relatively large dose of intraoperative remifentanil increased the incidence of POST in patients for orthopedic surgery under general anesthesia. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT03173339.
Project description:Even extremely high-doses of the potent opioid, sufentanil, cannot reliably suppress stress responses to intense surgical stimuli such as sternotomy. The chemically related opioid remifentanil with its different pharmacokinetics and binding affinities for delta- and kappa-opioid receptors might be more effective in attenuating these responses.ASA I-III patients scheduled for a surgical procedure with sternotomy under balanced anesthesia (sevoflurane and sufentanil 3 ?g.kg(-1) bolus, 0.017 ?g.kg(-1).min(-1) infusion) were randomized into two groups. Patients in the study group were supplemented with remifentanil (2 ?g.kg(-1) bolus, 2-7 ?g.kg(-1).min(-1) infusion) starting ten minutes before sternotomy. Heart rate, arterial blood pressures, cardiac index, ejection fraction, systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI), total body oxygen uptake (VO2) and electric dermal response were measured and compared between the groups.62 patients were studied (study group 32, control group 30). Systolic and mean arterial blood pressures, SVRI, VO2 and skin conductance increased during sternotomy and sternal spread in the control group but not in the study group. Systolic blood pressure increase: 7.5?±?19 mmHg vs. -3.4?±?8.9 (p?=?0.005); VO2 increase: 31?±?46% vs. -0.4?±?32%; incidence of systolic blood pressure increase greater than 15 percent: 20% vs. 3% (p?=?0.035) (control vs. study group).High-dose remifentanil added to sevoflurane-sufentanil anesthesia suppresses the sympathoadrenergic response to sternotomy and sternal spread better than high-dose sufentanil alone.DRKS00004327, August 31, 2012.
Project description:During emergence from general anesthesia, coughing caused by the endotracheal tube frequently occurs and is associated with various adverse complications. In patients undergoing endovascular neurointervention, achieving smooth emergence from general anesthesia without coughing is emphasized since coughing is associated with intracranial hypertension. Therefore, the up-and-down method was introduced to determine the effective effect-site concentration (Ce) of remifentanil to prevent coughing in 50% and 95% (EC50 and EC95) of patients during emergence from sevoflurane anesthesia for endovascular neurointervention. A total of 43 participants, American Society of Anesthesiologists class I or II participants, aged from 20 to 70 years who were undergoing endovascular neurointervention through transfemoral catheter for cerebrovascular disease were enrolled. Using the up-and-down method with isotonic regression, the EC50 and EC95 of remifentanil to prevent coughing during emergence from sevoflurane anesthesia were determined. We also investigated differences of hemodynamic and recovery profiles between the cough suppression group and the cough group. In total, 38 of 43 patients were included for estimation of EC50 and EC95. The EC50 and EC95 of remifentanil to prevent coughing were 1.42 ng/mL (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.28-1.56 ng/mL) and 1.70 ng/mL (95% CI, 1.67-2.60 ng/mL), respectively. There was comparable emergence and recovery data between the cough suppression group (n = 22) and the cough group (n = 16). However, the Ce of remifentanil and total dose of remifentanil were significantly higher in the cough suppression group (P = 0.002 and P = 0.004, respectively). Target-controlled infusion of remifentanil at 1.70 ng/mL could effectively prevent extubation-related coughing in 95% of neurointervention patients, which could ensure smooth emergence.
Project description:BACKGROUND:ProSeal (PLMA) and Supreme (SLMA) laryngeal mask airways are effective ventilator devices with distinctive designs that may require different anaesthetics for insertion. Sevoflurane induction provides acceptable conditions for laryngeal mask insertion, and remifentanil significantly decreases the minimum alveolar concentration of sevoflurane required for that insertion. The study aimed to evaluate the optimal end-tidal (ET) sevoflurane concentration for successful insertion of PLMA versus SLMA in patients receiving a remifentanil infusion without a neuromuscular blocking agent. METHODS:Altogether, 45 patients ASA (American Society Anaesthesiologists) physical status I-II, aged 18-60?years were scheduled for elective ambulatory surgery. Exclusion criteria were a difficult airway, recent respiratory infection, reactive airway, obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome, gastric aspiration's risk factors, pregnancy, and lactation. Patients were randomly allocated to receive the SLMA or the PLMA. Sevoflurane induction with co-administration of remifentanil was performed at an effect-site concentration of 4?ng?mL-?1. ET50 was calculated with a modified Dixon's up-and-down method (starting at 2.5% in steps of 0.5%). Predetermined sevoflurane concentration was kept constant during the 10?min before LMA insertion. Patient's response to LMA insertion was classified as "movement" or "no movement". Sevoflurane ET50 was determined as the midpoint concentration of all the independent pairs that manifested crossover from "movement" to "no movement". RESULTS:The ET50 sevoflurane concentration co-administered with remifentanil required for PLMA insertion was 1.20?±?0.41% (95% confidence interval 0.76 to 1.63%). For SLMA insertion, it was 0.55?±?0.38% (95% confidence interval 0.14 to 0.95%) (p =?0.019). CONCLUSIONS:The end-tidal sevoflurane concentration with co-administered remifentanil required to allow insertion of the SLMA was 54% lower than that needed for inserting the PLMA. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT03003377. Retrospectively registered. Date of registration: December 28, 2016.