Identification of learning-induced changes in protein networks in the hippocampi of a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.
ABSTRACT: Memory loss is the most profound clinical manifestation in Alzheimer's disease (AD); however, the molecular mechanisms underlying these deficits are poorly understood. Identification of the molecular pathways involved in the onset of cognitive deficits may lead to the identification of key events in the pathogenesis of AD. Using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) and proteomic methods, here we identified learning-induced changes in the hippocampal proteome of non-transgenic (NonTg) and 3 × Tg-AD mice, a widely used animal model of AD. We found that expression of 192 proteins was differentially regulated by learning in NonTg mice. Notably, of these 192 proteins, only 28 were also differentially regulated by learning in 3 × Tg-AD mice, whereas the levels of 164 proteins were uniquely changed in NonTg mice but not in 3 × Tg-AD mice. These data suggest that during learning, 3 × Tg-AD mice fail to differentially regulate 164 proteins. Gene ontology and protein interaction analyses indicated that these proteins were overrepresented in RNA processing, specifically RNA transport, splicing and mRNA translation initiation pathways. These findings suggest that mRNA-processing events that take place during learning and memory are significantly altered in 3 × Tg-AD mice.
Project description:Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common form of dementia, disproportionately affects women in both prevalence and severity. This increased vulnerability to AD in women is strongly associated with age-related ovarian hormone loss and apolipoprotein E 4 allele (ApoE4), the most important genetic risk factor for sporadic AD. Up to date, the mechanism involved in the interaction between ApoE4 and sex/gender in AD is still unclear. This study evaluated the sex-dependent ApoE4 effects on learning and memory, A? deposition and potential mechanisms, using mice bearing both sporadic (ApoE4) and familial (APPSwe, PS1M146V, tauP301L; 3xTg) AD risk factors and compared with sex- and age-matched 3xTg or nonTg mice. Compared to nonTg mice, transgenic mice of both sexes showed spatial learning and memory deficits in the radial arm water maze and novel arm discrimination tests at 20 months of age. However, at 10 months, only ApoE4/3xTg mice showed significant learning and memory impairment. Moreover, molecular studies of hippocampal tissue revealed significantly higher protein levels of A? species, ?-site APP cleavage enzyme (BACE1) and Sp1, a transcription factor of BACE1, in female ApoE4/3xTg when compared with female nonTg, female 3xTg, and male ApoE4/3xTg mice. Significantly increased BACE1 enzymatic activities were observed in both male and female mice carrying ApoE4; however, only the females showed significant higher BACE1 expressions. Together, these data suggest that ApoE4 allele is associated with increased BACE1 enzymatic activity, while female sex plays an important role in increasing BACE1 expression. The combination of both provides a molecular basis for high A? pathology and the resultant hippocampus-dependent learning and memory deficits in female ApoE4 carriers.
Project description:Many in vivo studies suggest that inhalational anesthetics can accelerate or prevent the progression of neuropathology and cognitive impairments in Alzheimer Disease (AD), but the synaptic mechanisms mediating these ambiguous effects are unclear. Here, we show that repeated exposures of neonatal and old triple transgenic AD (3xTg) and non-transgenic (NonTg) mice to isoflurane (Iso) distinctly increased neurodegeneration as measured by S100? levels, intracellular A?, Tau oligomerization, and apoptotic markers. Spatial cognition measured by reference and working memory testing in the Morris Water Maze (MWM) were altered in young NonTg and 3xTg. Field recordings in the cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) hippocampus showed that neonatal control 3xTg mice exhibited hypo-excitable synaptic transmission, reduced paired-pulse facilitation (PPF), and normal long-term potentiation (LTP) compared to NonTg controls. By contrast, the old control 3xTg mice exhibited hyper-excitable synaptic transmission, enhanced PPF, and unstable LTP compared to NonTg controls. Repeated Iso exposures reduced synaptic transmission and PPF in neonatal NonTg and old 3xTg mice. LTP was normalized in old 3xTg mice, but reduced in neonates. By contrast, LTP was reduced in old but not neonatal NonTg mice. Our results indicate that Iso-mediated neuropathologic and cognitive defects in AD mice are associated with synaptic pathologies in an age-dependent manner. Based on these findings, the extent of this association with age and, possibly, treatment paradigms warrant further study.
Project description:Advanced age and mutations in the genes encoding amyloid precursor protein (APP) and presenilin (PS1) are two serious risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Finding common pathogenic changes originating from these risks may lead to a new therapeutic strategy. We observed a decline in memory performance and reduction in hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) in both mature adult (9-15 months) transgenic APP/PS1 mice and old (19-25 months) non-transgenic (nonTg) mice. By contrast, in the presence of bicuculline, a GABA(A) receptor antagonist, LTP in adult APP/PS1 mice and old nonTg mice was larger than that in adult nonTg mice. The increased LTP levels in bicuculline-treated slices suggested that GABA(A) receptor-mediated inhibition in adult APP/PS1 and old nonTg mice was upregulated. Assuming that enhanced inhibition of LTP mediates memory decline in APP/PS1 mice, we rescued memory deficits in adult APP/PS1 mice by treating them with another GABA(A) receptor antagonist, picrotoxin (PTX), at a non-epileptic dose for 10 days. Among the saline vehicle-treated groups, substantially higher levels of synaptic proteins such as GABA(A) receptor alpha1 subunit, PSD95, and NR2B were observed in APP/PS1 mice than in nonTg control mice. This difference was insignificant among PTX-treated groups, suggesting that memory decline in APP/PS1 mice may result from changes in synaptic protein levels through homeostatic mechanisms. Several independent studies reported previously in aged rodents both an increased level of GABA(A) receptor alpha1 subunit and improvement of cognitive functions by long term GABA(A) receptor antagonist treatment. Therefore, reduced LTP linked to enhanced GABA(A) receptor-mediated inhibition may be triggered by aging and may be accelerated by familial AD-linked gene products like Abeta and mutant PS1, leading to cognitive decline that is pharmacologically treatable at least at this stage of disease progression in mice.
Project description:Old age is a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD), which is characterized by hippocampal impairment together with substantial changes in glial cell functions. Are these alterations due to the disease progression or are they a consequence of aging? To start addressing this issue, we studied the expression of specific astrocytic and microglial structural and functional proteins in a validated transgenic model of AD (3×Tg-AD). These mice develop both amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, and initial signs of the AD-like pathology have been documented as early as three months of age. We compared male 3×Tg-AD mice at 6 and 12 months of age with their wild-type age-matched counterparts. We also investigated neurons by examining the expression of both the microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2), a neuronal structural protein, and the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). The latter is indeed a crucial indicator for synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis/neurodegeneration. Our results show that astrocytes are more susceptible to aging than microglia, regardless of mouse genotype. Moreover, we discovered significant age-dependent alterations in the expression of proteins responsible for astrocyte-astrocyte and astrocyte-neuron communication, as well as a significant age-dependent decline in BDNF expression. Our data promote further research on the unexplored role of astroglia in both physiological and pathological aging.
Project description:Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative condition believed to be initiated by production of amyloid-beta peptide, which leads to synaptic dysfunction and progressive memory loss. Using a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (3xTg-AD), an 8-arm radial maze was employed to assess spatial working memory. Unexpectedly, the younger (3month old) 3xTg-AD mice were as impaired in the spatial working memory task as the older (8month old) 3xTg-AD mice when compared with age-matched NonTg control animals. Field potential recordings from the CA1 region of slices prepared from the ventral hippocampus were obtained to assess synaptic transmission and capability for synaptic plasticity. At 3months of age, the NMDA receptor-dependent component of LTP was reduced in 3xTg-AD mice. However, the magnitude of the non-NMDA receptor-dependent component of LTP was concomitantly increased, resulting in a similar amount of total LTP in 3xTg-AD and NonTg mice. At 8months of age, the NMDA receptor-dependent LTP was again reduced in 3xTg-AD mice, but now the non-NMDA receptor-dependent component was decreased as well, resulting in a significantly reduced total amount of LTP in 3xTg-AD compared with NonTg mice. Both 3 and 8month old 3xTg-AD mice exhibited reductions in paired-pulse facilitation and NMDA receptor-dependent LTP that coincided with the deficit in spatial working memory. The early presence of this cognitive impairment and the associated alterations in synaptic plasticity demonstrate that the onset of some behavioral and neurophysiological consequences can occur before the detectable presence of plaques and tangles in the 3xTg-AD mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.
Project description:The emergence of Alzheimer`s disease as a systemic pathology shifted the research paradigm toward a better understanding of the molecular basis of the disease considering the pathophysiological changes in both brain and peripheral tissues. In the present study, we evaluated the impact of disease progression on physiological relevant features of skeletal muscle obtained from 3, 6 and 12 month-old 3xTg-AD mice, a model of Alzheimer`s disease, and respective agematched nonTg mice. Our results showed that skeletal muscle functionality is already affected in 3-month-old 3xTg-AD mice as evidenced by deficient acetylcholinesterase and catalase activities as well as by alterations in fatty acid composition of mitochondrial membranes. Additionally, an age-dependent accumulation of amyloid-?1-40 peptide occurred in skeletal muscle of 3xTg-AD mice, an effect that preceded bioenergetics mitochondrial dysfunction, which was only detected at 12 months of age, characterized by decreased respiratory control ratio and ADP/O index and by an impairment of complex I activity. HPLC-MS/MS analyses revealed significant changes in phospholipid composition of skeletal muscle tissues from 3xTg-AD mice with 12 months of age when compared with age-matched nonTg mice. Increased levels of lyso-phosphatidylcholine associated with a decrease of phosphatidylcholine molecular species containing arachidonic acid were detected in 3xTg-AD mice, indicating an enhancement of phospholipase A2 activity and skeletal muscle inflammation. Additionally, a decrease of phosphatidylethanolamine plasmalogens content and an increase in phosphatidylinositol levels was observed in 3xTg-AD mice when compared with age-matched nonTg mice. Altogether, these observations suggest that the skeletal muscle of 3xTg-AD mice are more prone to oxidative and inflammatory events.
Project description:Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease manifested by cognitive impairment. As a unique approach to open the blood-brain barrier (BBB) noninvasively and temporarily, a growing number of studies showed that low-intensity focused ultrasound in combination with microbubbles (FUS/MB), in the absence of therapeutic agents, is capable of ameliorating amyloid or tau pathology, concurrent with improving memory deficits of AD animal models. However, the effects of FUS/MB on both the two pathologies simultaneously, as well as the memory behaviors, have not been reported so far. Methods: In this study, female triple transgenic AD (3×Tg-AD) mice at eight months of age with both amyloid-? (A?) deposits and tau phosphorylation were treated by repeated FUS/MB in the unilateral hippocampus twice per week for six weeks. The memory behaviors were investigated by the Y maze, the Morris water maze and the step-down passive avoidance test following repeated FUS/MB treatments. Afterwards, the involvement of A? and tau pathology were assessed by immunohistochemical analysis. Neuronal health and phagocytosis of A? deposits by microglia in the hippocampus were examined by confocal microscopy. Further, hippocampal proteomic alterations were analyzed by employing two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) combined with mass spectrometry. Results: The three independent memory tasks were indicative of evident learning and memory impairments in eight-month-old 3×Tg-AD mice, which developed intraneuronal A?, extracellular diffuse A? deposits and phosphorylated tau in the hippocampus and amygdala. Following repeated FUS/MB treatments, significant improvement in learning and memory ability of the 3×Tg-AD mice was achieved. Amelioration in both A? deposits and phosphorylated tau in the sonicated hemisphere was induced in FUS/MB-treated 3×Tg-AD mice. Albeit without increase in neuron density, enhancement in axonal neurofilaments emerged from the FUS/MB treatment. Confocal microscopy revealed activated microglia engulfing A? deposits in the FUS/MB-treated hippocampus. Further, proteomic analysis revealed 20 differentially expressed proteins, associated with glycolysis, neuron projection, mitochondrial pathways, metabolic process and ubiquitin binding etc., in the hippocampus between FUS/MB-treated and sham-treated 3×Tg-AD mice. Conclusions: Our findings reinforce the positive therapeutic effects on AD models with both A? and tau pathology induced by FUS/MB-mediated BBB opening, further supporting the potential of this treatment regime for clinical applications.
Project description:This data article contains supporting information regarding the research article entitled "Traumatic brain injury accelerates amyloid-? deposition and impairs spatial learning in the triple-transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer?s disease" (H. Shishido, Y. Kishimoto, N. Kawai, Y. Toyota, M. Ueno, T. Kubota, Y. Kirino, T. Tamiya, 2016) . Triple-transgenic (3×Tg)-Alzheimer?s disease (AD) model mice exhibited significantly poorer spatial learning than sham-treated 3×Tg-AD mice 28 days after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Correspondingly, amyloid-? (A?) deposition within the hippocampus was significantly greater in 3×Tg-AD mice 28 days after TBI. However, data regarding the short-term and long-term influences of TBI on amyloid precursor protein (APP) accumulation in AD model mice remain limited. Furthermore, there is little data showing whether physical activity and motor learning are affected by TBI in AD model mice. Here, we provide immunocytochemistry data confirming that TBI induces significant increases in APP accumulation in 3×Tg-AD mice at both 7 days and 28 days after TBI. Furthermore, 3×Tg-AD model mice exhibit a reduced ability to acquire conditioned responses (CRs) during delay eyeblink conditioning compared to sham-treated 3×Tg-AD model mice 28 days after TBI. However, physical activity and motor performance are not significantly changed in TBI-treated 3×Tg-AD model mice.
Project description:Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by deficits in learning and memory. A pathological feature of AD is the alterations in the number and size of synapses, axon length, dendritic complexity, and dendritic spine numbers in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Treadmill exercise can enhance synaptic plasticity in mouse or rat models of stroke, ischemia, and dementia. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of treadmill exercise on learning and memory, and structural synaptic plasticity in 3×Tg-AD mice, a mouse model of AD. Here, we show that 12 weeks treadmill exercise beginning in three-month-old mice improves spatial working memory in six-month-old 3×Tg-AD mice, while non-exercise six-month-old 3×Tg-AD mice exhibited impaired spatial working memory. To investigate potential mechanisms for the treadmill exercise-induced improvement of spatial learning and memory, we examined structural synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of six-month-old 3×Tg-AD mice that had undergone 12 weeks of treadmill exercise. We found that treadmill exercise led to increases in synapse numbers, synaptic structural parameters, the expression of synaptophysin (Syn, a presynaptic marker), the axon length, dendritic complexity, and the number of dendritic spines in 3×Tg-AD mice and restored these parameters to similar levels of non-Tg control mice without treadmill exercise. In addition, treadmill exercise also improved these parameters in non-Tg control mice. Strengthening structural synaptic plasticity may represent a potential mechanism by which treadmill exercise prevents decline in spatial learning and memory and synapse loss in 3×Tg-AD mice.
Project description:Alzheimer's disease (AD) is heterogeneous and multifactorial neurological disorder; and the risk factors of AD still remain elusive. Recent studies have highlighted the role of vascular factors in promoting the progression of AD and have suggested that ischemic events increase the incidence of AD. However, the detailed mechanisms linking ischemic insult to the progression of AD is still largely undetermined. In this study, we have established a transient cerebral ischemia model on young 5xFAD mice and their non-transgenic (nonTg) littermates by the transient occlusion of bilateral common carotid arteries. We have found that transient cerebral ischemia significantly exacerbates brain mitochondrial dysfunction including mitochondrial respiration deficits, oxidative stress as well as suppressed levels of mitochondrial fusion proteins including optic atrophy 1 (OPA1) and mitofusin 2 (MFN2) in young 5xFAD mice resulting in aggravated spatial learning and memory. Intriguingly, transient cerebral ischemia did not induce elevation in the levels of cortical or mitochondrial Amyloid beta (A?)1-40 or 1-42 levels in 5xFAD mice. In addition, the glucose- and oxygen-deprivation-induced apoptotic neuronal death in A?-treated neurons was significantly mitigated by mitochondria-targeted antioxidant mitotempo which suppresses mitochondrial superoxide levels. Therefore, the simplest interpretation of our results is that young 5xFAD mice with pre-existing AD-like mitochondrial dysfunction are more susceptible to the effects of transient cerebral ischemia; and ischemic events may exacerbate dementia and worsen the outcome of AD patients by exacerbating mitochondrial dysfunction.