"Oxygen Sensing" by Na,K-ATPase: These Miraculous Thiols.
ABSTRACT: Control over the Na,K-ATPase function plays a central role in adaptation of the organisms to hypoxic and anoxic conditions. As the enzyme itself does not possess O2 binding sites its "oxygen-sensitivity" is mediated by a variety of redox-sensitive modifications including S-glutathionylation, S-nitrosylation, and redox-sensitive phosphorylation. This is an overview of the current knowledge on the plethora of molecular mechanisms tuning the activity of the ATP-consuming Na,K-ATPase to the cellular metabolic activity. Recent findings suggest that oxygen-derived free radicals and H2O2, NO, and oxidized glutathione are the signaling messengers that make the Na,K-ATPase "oxygen-sensitive." This very ancient signaling pathway targeting thiols of all three subunits of the Na,K-ATPase as well as redox-sensitive kinases sustains the enzyme activity at the "optimal" level avoiding terminal ATP depletion and maintaining the transmembrane ion gradients in cells of anoxia-tolerant species. We acknowledge the complexity of the underlying processes as we characterize the sources of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species production in hypoxic cells, and identify their targets, the reactive thiol groups which, upon modification, impact the enzyme activity. Structured accordingly, this review presents a summary on (i) the sources of free radical production in hypoxic cells, (ii) localization of regulatory thiols within the Na,K-ATPase and the role reversible thiol modifications play in responses of the enzyme to a variety of stimuli (hypoxia, receptors' activation) (iii) redox-sensitive regulatory phosphorylation, and (iv) the role of fine modulation of the Na,K-ATPase function in survival success under hypoxic conditions. The co-authors attempted to cover all the contradictions and standing hypotheses in the field and propose the possible future developments in this dynamic area of research, the importance of which is hard to overestimate. Better understanding of the processes underlying successful adaptation strategies will make it possible to harness them and use for treatment of patients with stroke and myocardial infarction, sleep apnoea and high altitude pulmonary oedema, and those undergoing surgical interventions associated with the interruption of blood perfusion.
Project description:Adjustment of the Na/K ATPase activity to changes in oxygen availability is a matter of survival for neuronal cells. We have used freshly isolated rat cerebellar granule cells to study oxygen sensitivity of the Na/K ATPase function. Along with transport and hydrolytic activity of the enzyme we have monitored alterations in free radical production, cellular reduced glutathione, and ATP levels. Both active K(+) influx and ouabain-sensitive inorganic phosphate production were maximal within the physiological pO(2) range of 3-5 kPa. Transport and hydrolytic activity of the Na/K ATPase was equally suppressed under hypoxic and hyperoxic conditions. The ATPase response to changes in oxygenation was isoform specific and limited to the alpha1-containing isozyme whereas alpha2/3-containing isozymes were oxygen insensitive. Rapid activation of the enzyme within a narrow window of oxygen concentrations did not correlate with alterations in the cellular ATP content or substantial shifts in redox potential but was completely abolished when NO production by the cells was blocked by l-NAME. Taken together our observations suggest that NO and its derivatives are involved in maintenance of high Na/K ATPase activity under physiological conditions.
Project description:Our previous findings suggested that reversible thiol modifications of cysteine residues within the actuator (AD) and nucleotide binding domain (NBD) of the Na,K-ATPase may represent a powerful regulatory mechanism conveying redox- and oxygen-sensitivity of this multifunctional enzyme. S-glutathionylation of Cys244 in the AD and Cys 454-458-459 in the NBD inhibited the enzyme and protected cysteines' thiol groups from irreversible oxidation under hypoxic conditions. In this study mutagenesis approach was used to assess the role these cysteines play in regulation of the Na,K-ATPase hydrolytic and signaling functions. Several constructs of mouse α1 subunit of the Na,K-ATPase were produced in which Cys244, Cys 454-458-459 or Cys 244-454-458-459 were replaced by alanine. These constructs were expressed in human HEK293 cells. Non-transfected cells and those expressing murine α1 subunit were exposed to hypoxia or treated with oxidized glutathione (GSSG). Both conditions induced inhibition of the wild type Na,K-ATPase. Enzymes containing mutated mouse α1 lacking Cys244 or all four cysteines (Cys 244-454-458-459) were insensitive to hypoxia. Inhibitory effect of GSSG was observed for wild type murine Na,K-ATPase, but was less pronounced in Cys454-458-459Ala mutant and completely absent in the Cys244Ala and Cys 244-454-458-459Ala mutants. In cells, expressing wild type enzyme, ouabain induced activation of Src and Erk kinases under normoxic conditions, whereas under hypoxic conditions this effect was inversed. Cys454-458-459Ala substitution abolished Src kinase activation in response to ouabain treatment, uncoupled Src from Erk signaling, and interfered with O2-sensitivity of Na,K-ATPase signaling function. Moreover, modeling predicted that S-glutathionylation of Cys 458 and 459 should prevent inhibitory binding of Src to NBD. Our data indicate for the first time that cysteine residues within the AD and NBD influence hydrolytic as well as receptor function of the Na,K-ATPase and alter responses of the enzyme to hypoxia or upon treatment with cardiotonic steroids.
Project description:Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are well-described by-products of cellular metabolic activities, acting as signaling molecules and regulating the redox state of proteins. Solvent exposed thiol residues like cysteines are particularly sensitive to oxidation and their redox state affects structural and biochemical capacities of many proteins. While thiol redox regulation has been largely studied in several cell compartments like in the plant chloroplast, little is known about redox sensitive proteins in the nucleus. Recent works have revealed that proteins with oxidizable thiols are important for the regulation of many nuclear functions, including gene expression, transcription, epigenetics, and chromatin remodeling. Moreover, thiol reducing molecules like glutathione and specific isoforms of thiols reductases, thioredoxins and glutaredoxins were found in different nuclear subcompartments, further supporting that thiol-dependent systems are active in the nucleus. This mini-review aims to discuss recent progress in plant thiol redox field, taking examples of redox regulated nuclear proteins and focusing on major thiol redox systems acting in the nucleus.
Project description:Na,K-ATPase is highly sensitive to changes in the redox state, and yet the mechanisms of its redox sensitivity remain unclear. We have explored the possible involvement of S-glutathionylation of the catalytic ? subunit in redox-induced responses. For the first time, the presence of S-glutathionylated cysteine residues was shown in the ? subunit in duck salt glands, rabbit kidneys, and rat myocardium. Exposure of the Na,K-ATPase to oxidized glutathione (GSSG) resulted in an increase in the number of S-glutathionylated cysteine residues. Increase in S-glutathionylation was associated with dose- and time-dependent suppression of the enzyme function up to its complete inhibition. The enzyme inhibition concurred with S-glutathionylation of the Cys-454, -458, -459, and -244. Upon binding of glutathione to these cysteines, the enzyme was unable to interact with adenine nucleotides. Inhibition of the Na,K-ATPase by GSSG did not occur in the presence of ATP at concentrations above 0.5 mm. Deglutathionylation of the ? subunit catalyzed by glutaredoxin or dithiothreitol resulted in restoration of the Na,K-ATPase activity. Oxidation of regulatory cysteines made them inaccessible for glutathionylation but had no profound effect on the enzyme activity. Regulatory S-glutathionylation of the ? subunit was induced in rat myocardium in response to hypoxia and was associated with oxidative stress and ATP depletion. S-Glutathionylation was followed by suppression of the Na,K-ATPase activity. The rat ?2 isoform was more sensitive to GSSG than the ?1 isoform. Our findings imply that regulatory S-glutathionylation of the catalytic subunit plays a key role in the redox-induced regulation of Na,K-ATPase activity.
Project description:Sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na,K-ATPase) creates a gradient of sodium and potassium ions necessary for the viability of animal cells, and it is extremely sensitive to intracellular redox status. Earlier we found that regulatory glutathionylation determines Na,K-ATPase redox sensitivity but the role of basal glutathionylation and other redox modifications of cysteine residues is not clear. The purpose of this study was to detect oxidized, nitrosylated, or glutathionylated cysteine residues in Na,K-ATPase, evaluate the possibility of removing these modifications and assess their influence on the enzyme activity. To this aim, we have detected such modifications in the Na,K-ATPase ?1-subunit purified from duck salt glands and tried to eliminate them by chemical reducing agents and the glutaredoxin1/glutathione reductase enzyme system. Detection of cysteine modifications was performed using mass spectrometry and Western blot analysis. We have found that purified Na,K-ATPase ?1-subunit contains glutathionylated, nitrosylated, and oxidized cysteines. Chemical reducing agents partially eliminate these modifications that leads to the slight increase of the enzyme activity. Enzyme system glutaredoxin/glutathione reductase, unlike chemical reducing agents, produces significant increase of the enzyme activity. At the same time, the enzyme system deglutathionylates native Na,K-ATPase to a lesser degree than chemical reducing agents. This suggests that the enzymatic reducing system glutaredoxin/glutathione reductase specifically affects glutathionylation of the regulatory cysteine residues of Na,K-ATPase ?1-subunit.
Project description:Oxidative modifications of protein thiols are important mechanisms for regulating protein functions. The present study aimed to compare the relative effectiveness of two thiol-specific quantitative proteomic techniques, difference gel electrophoresis (DIGE) and isotope coded affinity tag (ICAT), for the discovery of redox-sensitive proteins in heart tissues. We found that these two methods were largely complementary; each could be used to reveal a set of unique redox-sensitive proteins. Some of these proteins are low-abundant signaling proteins and membrane proteins. From DIGE analysis, we found that both NF-kappaB-repressing protein and epoxide hydrolase were sensitive to H 2O 2 oxidation. In ICAT analysis, we found that specific cysteines within sacroplasmic endoplamic reticulum calcium ATPase 2 and voltage-dependent anion-selective channel protein 1 were sensitive to H 2O 2 oxidation. From these analyses, we conclude that both methods should be employed for proteome-wide studies, to maximize the possibility of identifying proteins containing redox-sensitive cysteinyl thiols in complex biological systems.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>There has been much interest in targeting intracellular redox pathways as a therapeutic approach for cancer. Given recent data to suggest that the redox status of extracellular protein thiol groups (i.e. exofacial thiols) effects cell behavior, we hypothesized that redox active anti-cancer agents would modulate exofacial protein thiols.<h4>Methodology/principal findings</h4>To test this hypothesis, we used the sesquiterpene lactone parthenolide, a known anti-cancer agent. Using flow cytometry, and western blotting to label free thiols with Alexa Fluor 633 C(5) maleimide dye and N-(biotinoyl)-N-(iodoacetyl) ethylendiamine (BIAM), respectively, we show that parthenolide decreases the level of free exofacial thiols on Granta mantle lymphoma cells. In addition, we used immuno-precipitation techniques to identify the central redox regulator thioredoxin, as one of the surface protein thiol targets modified by parthenolide. To examine the functional role of parthenolide induced surface protein thiol modification, we pretreated Granta cells with cell impermeable glutathione (GSH), prior to exposure to parthenolide, and showed that GSH pretreatment; (a) inhibited the interaction of parthenolide with exofacial thiols; (b) inhibited parthenolide mediated activation of JNK and inhibition of NFkappaB, two well established mechanisms of parthenolide activity and; (c) blocked the cytotoxic activity of parthenolide. That GSH had no effect on the parthenolide induced generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species supports the fact that GSH had no effect on intracellular redox. Together these data support the likelihood that GSH inhibits the effect of parthenolide on JNK, NFkappaB and cell death through its direct inhibition of parthenolide's modulation of exofacial thiols.<h4>Conclusions/significance</h4>Based on these data, we postulate that one component of parthenolide's anti-lymphoma activity derives from its ability to modify the redox state of critical exofacial thiols. Further, we propose that cancer cell exofacial thiols may be important and novel targets for therapy.
Project description:This review focuses on thiol/disulfide redox switches that regulate heme binding to proteins and modulate their activities. The importance of redox switches in metabolic regulation and the general mechanism by which redox switches modulate activity are discussed. Methods are described to characterize heme-binding sites and to assess their physiological relevance. For thiol/disulfide interconversion to regulate activity of a system, the redox process must be reversible at the ambient redox potentials found within the cell; thus, methods (and their limitations) are discussed that can address the physiological relevance of a redox switch. We review recent results that define a mechanism for how thiol/disulfide redox switches that control heme binding can regulate the activities of an enzyme, heme oxygenase-2, and an ion channel, the BK potassium channel. The redox switches on these proteins are composed of different types of Cys-containing motifs that have opposite effects on heme affinity, yet have complementary effects on hypoxia sensing. Finally, a model is proposed to describe how the redox switches on heme oxygenase-2 and the BK channel form an interconnected system that is poised to sense oxygen levels in the bloodstream and to elicit the hypoxic response when oxygen levels drop below a threshold value.
Project description:Unlike somatic cells, sperm have several-fold more available-thiols that are susceptible to redox-active agents. The present study explains the mechanism behind the instant sperm-immobilizing and trichomonacidal activities of pyrrolidinium pyrrolidine-1-carbodithioate (PPC), a novel thiol agent rationally created for prophylactic contraception by minor chemical modifications of some known thiol drugs. PPC, and its three derivatives (with potential active-site blocked by alkylation), were synthesized and evaluated against live human sperm and metronidazole-susceptible and resistant Trichomonas vaginalis, in vitro. Sperm hexokinase activity was evaluated by coupled enzyme assay. PPC irreversibly immobilized 100% human sperm in ?30 seconds and totally eliminated Trichomonas vaginalis more efficiently than nonoxynol-9 and metronidazole. It significantly inhibited (P<0.001) thiol-sensitive sperm hexokinase. However, the molecule completely lost all its biological activities once its thiol group was blocked by alkylation. PPC was subsequently formulated into a mucoadhesive vaginal film using GRaS excipients and evaluated for spermicidal and microbicidal activities (in vitro), and contraceptive efficacy in rabbits. PPC remained fully active in quick-dissolving, mucoadhesive vaginal-film formulation, and these PPC-films significantly reduced pregnancy and fertility rates in rabbits. The films released ?90% of PPC in simulated vaginal fluid (pH 4.2) at 37°C in 5 minutes, in vitro. We have thus discovered a common target (reactive thiols) on chiefly-anaerobic, redox-sensitive cells like sperm and Trichomonas, which is susceptible to designed chemical interference for prophylactic contraception. The active thiol in PPC inactivates sperm and Trichomonas via interference with crucial sulfhydryl-disulfide based reactions, e.g. hexokinase activation in human sperm. In comparison to non-specific surfactant action of OTC spermicide nonoxynol-9, the action of thiol-active PPC is apparently much more specific, potent and safe. PPC presents a proof-of-concept for prophylactic contraception via manipulation of thiols in vagina for selective targeting of sperm and Trichomonas, and qualifies as a promising lead for the development of dually protective vaginal-contraceptive.
Project description:The localization of the membrane-associated thiol oxidase in rat kidney was investigated. Fractionation of the kidney cortex by differential centrifugation demonstrated that the enzyme is found in the plasma membrane. The crude plasma membrane was fractionated by density-gradient centrifugation on Percoll to obtain purified brush-border and basal-lateral membranes. Gamma-Glutamyltransferase, alkaline phosphatase and aminopeptidase M were assayed as brush-border marker enzymes, and (Na+ + K+)-stimulated ATPase was assayed as a basal-lateral-membrane marker enzyme. Thiol oxidase activity and distribution were determined and compared with those of the marker enzymes. Its specific activity was enriched 18-fold in the basal-lateral membrane fraction relative to its activity in the cortical homogenate, and its distribution paralleled that of (Na+ + K+)-stimulated ATPase. This association indicates that thiol oxidase is localized in the same fraction as (Na+ + K+)-stimulated ATPase, i.e. the basal-lateral region of the plasma membrane of the kidney tubular epithelium.