The effects of age and carbon black on airway resistance in mice.
ABSTRACT: Ambient particulate matter (PM) is associated with acute exacerbations of airflow obstruction. Additionally, elderly individuals are more susceptible to increased functional morbidity following acute PM exposure.The purpose of this study is to determine the aging effects of PM exposure on the responsiveness of airway smooth muscle in mice. We hypothesized that airway reactivity induced by methacholine (Mch) will increase with age in PM exposed mice.Male C57BL/6 (B6) mice at 11, 39, 67, and 96 weeks of age were exposed to carbon black (CB) or room air (RA) for 3 h on 3 consecutive days. One day after the last exposure, mice were anesthetized and airways resistance (R(aw)) was measured by forced oscillation following half-log dose increases of aerosolized Mch.Baseline R(aw) was significantly lower in 67 and 96 week mice compared to 11-week mice (p < 0.05). In RA exposed mice, an age-dependent decline in Mch-induced airway reactivity occurred in association with the highest Mch doses at ages 67 and 96 weeks (p < 0.05). A significantly (p < 0.05) greater Mch-induced R(aw) response occurred in 67-week mice exposed to CB compared with age-matched RA-exposed mice.Our results show a progressive decrease in the Mch-induced R(aw) response with age in mice. The effect of CB exposure resulted in greater airway reactivity in middle-aged mice, which highlights the effects of PM exposure on the lung as it relates to increased morbidity and mortality with older age.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Exposure to particulate matter (PM) is increasing worldwide as a result of increased human activity, the rapid industrialization of developing countries, and effects of climate change. Adverse effects of PM on human health are well documented, and because PM exposure occurs mostly through the airways, PM has especially deleterious impact on the lungs. OBJECTIVE:We investigated whether surrogate PM particles like carbon black (CB), diesel exhaust particle (DEP), coal fly ash (CFA) can recapitulate the allergic airway inflammatory response induced by urban particulate matter. METHODS:We compared the pro-inflammatory potential of urban PM collected from New York (NYC) and Baltimore (Balt) with CB, DEP and CFA surrogate PM particles. Eight to ten weeks old BALB/cJ mice were exposed through the airways to particulate material, and markers of airway inflammation were determined. Specifically, we assessed cellular influx, mucus production, lung function, cytokine levels as well as immune cell profiling of the lungs. RESULTS:Herein, we demonstrate that exposure to equivalent mass of stand-alone surrogate PM particles like CB, DEP and CFA, fails to induce significant airway inflammatory response seen after similar exposure to urban PMs. Specifically, we observe that PM collected from New York (NYC) and Baltimore city (Balt) triggers a mixed Th2/Th17 response accompanied by eosinophilic and neutrophilic influx, mucus production and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). Although the immune profile of NYC and Baltimore PMs are similar, they demonstrate considerable differences in their potency. Baltimore PM induced more robust airway inflammation, AHR, and Th2 cytokine production, possibly due to the greater metal content in Baltimore PM. CONCLUSIONS:Urban particulate matter with its unique physiochemical properties and heterogeneous composition elicits a mixed Th2/Th17 allergic airway response that is not seen after similar exposures to surrogate PM particles.
Project description:Hyperventilation of hot humid air induces transient bronchoconstriction in patients with asthma; the underlying mechanism is not known. Recent studies showed that an increase in temperature activates vagal bronchopulmonary C-fiber sensory nerves, which upon activation can elicit reflex bronchoconstriction.This study was designed to test the hypothesis that the bronchoconstriction induced by increasing airway temperature in patients with asthma is mediated through cholinergic reflex resulting from activation of these airway sensory nerves.Specific airway resistance (SR(aw)) and pulmonary function were measured to determine the airway responses to isocapnic hyperventilation of humidified air at hot (49°C; HA) and room temperature (20-22°C; RA) for 4 minutes in six patients with mild asthma and six healthy subjects. A double-blind design was used to compare the effects between pretreatments with ipratropium bromide and placebo aerosols on the airway responses to HA challenge in these patients.SR(aw) increased by 112% immediately after hyperventilation of HA and by only 38% after RA in patients with asthma. Breathing HA, but not RA, triggered coughs in these patients. In contrast, hyperventilation of HA did not cause cough and increased SR(aw) by only 22% in healthy subjects; there was no difference between their SR(aw) responses to HA and RA challenges. More importantly, pretreatment with ipratropium completely prevented the HA-induced bronchoconstriction in patients with asthma.Bronchoconstriction induced by increasing airway temperature in patients with asthma is mediated through the cholinergic reflex pathway. The concomitant increase in cough response further indicates an involvement of airway sensory nerves, presumably the thermosensitive C-fiber afferents.
Project description:Hypothalamic orexin (hypocretin, HCRT) deficiency causes sleep disorder narcolepsy with cataplexy in humans and murine. As another integral group of sleep/wake-regulating neurons in the same brain area, the melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) neurons' involvement in cataplexy remains ambiguous. Here we used the live animal deep-brain calcium (Ca2+) imaging tool to record MCH neuron dynamics during cataplexy by expressing calcium sensor GCaMP6s into genetically defined MCH neurons in orexin knock-out mice, which are a model of human narcolepsy. Similar to wild-type mice, MCH neurons of the narcoleptic mice displayed significantly higher Ca2+ transient fluorescent intensity during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and active waking (AW) episodes compared with non-REM (NREM) sleep. Moreover, MCH neurons displayed significantly lower Ca2+ signals during cataplexy. Importantly, a pre-cataplexy elevation of Ca2+ signals from MCH neurons was not a prerequisite for cataplexy initiation. Our results demonstrated the inactivation status of MCH neurons during cataplexy and suggested that MCH neurons are not involved in the initiation and maintenance of cataplexy in orexin knock-out mice.
Project description:Sex differences clearly exist in incidence, susceptibility, and severity of airway disease and in pulmonary responses to air pollutants such as ozone (O3). Prior rodent O3 exposure studies demonstrate sex-related differences in the expression of lung inflammatory mediators and signaling. However, whether or not sex modifies O3-induced airway physiologic responses remains less explored. To address this, we exposed 8- to 10-week-old male and female C57BL/6 mice to either 1 or 2?ppm O3 or filtered air (FA) for 3?h. At 12, 24, 48, and 72?h following exposure, we assessed airway hyperresponsiveness to methacholine (MCh), bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cellularity, cytokines and total protein/albumin, serum progesterone, and whole lung immune cells by flow cytometry. Male mice generated consistent airway hyperresponsiveness to MCh at all time points following exposure. Alternatively, females had less consistent airway physiologic responses to MCh, which were more variable between individual experiments and did not correlate with serum progesterone levels. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid total cells peaked at 12?h and were persistently elevated through 72?h. At 48?h, bronchoalveolar lavage cells were greater in females versus males. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cytokines and total protein/albumin increased following O3 exposure without sex differences. Flow cytometry of whole lung tissue identified dynamic O3-induced immune cell changes also independent of sex. Our results indicate sex differences in acute O3-induced airway physiology responses and airspace influx without significant difference in other injury and inflammation measures. This study highlights the importance of considering sex as a biological variable in acute O3-induced airway physiology responses.
Project description:this is the raw data accompanying the following publication:
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Project description:In asthma, airflow obstruction is thought to result primarily from inflammation-triggered airway smooth muscle (ASM) contraction. However, anti-inflammatory and smooth muscle-relaxing treatments are often temporary or ineffective. Overproduction of the mucin MUC5AC is an additional disease feature that, while strongly associated pathologically, is poorly understood functionally. Here we show that Muc5ac is a central effector of allergic inflammation that is required for airway hyperreactivity (AHR) to methacholine (MCh). In mice bred on two well-characterized strain backgrounds (C57BL/6 and BALB/c) and exposed to two separate allergic stimuli (ovalbumin and Aspergillus extract), genetic removal of Muc5ac abolishes AHR. Residual MCh responses are identical to unchallenged controls, and although inflammation remains intact, heterogeneous mucous occlusion decreases by 74%. Thus, whereas inflammatory effects on ASM alone are insufficient for AHR, Muc5ac-mediated plugging is an essential mechanism. Inhibiting MUC5AC may be effective for treating asthma and other lung diseases where it is also overproduced.
Project description:Epidemiologic studies implicate air pollutant exposure during pregnancy as a risk factor for wheezing in offspring. Ozone exposure is linked to exacerbations of wheezing in children.To determine if maternal pulmonary exposure to traffic-related particles during pregnancy augments ozone-induced airway hyperresponsiveness in offspring.C57BL6 time-mated mice were given NIST SRM#1648 (particulate matter [PM]) 0.48 mg, saline vehicle, or no treatment by tracheal insufflation twice weekly for 3 weeks. PM exposure augmented maternal lung inflammation and placental TNF-alpha, Keratinocyte-derived cytokine (KC), and IL-6 (measured at gestation Day 18). After parturition, dams and litters were exposed to air or ozone 1 ppm 3 h/d, every other day, thrice weekly for 4 weeks. Respiratory system resistance in pups was measured at baseline and after administration of nebulized methacholine.Ozone increased airway hyperresponsiveness, but the increase was greatest in pups born to PM-treated dams. Whole-lung TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, KC, IL-6, and MCP-1 were increased in ozone-treated pups, with the greatest increase in pups born to dams given PM. Airway epithelial mucous metaplasia estimated by periodic acid-Schiff Alcian blue staining was increased in ozone-exposed pups born to PM-treated dams. Alveolar development, determined by morphometry, and airway smooth muscle bulk, estimated using alpha-actin histochemistry, were unaffected by prenatal or postnatal treatment.Maternal pulmonary exposure to PM during pregnancy augments placental cytokine expression and postnatal ozone-induced pulmonary inflammatory cytokine responses and ozone-induced airway hyperresponsiveness without altering airway structure.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Genome-Wide Association Studies suggest glutathione S transferase C terminal domain (GSTCD) may play a role in development of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. We aimed to define the potential role of GSTCD in airway inflammation and contraction using precision cut lung slice (PCLS) from wild-type (GSTCD+/+) and GSTCD knockout mice (GSTCD-/-). METHODS:PCLS from age and gender matched GSTCD+/+ and GSTCD-/- mice were prepared using a microtome. Contraction was studied after applying either a single dose of Methacholine (Mch) (1 ?M) or different doses of Mch (0.001 to 100 ?M). Each slice was then treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or vehicle (PBS) for 24 hours. PCLS contraction in the same airway was repeated before and after stimulation. Levels of TNF? production was also measured. RESULTS:There were no differences in contraction of PCLS from GSTCD+/+ and GSTCD-/- mice in response to Mch (EC50 of GSTCD+/+ vs GSTCD-/- animals: 100.0±20.7 vs 107.7±24.5 nM, p = 0.855, n = 6 animals/group). However, after LPS treatment, there was a 31.6% reduction in contraction in the GSTCD-/- group (p = 0.023, n = 6 animals). There was no significant difference between PBS and LPS treatment groups in GSTCD+/+ animals. We observed a significant increase in TNF? production induced by LPS in GSTCD-/- lung slices compared to the GSTCD+/+ LPS treated slices. CONCLUSION:GSTCD knockout mice showed an increased responsiveness to LPS (as determined by TNF? production) that was accompanied by a reduced contraction of small airways in PCLS. These data highlight an unrecognised potential function of GSTCD in mediating inflammatory signals that affect airway responses.
Project description:Pregnancy malaria (PM) is associated with poor pregnancy outcomes, and can arise due to relapse, recrudescence or a re-infection with heterologous parasites. We have used the Plasmodium chabaudi model of pregnancy malaria in C57BL/6 mice to examine recrudescence and heterologous infection using CB and AS parasite strains. After an initial course of patent parasitemia and first recrudescence, CB but not AS parasites were observed to recrudesce again in most animals that became pregnant. Pregnancy exacerbated heterologous CB infection of AS-experienced mice, leading to mortality and impaired post-natal growth of pups. Parasites were detected in placental blood without evidence of sequestration, unlike P. falciparum but similar to other malaria species that infect pregnant women. Inflammatory cytokine levels were elevated in pregnant females during malaria, and associated with intensity of infection and with poor outcomes. Pups born to dams during heterologous infection were more resistant to malaria infections at 6-7 weeks of age, compared to pups born to malaria-experienced but uninfected dams or to malaria-naïve dams. In summary, our mouse model reproduces several features of human PM, including recrudescences, heterologous infections, poor pregnancy outcomes associated with inflammatory cytokines, and modulation of offspring susceptibility to malaria. This model should be further studied to explore mechanisms underlying PM pathogenesis.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Sustained exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) is a global cause of mortality. Coal fly ash (CFA) is a byproduct of coal combustion and is a source of anthropogenic PM with worldwide health relevance. The airway epithelia are lined with fluid called airway surface liquid (ASL), which contains antimicrobial proteins and peptides (AMPs). Cationic AMPs bind negatively charged bacteria to exert their antimicrobial activity. PM arriving in the airways could potentially interact with AMPs in the ASL to affect their antimicrobial activity. OBJECTIVES:We hypothesized that PM can interact with ASL AMPs to impair their antimicrobial activity. METHODS:We exposed pig and human airway explants, pig and human ASL, and the human cationic AMPs ?-defensin-3, LL-37, and lysozyme to CFA or control. Thereafter, we assessed the antimicrobial activity of exposed airway samples using both bioluminescence and standard colony-forming unit assays. We investigated PM-AMP electrostatic interaction by attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and measuring the zeta potential. We also studied the adsorption of AMPs on PM. RESULTS:We found increased bacterial survival in CFA-exposed airway explants, ASL, and AMPs. In addition, we report that PM with a negative surface charge can adsorb cationic AMPs and form negative particle-protein complexes. CONCLUSION:We propose that when CFA arrives at the airway, it rapidly adsorbs AMPs and creates negative complexes, thereby decreasing the functional amount of AMPs capable of killing pathogens. These results provide a novel translational insight into an early mechanism for how ambient PM increases the susceptibility of the airways to bacterial infection. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP876.