Cardiomyocyte-Specific Human Bcl2-Associated Anthanogene 3 P209L Expression Induces Mitochondrial Fragmentation, Bcl2-Associated Anthanogene 3 Haploinsufficiency, and Activates p38 Signaling.
ABSTRACT: The Bcl2-associated anthanogene (BAG) 3 protein is a member of the BAG family of cochaperones, which supports multiple critical cellular processes, including critical structural roles supporting desmin and interactions with heat shock proteins and ubiquitin ligases intimately involved in protein quality control. The missense mutation P209L in exon 3 results in a primarily cardiac phenotype leading to skeletal muscle and cardiac complications. At least 10 other Bag3 mutations have been reported, nine resulting in a dilated cardiomyopathy for which no specific therapy is available. We generated ?MHC-human Bag3 P209L transgenic mice and characterized the progressive cardiac phenotype in vivo to investigate its utility in modeling human disease, understand the underlying molecular mechanisms, and identify potential therapeutic targets. We identified a progressive heart failure by echocardiography and Doppler analysis and the presence of pre-amyloid oligomers at 1 year. Paralleling the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases (eg, Parkinson disease), pre-amyloid oligomers-associated alterations in cardiac mitochondrial dynamics, haploinsufficiency of wild-type BAG3, and activation of p38 signaling were identified. Unexpectedly, increased numbers of activated cardiac fibroblasts were identified in Bag3 P209L Tg+ hearts without increased fibrosis. Together, these findings point to a previously undescribed therapeutic target that may have application to mutation-induced myofibrillar myopathies as well as other common causes of heart failure that commonly harbor misfolded proteins.
Project description:Bcl2-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3), a member of the BAG family of co-chaperones, plays a critical role in regulating apoptosis, development, cell motility, autophagy, and tumor metastasis and in mediating cell adaptive responses to stressful stimuli. BAG3 carries a BAG domain, a WW domain, and a proline-rich repeat (PXXP), all of which mediate binding to different partners. To elucidate BAG3's interaction network at the molecular level, we employed quantitative immunoprecipitation combined with knockdown and human proteome microarrays to comprehensively profile the BAG3 interactome in humans. We identified a total of 382 BAG3-interacting proteins with diverse functions, including transferase activity, nucleic acid binding, transcription factors, proteases, and chaperones, suggesting that BAG3 is a critical regulator of diverse cellular functions. In addition, we characterized interactions between BAG3 and some of its newly identified partners in greater detail. In particular, bioinformatic analysis revealed that the BAG3 interactome is strongly enriched in proteins functioning within the proteasome-ubiquitination process and that compose the proteasome complex itself, suggesting that a critical biological function of BAG3 is associated with the proteasome. Functional studies demonstrated that BAG3 indeed interacts with the proteasome and modulates its activity, sustaining cell survival and underlying resistance to therapy through the down-modulation of apoptosis. Taken as a whole, this study expands our knowledge of the BAG3 interactome, provides a valuable resource for understanding how BAG3 affects different cellular functions, and demonstrates that biologically relevant data can be harvested using this kind of integrated approach.
Project description:Small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) comprise an important protein family that is ubiquitously expressed, is highly conserved among species, and has emerged as a critical regulator of protein folding. While these proteins are functionally important for a variety of tissues, an emerging field of cardiovascular research reveals sHSPs are also extremely important for maintaining normal cardiac function and regulating the cardiac stress response. Notably, numerous mutations in genes encoding sHSPs have been associated with multiple cardiac diseases. sHSPs (HSPB5, HSPB6, and HSPB8) have been described as mediating chaperone functions within the heart by interacting with the cochaperone protein BCL-2-associated anthanogene 3 (BAG3); however, recent reports indicate that sHSPs (HSPB7) can perform other BAG3-independent functions. Here, we summarize the cardiac functions of sHSPs and present the notion that cardiac sHSPs function via BAG3-dependent or -independent pathways.
Project description:BAG3, a member of the BAG family of heat shock protein (HSP) 70 cochaperones, is expressed in response to stressful stimuli in a number of normal cell types and constitutively in a variety of tumors, including pancreas carcinomas, lymphocytic and myeloblastic leukemias, and thyroid carcinomas. Down-regulation of BAG3 results in cell death, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are still elusive. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanism of BAG3-dependent survival in human osteosarcoma (SAOS-2) and melanoma (M14) cells. We show that bag3 overexpression in tumors promotes survival through the NF-kappaB pathway. Indeed, we demonstrate that BAG3 alters the interaction between HSP70 and IKKgamma, increasing availability of IKKgamma and protecting it from proteasome-dependent degradation; this, in turn, results in increased NF-kappaB activity and survival. These results identify bag3 as a potential target for anticancer therapies in those tumors in which this gene is constitutively expressed. As a proof of principle, we show that treatment of a mouse xenograft tumor model with bag3siRNA-adenovirus that down-regulates bag3 results in reduced tumor growth and increased animal survival.
Project description:Nuclear envelopathies are recognized genetic disorders affecting individuals with mutations in their genes encoding members of the lamin family of nuclear envelope proteins that are responsible for maintaining the architectural structure of the nucleus. Irregularity in shape and size of the nuclei, nuclear membrane rupture, and appearance of micronuclei in the cytoplasm are among the pathological features of the syndrome. Here, we demonstrate that Bcl2-associated anthanogene-3 (BAG3), a stress-induced co-chaperone protein that by association with heat-shock protein 70 (HSP70) participates in regulation of autophagy, plays a critical role in the integrity of the nuclear membrane in cardiomyocytes. Cells subjected to proteotoxic stress or BAG3 downregulation show perinuclear accumulation of the aberrant ubiquitinated proteins that are often associated with the appearance of misshapen, enlarged, and elongated nuclei. There were dense accumulations of lamin B in the perinuclear area and distribution of lamin B-positive micronuclei in the cytoplasmic space, indicative of nuclear envelope rupture. Overexpression of BAG3 in cells under proteotoxic stress ameliorated pathological nuclear morphology and reduced cytoplasmic distribution of the micronuclei particles. Subcellular co-localization and co-immunoprecipitation demonstrated interaction of lamin B with the BAG domain of BAG3 and HSP70, suggesting the importance of BAG3 in the selective clearance of a surplus of aggregated lamin B that is generated during stress conditions. Our findings define a novel role for BAG3 in nuclear protein quality control and suggest an alternative pathogenetic pathway that contributes to the development of nuclear envelopathies.
Project description:Importance:The prevalence of nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is greater in individuals of African ancestry than in individuals of European ancestry. However, little is known about whether the difference in prevalence or outcomes is associated with functional genetic variants. Objective:We hypothesized that Bcl2-associated anthanogene 3 (BAG3) genetic variants were associated with outcomes in individuals of African ancestry with DCM. Design:This multicohort study of the BAG3 genotype in patients of African ancestry with dilated cardiomyopathy uses DNA obtained from African American individuals enrolled in 3 clinical studies: the Genetic Risk Assessment of African Americans With Heart Failure (GRAHF) study; the Intervention in Myocarditis and Acute Cardiomyopathy Trial-2 (IMAC-2) study; and the Genetic Risk Assessment of Cardiac Events (GRACE) study. Samples of DNA were also acquired from the left ventricular myocardium of patients of African ancestry who underwent heart transplant at the University of Colorado and University of Pittsburgh. Main Outcomes and Measures:The primary end points were the prevalence of BAG3 mutations in African American individuals and event-free survival in participants harboring functional BAG3 mutations. Results:Four BAG3 genetic variants were identified; these were expressed in 42 of 402 African American individuals (10.4%) with nonischemic heart failure and 9 of 107 African American individuals (8.4%) with ischemic heart failure but were not present in a reference population of European ancestry (P?<?.001). The variants included 2 nonsynonymous single-nucleotide variants; 1 three-nucleotide in-frame insertion; and 2 single-nucleotide variants that were linked in cis. The presence of BAG3 variants was associated with a nearly 2-fold (hazard ratio, 1.97 [95% CI, 1.19-3.24]; P?=?.01) increase in cardiac events in carriers compared with noncarriers. Transfection of transformed adult human ventricular myocytes with plasmids expressing the 4 variants demonstrated that each variant caused an increase in apoptosis and a decrease in autophagy when samples were subjected to the stress of hypoxia-reoxygenation. Conclusions and Relevance:This study demonstrates that genetic variants in BAG3 found almost exclusively in individuals of African ancestry were not causative of disease but were associated with a negative outcome in patients with a dilated cardiomyopathy through modulation of the function of BAG3. The results emphasize the importance of biological differences in causing phenotypic variance across diverse patient populations, the need to include diverse populations in genetic cohorts, and the importance of determining the pathogenicity of genetic variants.
Project description:Heat shock cognate protein 70 (Hsc70) regulates protein homeostasis through its reversible interactions with client proteins. Hsc70 has two major domains: a nucleotide-binding domain (NBD), that hydrolyzes ATP, and a substrate-binding domain (SBD), where clients are bound. Members of the BAG family of co-chaperones, including Bag1 and Bag3, are known to accelerate release of both ADP and client from Hsc70. The release of nucleotide is known to be mediated by interactions between the conserved BAG domain and the Hsc70 NBD. However, less is known about the regions required for client release, and it is often assumed that this activity also requires the BAG domain. It is important to better understand this step because it determines how long clients remain in the inactive, bound state. Here, we report the surprising observation that truncated versions of either human Bag1 or Bag3, comprised only the BAG domain, promoted rapid release of nucleotide, but not client, in vitro Rather, we found that a non-canonical interaction between Bag1/3 and the Hsc70 SBD is sufficient for accelerating this step. Moreover, client release did not seem to require the BAG domain or Hsc70 NBD. These results suggest that Bag1 and Bag3 control the stability of the Hsc70-client complex using at least two distinct protein-protein contacts, providing a previously under-appreciated layer of molecular regulation in the human Hsc70 system.
Project description:Any pathological stress that impairs expression, turnover and phosphorylation of connexin 43 (Cx43), one of the major proteins of gap junctions, can adversely impact myocardial cell behavior, thus leading to the development of cardiac arrhythmias and heart failure. Our results in primary neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes (NRVCs) show that impairment of the autophagy-lysosome pathway dysregulates degradation of Cx43, either by inhibiting lysosomal activity or suppressing the level of Bcl2-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3), a stress-induced pleiotropic protein that is involved in protein quality control (PQC) via the autophagy pathway. Inhibition of lysosomal activity leads to the accumulation of Cx43 aggregates and suppression of BAG3 significantly diminished turnover of Cx43. In addition, knock-down of BAG3 reduced the levels of Cx43 by dysregulating Cx43 protein stability. Under stress conditions, expression of BAG3 affected the state of Cx43 phosphorylation and its degradation. Furthermore, we found that BAG3 co-localized with the cytoskeleton protein, α-Tubulin, and depolymerization of α-Tubulin led to the intracellular accumulation of Cx43. These observations ascribe a novel function for BAG3 that involves control of Cx43 turnover under normal and stress conditions and potentially for optimizing communication of cardiac muscle cells through gap junctions.
Project description:BAG3 is a multi-domain hub that connects two classes of chaperones, small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) via two isoleucine-proline-valine (IPV) motifs and Hsp70 via a BAG domain. Mutations in either the IPV or BAG domain of BAG3 cause a dominant form of myopathy, characterized by protein aggregation in both skeletal and cardiac muscle tissues. Surprisingly, for both disease mutants, impaired chaperone binding is not sufficient to explain disease phenotypes. Recombinant mutants are correctly folded, show unaffected Hsp70 binding but are impaired in stimulating Hsp70-dependent client processing. As a consequence, the mutant BAG3 proteins become the node for a dominant gain of function causing aggregation of itself, Hsp70, Hsp70 clients and tiered interactors within the BAG3 interactome. Importantly, genetic and pharmaceutical interference with Hsp70 binding completely reverses stress-induced protein aggregation for both BAG3 mutations. Thus, the gain of function effects of BAG3 mutants act as Achilles heel of the HSP70 machinery.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The BAG3 (BLC2-associated athanogene 3) gene codes for an antiapoptotic protein located on the sarcomere Z-disc. Mutations in BAG3 are associated with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), but only a small number of cases have been reported to date, and the natural history of BAG3 cardiomyopathy is poorly understood. OBJECTIVES:This study sought to describe the phenotype and prognosis of BAG3 mutations in a large multicenter DCM cohort. METHODS:The study cohort comprised 129 individuals with a BAG3 mutation (62% males, 35.1 ± 15.0 years of age) followed at 18 European centers. Localization of BAG3 in cardiac tissue was analyzed in patients with truncating BAG3 mutations using immunohistochemistry. RESULTS:At first evaluation, 57.4% of patients had DCM. After a median follow-up of 38 months (interquartile range: 7 to 95 months), 68.4% of patients had DCM and 26.1% who were initially phenotype-negative developed DCM. Disease penetrance in individuals >40 years of age was 80% at last evaluation, and there was a trend towards an earlier onset of DCM in men (age 34.6 ± 13.2 years vs. 40.7 ± 12.2 years; p = 0.053). The incidence of adverse cardiac events (death, left ventricular assist device, heart transplantation, and sustained ventricular arrhythmia) was 5.1% per year among individuals with DCM. Male sex, decreased left ventricular ejection fraction. and increased left ventricular end-diastolic diameter were associated with adverse cardiac events. Myocardial tissue from patients with a BAG3 mutation showed myofibril disarray and a relocation of BAG3 protein in the sarcomeric Z-disc. CONCLUSIONS:DCM caused by mutations in BAG3 is characterized by high penetrance in carriers >40 years of age and a high risk of progressive heart failure. Male sex, decreased left ventricular ejection fraction, and enlarged left ventricular end-diastolic diameter are associated with adverse outcomes in patients with BAG3 mutations.
Project description:Eukaryotic cells use autophagy and the ubiquitin-proteasome system as their major protein degradation pathways. Upon proteasomal impairment, cells switch to autophagy to ensure proper clearance of clients (the proteasome-to-autophagy switch). The HSPA8 and HSPA1A cochaperone BAG3 has been suggested to be involved in this switch. However, at present it is still unknown whether and to what extent BAG3 can indeed reroute proteasomal clients to the autophagosomal pathway. Here, we show that BAG3 induces the sequestration of ubiquitinated clients into cytoplasmic puncta colabeled with canonical autophagy linkers and markers. Following proteasome inhibition, BAG3 upregulation significantly contributes to the compensatory activation of autophagy and to the degradation of the (poly)ubiquitinated proteins. BAG3 binding to the ubiquitinated clients occurs through the BAG domain, in competition with BAG1, another BAG family member, that normally directs ubiquitinated clients to the proteasome. Therefore, we propose that following proteasome impairment, increasing the BAG3/BAG1 ratio ensures the "BAG-instructed proteasomal to autophagosomal switch and sorting" (BIPASS).