Identification of a peroxisome proliferator-responsive element upstream of the gene encoding rat peroxisomal enoyl-CoA hydratase/3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase.
ABSTRACT: Ciprofibrate, a hypolipidemic drug that acts as a peroxisome proliferator, induces the transcription of genes encoding peroxisomal beta-oxidation enzymes. To identify cis-acting promoter elements involved in this induction, 5.8 kilobase pairs of promoter sequence from the gene encoding rat peroxisomal enoyl-CoA hydratase/3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (EC 220.127.116.11/EC 18.104.22.168) was inserted upstream of a luciferase reporter gene. Transfection of this expression vector into rat hepatoma H4IIEC3 cells in the presence of ciprofibrate resulted in a 5- to 10-fold, cell type-specific increase in luciferase activity as compared to cells transfected in the absence of drug. A peroxisome proliferator-responsive element (PPRE) was localized to a 196-nucleotide region centered at position -2943 from the transcription start site. This PPRE conferred ciprofibrate responsiveness on a heterologous promoter and functioned independently of orientation or position. Gel retardation analysis with nuclear extracts demonstrated that ciprofibrate-treated or untreated H4IIEC3 cells, but not HeLa cells or monkey kidney cells, contained sequence-specific DNA binding factors that interact with the PPRE. These results have implications for understanding the mechanisms of coordinated transcriptional induction of genes encoding peroxisomal proteins by hypolipidemic agents and other peroxisome proliferators.
Project description:Widely varied compounds, including certain plasticizers, hypolipidemic drugs (e.g., ciprofibrate, fenofibrate, WY-14643, and clofibrate), agrochemicals, and environmental pollutants, are peroxisome proliferators (PPs). Appropriate dose of PPs causes a moderate increase in the number and size of peroxisomes and the expression of genes encoding peroxisomal lipid-metabolizing enzymes. However, high-dose PPs cause varied harmful effects. Chronic administration of PPs to mice and rats results in hepatomegaly and ultimately carcinogenesis. Nuclear receptor protein peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (Ppar?) was shown to be required for this process. However, biological adaptations to minimize this risk are poorly understood. In this study, we found that miR-181a2 expression was induced by the Ppar? agonist WY-14643. Moreover, exogenous expression of miR-181a-5p dramatically alleviated the cell toxicity caused by overactivation of Ppar?. Further studies showed that miR-181a-5p directly targeted the Ppar? 3' untranslated region and depressed the Ppar? protein level. This study identified a feedback loop between miR-181a-5p and Ppar?, which allows biological systems to approach a balance when Ppar? is overactivated.
Project description:The hypolipidaemic agents ciprofibrate and Wy-14,643 ([4-chloro-6-(2,3-xylidino)-2-pyrimidinylthio]acetic acid) and the phthalate-ester plasticizer di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP), like other peroxisome proliferators, produce a significant hepatomegaly and induce the peroxisomal fatty acid beta-oxidation enzyme system together with profound proliferation of peroxisomes in hepatic parenchymal cells. Changes in the profile of liver proteins in rats following induction of peroxisome proliferation by ciprofibrate, Wy-14,643 and DEHP have been analysed by high-resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The proteins of whole liver homogenates from normal and peroxisome-proliferator-treated rats were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis using isoelectric focusing for acidic proteins and nonequilibrium pH gradient electrophoresis for basic proteins. In the whole liver homogenates, the quantities of six proteins in acidic gels and six proteins in the basic gels increased following induction of peroxisome proliferation. Peroxisome proliferator administration caused a repression of three acidic proteins in the liver homogenates. By the immunoblot method using polyspecific antiserum against soluble peroxisomal proteins and monospecific antiserum against peroxisome proliferation associated Mr 80000 polypeptide (polypeptide PPA-80), the majority of basic proteins induced by these peroxisome proliferators appeared to be peroxisomal proteins. Polypeptide PPA-80 becomes the most abundant protein in the total liver homogenates of peroxisome-proliferator-treated rats. These results indicate that ciprofibrate, DEHP and Wy-14,643 induce marked changes in the profile of specific hepatic proteins and that some of these changes should serve as a baseline to identify a set of gene products that may assist in defining the specific 'peroxisome proliferator domain'.
Project description:After our previous report on the cloning of two cDNA species in guinea pig, both encoding the same hepatic 79 kDa multifunctional protein 1 (MFP-1) [Caira, Cherkaoui-Malki, Hoefler and Latruffe (1996) FEBS Lett. 378, 57-60], here we report the cloning of a cDNA encoding a second multifunctional peroxisomal protein (MFP-2) in guinea-pig liver. This 2356 nt cDNA encodes a protein of 735 residues (79.7 kDa) whose sequence shows 83% identity with rat MFP-2 [Dieuaide-Noubhani, Novikov, Baumgart, Vanhooren, Fransen, Goethals, Vandekerckhove, Van Veldhoven and Mannaerts (1996) Eur. J. Biochem. 240, 660-666]. In parallel, we studied the effect of ciprofibrate, a hypolipaemic agent also known as peroxisome proliferator in rodent, on the expression of MFP-1 and MFP-2 (2.6 kb) in rats and guinea pigs. By Northern blotting analysis we demonstrated that three MFP-1-related mRNA species are expressed in the guinea-pig liver. The expression of two of them (3.5 and 2.6 kb) is slightly increased by ciprofibrate, whereas the 3.0 kb MFP-1 mRNA is, unlike the rat one, strongly down-regulated in guinea pigs treated with ciprofibrate. In a similar way, the hepatic expression of the guinea-pig 2.6 kb MFP-2 mRNA is also down-regulated in guinea pigs treated with ciprofibrate. These results demonstrate (1) that in contrast with the unique 3.0 kb MFP-1 rat mRNA, at least three hepatic MFP-1-related mRNA species are co-expressed in guinea pig; and (2) that, opposed to the accepted idea of non-responsiveness of the guinea pig to ciprofibrate, this drug affects MFP-1 and MFP-2 gene expression in this species. Also, the mRNA species for acyl-CoA oxidase and thiolase, two other enzymes of the peroxisomal beta-oxidation pathway that are induced severalfold in responsive species are down-regulated in guinea pig. This paper is the first, to our knowledge, reporting the down-regulation of the expression of genes encoding enzymes involved in the peroxisomal beta-oxidation of fatty acids (MFP-1) and bile acid synthesis (MFP-2) in mammals.
Project description:Low expression of the mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) synthase gene during development correlates with an unusually low hepatic ketogenic capacity and lack of hyperketonaemia in piglets. Here we report the isolation and characterization of the 5' end of the pig mitochondrial HMG-CoA synthase gene. The 581 bp region proximal to the transcription start site permits transcription of a reporter gene, confirming the function of the promoter. The pig mitochondrial HMG-CoA synthase promoter is trans-activated by the peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR), and a functional response element for PPAR (PPRE) has been localized in the promoter region. Pig PPRE is constituted by an imperfect direct repeat (DR-1) and a downstream sequence, both of which are needed to confer PPAR-sensitivity to a thymidine kinase promoter and to form complexes with PPAR.retinoid X receptor heterodimers. A role of PPAR trans-activation in starvation-associated induction of gene expression is suggested.
Project description:Perfluorooctanesulfonamides, such as N-ethyl perfluorooctanesulfonamidoethanol (N-EtFOSE), are large scale industrial chemicals but their disposition and toxicity are poorly understood despite significant human exposure. The hypothesis that subacute exposure to N-EtFOSE, a weak peroxisome proliferator, causes a redox imbalance in vivo was tested using the known peroxisome proliferator, ciprofibrate, as a positive control. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were treated orally with N-EtFOSE, ciprofibrate or corn oil (vehicle) for 21 days, and levels of N-EtFOSE and its metabolites as well as markers of peroxisome proliferation and oxidative stress were assessed in serum, liver and/or uterus. The N-EtFOSE metabolite profile in liver and serum was in good agreement with reported in vitro biotransformation pathways in rats and the metabolite levels decreasing in the order perfluorooctanesulfonate >> perfluorooctanesulfonamide ~ N-ethyl perfluorooctanesulfonamidoacetate >> perfluorooctanesulfonamidoethanol approximately N-EtFOSE. Although N-EtFOSE treatment significantly decreased the growth rate, increased relative liver weight and activity of superoxide dismutases (SOD) in liver and uterus (total SOD, CuZnSOD and MnSOD), a metabolic study revealed no differences in the metabolome in serum from N-EtFOSE-treated and control animals. Ciprofibrate treatment increased liver weight and peroxisomal acyl Co-A oxidase activity in the liver and altered antioxidant enzyme activities in the uterus and liver. According to NMR metabolomic studies, ciprofibrate treated animals had altered serum lipid profiles compared to N-EtFOSE-treated and control animals, whereas putative markers of peroxisome proliferation in serum were not affected. Overall, this study demonstrates the biotransformation of N-EtFOSE to PFOS in rats that is accompanied by N-EtFOSE-induced alterations in antioxidant enzyme activity.
Project description:Most cis-acting regulatory elements have generally been assumed to activate a single nearby gene. However, many genes are clustered together, raising the possibility that they are regulated through a common element. We show here that a single peroxisome proliferator response element (PPRE), located between the mouse PEX11 alpha and perilipin genes, confers on both genes activation by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR alpha) and PPAR gamma. A functional PPRE 8.4 kb downstream of the promoter of PEX11 alpha, a PPAR alpha target gene, was identified by a gene transfection study. This PPRE was positioned 1.9 kb upstream of the perilipin gene and also functioned with the perilipin promoter. In addition, this PPRE, when combined with the natural promoters of the PEX11 alpha and perilipin genes, conferred subtype-selective activation by PPAR alpha and PPAR gamma 2. The PPRE sequence specifically bound to the heterodimer of RXR alpha and PPAR alpha or PPAR gamma 2, as assessed by electrophoretic gel mobility shift assays. Furthermore, tissue-selective binding of PPAR alpha and PPAR gamma to the PPRE was demonstrated in hepatocytes and adipocytes, respectively, by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Hence, the expression of these genes is induced through the same PPRE in the liver and adipose tissue, where the two PPAR subtypes are specifically expressed.
Project description:Mice lacking apolipoprotein E (apoE) are characterized by severe hypercholesterolaemia, caused by an abnormal accumulation of apolipoprotein B-48 (apoB-48)-carrying remnants of chylomicrons and very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) in the plasma, and by the spontaneous development of atherosclerotic lesions. Ciprofibrate is a hypolipidaemic compound that acts primarily by enhancing the oxidation of fatty acids in the liver and, consequently, decreasing the production of hepatic VLDL. In the present study, homozygous apoE-deficient mice were fed with a normal chow diet, supplemented with ciprofibrate. We report that, as anticipated, ciprofibrate treatment (a) stimulated hepatic fatty acid oxidation, as indicated by an increase in the mRNA levels of peroxisomal fatty acyl-CoA oxidase (AOX) and peroxisomal bifunctional enzyme, and (b) decreased the hepatic secretion of VLDL into the plasma, as determined by treating the animals with Triton WR-1339. Paradoxically, the apoE-deficient mice developed a 3-4-fold increase in their plasma cholesterol levels. A similar effect was observed in apoE-deficient mice treated with other peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor alpha agonists (fenofibrate, bezafibrate and WY14,643). By FPLC of the plasma and Western-blot analysis, we determined that the enhanced hypercholesterolaemia was due to an increased accumulation of apoB-48-carrying lipoprotein remnants in the plasma. Consistent with this finding, atherosclerotic lesions in animals treated with ciprofibrate for 90 days were considerably more advanced than in untreated animals. These results indicate that the ciprofibrate-induced accumulation of apoB-48-carrying remnants in apoE-deficient mice is caused by the inhibition of an as yet uncharacterized apoE-independent mechanism of removal of remnant from the circulation by the liver.
Project description:The expression of several genes involved in fatty acid metabolism is regulated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). To gain more insight into the control of carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) gene expression, we examined the transcriptional regulation of the human CPT II gene. We show that the 5'-flanking region of this gene is transcriptionally active and binds PPARalpha in vivo in a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. In addition, we characterized the peroxisome proliferator-responsive element (PPRE) in the proximal promoter of the CPT II gene, which appears to be a novel PPRE. The sequence of this PPRE contains one half-site which is a perfect consensus sequence (TGACCT) but no clearly recognizable second half-site (CAGCAC); this part of the sequence contains only one match to the consensus, which seems to be irrelevant for the binding of PPARalpha. As expected, other members of the nuclear receptor superfamily also bind to this element and repress the activation mediated by PPARalpha, thus showing that the interplay between several nuclear receptors may regulate the entry of fatty acids into the mitochondria, a crucial step in their metabolism.
Project description:Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR alpha) plays a central role in the cell-specific pleiotropic responses induced by structurally diverse synthetic chemicals designated as peroxisome proliferators. Transcriptional regulation by liganded nuclear receptors involves the participation of cofactors that form multiprotein complexes to achieve cell- and gene-specific transcription. Here we report the identification of such a transcriptionally active PPAR alpha-interacting cofactor (PRIC) complex from rat liver nuclear extracts that interacts with full-length PPAR alpha in the presence of ciprofibrate, a synthetic ligand, and leukotriene B(4), a natural ligand. The liganded PPAR alpha-PRIC complex enhanced transcription from a peroxisomal enoyl-CoA hydratase/l-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase bifunctional enzyme gene promoter template that contains peroxisome proliferator response elements. Rat liver PRIC complex comprises some 25 polypeptides, and their identities were established by mass spectrometry and limited sequence analysis. Eighteen of these peptides contain one or more LXXLL motifs necessary for interacting with nuclear receptors. PRIC complex includes known coactivators or coactivator-binding proteins (CBP, SRC-1, PBP, PRIP, PIMT, TRAP100, SUR-2, and PGC-1), other proteins that have not previously been described in association with transcription complexes (CHD5, TOG, and MORF), and a few novel polypeptides designated PRIC300, -285, -215, -177, and -145. We describe the cDNA for PRIC285, which contains five LXXLL motifs. It interacts with PPAR alpha and acts as a coactivator by moderately stimulating PPAR alpha-mediated transcription in transfected cells. We conclude that liganded PPAR alpha recruits a distinctive multiprotein complex from rat liver nuclear extracts. The composition of this complex may provide insight into the basis of tissue and species sensitivity to peroxisome proliferators.
Project description:Human cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1)-mediated biotransformation of endobiotics and xenobiotics plays an important role in the progression of human breast cancer. In this study, we investigated the effects of WY-14643, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) agonist, on CYP1B1 expression and the related mechanism in MCF7 breast cancer cells. We performed quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, transient transfection, and chromatin immunoprecipitation to evaluate the effects of PPAR? on peroxisome proliferator response element (PPRE)-mediated transcription. WY-14643 increased the protein and mRNA levels of CYP1B1, as well as promoter activity, in MCF-7 cells. Moreover, WY-14643 plus GW6471, a PPAR? antagonist, significantly inhibited the WY-14643-mediated increase in CYP1B1 expression. PPAR? knockdown by a small interfering RNA markedly suppressed the induction of CYP1B1 expression by WY-14643, suggesting that WY-14643 induces CYP1B1 expression via a PPAR?-dependent mechanism. Bioinformatics analysis identified putative PPREs (-833/-813) within the promoter region of the CYP1B1 gene. Inactivation of these putative PPREs by deletion mutagenesis suppressed the WY-14643-mediated induction of CYP1B1 promoter activation. Furthermore, WY-14643 induced PPAR? to assume a form capable of binding specifically to the PPRE-binding site in the CYP1B1 promoter. Our findings suggest that WY-14643 induces the expression of CYP1B1 through activation of PPAR?.