Combined GSTM1-Null, GSTT1-Active, GSTA1 Low-Activity and GSTP1-Variant Genotype Is Associated with Increased Risk of Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma.
ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate specific glutathione S-transferase (GST) gene variants as determinants of risk in patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma (cRCC), independently or simultaneously with established RCC risk factors, as well as to discern whether phenotype changes reflect genotype-associated risk. GSTA1, GSTM1, GSTP1 and GSTT1 genotypes were determined in 199 cRCC patients and 274 matched controls. Benzo(a)pyrene diolepoxide (BPDE)-DNA adducts were determined in DNA samples obtained from cRCC patients by ELISA method. Significant association between GST genotype and risk of cRCC development was found for the GSTM1-null and GSTP1-variant genotype (p = 0.02 and p<0.001, respectively). Furthermore, 22% of all recruited cRCC patients were carriers of combined GSTM1-null, GSTT1-active, GSTA1-low activity and GSTP1-variant genotype, exhibiting 9.32-fold elevated cRCC risk compared to the reference genotype combination (p = 0.04). Significant association between GST genotype and cRCC risk in smokers was found only for the GSTP1 genotype, while GSTM1-null/GSTP1-variant/GSTA1 low-activity genotype combination was present in 94% of smokers with cRCC, increasing the risk of cRCC up to 7.57 (p = 0.02). Furthermore, cRCC smokers with GSTM1-null genotype had significantly higher concentration of BPDE-DNA adducts in comparison with GSTM1-active cRCC smokers (p = 0.05). GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTA1 and GSTP1 polymorphisms might be associated with the risk of cRCC, with special emphasis on GSTM1-null and GSTP1-variant genotypes. Combined GSTM1-null, GSTT1-active, GSTA1 low activity and GSTP1-variant genotypes might be considered as "risk-carrying genotype combination" in cRCC.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The presence of glutathione transferase (GST) M1 null genotype (GSTM1-null) in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients is associated with lower overall survival rate in comparison to those with GSTM1-active variants. We examined association between GSTM1 and GSTT1 deletion polymorphisms as well as SNPs in GSTA1/rs3957357 and GSTP1/rs1695 genes with overall and cause-specific cardiovascular mortality in ESRD patients. METHODS: Total of 199 patients undergoing hemodialysis were included in the study. Median value of time elapsed from dialysis initiation until the death, or the end of follow-up was 8?±?5 years. The effect of GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTP1 and GSTA1 gene polymorphisms on predicting overall and specific cardiovascular outcomes (myocardial infarction, MI or stroke) was analyzed using Cox regression model, and differences in survival were determined by Kaplan-Meier. RESULTS: GSTM1-null genotype in ESRD patients was found to be independent predictor of overall and cardiovascular mortality. However, after false discovery rate and Bonferroni corrections this effect was lost. The borderline effect modification by wild-type GSTA1*A/*A genotype on associations between GSTM1-null and analyzed outcomes was found only for death from stroke. Homozygous carriers of combined GSTM1*0/GSTA1*A genotype exhibited significantly shorter time to death of stroke or MI in comparison with carriers of either GSTM1-active or at least one GSTA1*B gene variant. The best survival rate regarding cardiovascular outcome was found for ESRD patients with combined GSTM1-active and mutant GSTA1*B/*B genotype. CONCLUSIONS: Combined GSTM1*0/GSTA1*A genotypes might be considered as genetic markers for cardiovascular death risk in ESRD patients, which may permit targeting of preventive and early intervention.
Project description:PURPOSE: NRF2 transcription factor is involved in modulation of various antioxidant and metabolic genes and, therefore, may modulate anti-carcinogenic potential. Association between polymorphisms of NRF2 and five NRF2-regulated genes and urinary bladder cancer (BC) risk was analyzed. METHODS: The study group included 244 BC patients, while the control group comprised 365 individuals with no evidence of malignancy. Genotyping of GSTM1 (deletion), GSTT1 (deletion), GSTA1 -69C/T (rs3957357), GSTP1 Ile105Val (rs1695), SOD2 Ala16Val (rs4880) and NRF2 -617C/A (rs6721961) in blood genomic DNA was performed by means of real-time PCR assays. The associations between gene polymorphism and BC risk were computed by logistic regression. RESULTS: The frequency of GSTA1, GSTP1, SOD2 and NRF2 genotypes did not differ in both groups. A significantly higher BC risk was associated with GSTM1 null genotype after adjusting to age, sex and smoking habit (OR 1.85, 95 % CI 1.30-2.62; P = 0.001). GSTT1 null (OR 0.50, 95 % CI 0.31-0.81; P = 0.005) and GSTP1 Val105Val (OR 0.52, 95 % CI 0.27-0.98; P = 0.04) genotypes were associated with reduced BC risk separately or in combination (OR 0.24, 95 % CI 0.11-0.51; P < 0.0001) (P heterogeneity = 0.01). Combined GSTT1 null and SOD2 with at least one 16Val allele among never smokers encompass reduced BC risk (OR 0.14, 95 % CI 0.03-0.63; P = 0.01) (P heterogeneity = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: This study supports hypothesis that GSTM1 null genotype may be a moderate BC risk factor. The gene-gene and gene-environment interactions associated with combined GSTP1/GSTT1 and combined GSTT1/SOD2 genetic polymorphisms along with cigarette smoking habit may play a significant role in BC risk modulation.
Project description:Disturbed redox balance in heart failure (HF) might contribute to impairment of cardiac function, by oxidative damage, or by regulation of cell signaling. The role of polymorphism in glutathione transferases (GSTs), involved both in antioxidant defense and in regulation of apoptotic signaling pathways in HF, has been proposed. We aimed to determine whether GST genotypes exhibit differential risk effects between coronary artery disease (CAD) and idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDC) in HF patients. GSTA1, GSTM1, GSTP1, and GSTT1 genotypes were determined in 194 HF patients (109 CAD, 85 IDC) and 274 age- and gender-matched controls. No significant association was found for GSTA1, GSTM1, and GSTT1 genotypes with HF occurrence due to either CAD or IDC. However, carriers of at least one variant GSTP1?Val (rs1695) allele were at 1.7-fold increased HF risk than GSTP1?Ile/Ile carriers (p = 0.031), which was higher when combined with the variant GSTA1?B allele (OR = 2.2, p = 0.034). In HF patients stratified based on the underlying cause of disease, an even stronger association was observed in HF patients due to CAD, who were carriers of a combined GSTP1(rs1695)/GSTA1 "risk-associated" genotype (OR = 2.8, p = 0.033) or a combined GSTP1?Ile/Val+Val/Val (rs1695)/GSTP1?AlaVal+?ValVal (rs1138272) genotype (OR = 2.1, p = 0.056). Moreover, these patients exhibited significantly decreased left ventricular end-systolic diameter compared to GSTA1?AA/GSTP1?IleIle carriers (p = 0.021). Higher values of ICAM-1 were found in carriers of the GSTP1?IleVal+?ValVal (rs1695) (p = 0.041) genotype, whereas higher TNF? was determined in carriers of the GSTP1?AlaVal+?ValVal genotype (rs1138272) (p = 0.041). In conclusion, GSTP1 polymorphic variants may determine individual susceptibility to oxidative stress, inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction in HF.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 polymorphisms might be involved in inactivation of procarcinogens that contribute to the genesis and progression of cancers. However, studies investigating the association between GSTM1, GSTT1 or GSTP1 polymorphisms and prostate cancer (PCa) risk report conflicting results, therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to re-examine the controversy. METHODS: Published literature from PubMed, Embase, Google Scholar and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) were searched (updated to June 2, 2012). According to our inclusion criteria, studies that observed the association between GSTM1, GSTT1 or GSTP1 polymorphisms and PCa risk were included. The principal outcome measure was the odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) for the risk of PCa associated with GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 polymorphisms. RESULTS: Fifty-seven studies involving 11313 cases and 12934 controls were recruited. The overall OR, which was 1.2854 (95% CI?=?1.1405-1.4487), revealed a significant risk of PCa and GSTM1 null genotype, and the similar results were observed when stratified by ethnicity and control source. Further, the more important is that the present study first reported the high risks of PCa for people who with dual null genotype of GSTM1 and GSTT1 (OR?=?1.4353, 95% CI?=?1.0345-1.9913), or who with GSTT1 null genotype and GSTP1 A131G polymorphism (OR?=?1.7335, 95% CI?=?1.1067-2.7152). But no association was determined between GSTT1 null genotype (OR?=?1.102, 95% CI?=?0.9596-1.2655) or GSTP1 A131G polymorphism (OR?=?1.0845, 95% CI?=?0.96-1.2251) and the PCa risk. CONCLUSIONS: Our meta-analysis suggested that the people with GSTM1 null genotype, with dual null genotype of GSTM1 and GSTT1, or with GSTT1 null genotype and GSTP1 A131G polymorphism are associated with high risks of PCa, but no association was found between GSTT1 null genotype or GSTP1 A131G polymorphism and the risk of PCa. Further rigorous analytical studies are highly expected to confirm our conclusions and assess gene-environment interactions with PCa risk.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Progression of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) could be due to oxidative stress especially through reactive oxygen species (ROS). Detoxification of ROS is largely performed by Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), therefore polymorphisms of GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 genes which decrease enzymes activity could affect SLE susceptibility. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of GSTM1 (deletion), GSTT1 (deletion) and GSTP1 (Ile105Val) polymorphisms on SLE susceptibility. METHODS: Genomic DNA was extracted from blood samples of 163 SLE patients and 180 age, sex and ethnically matched controls. GSTs genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-multiplex procedure or polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis. RESULTS: GSTT1 null genotype frequency was higher in SLE patients than controls. NO association observed between GSTM1 null genotype or GSTP1 Ile105Val polymorphism with SLE. Nevertheless combination of GSTT1 null/ GSTM1 null genotypes showed 2.8-fold increase in risk of SLE. Moreover the combination of GSTT1 null/ GSTM1 null/GSTP1 Ile/Val and Val/Val genotypes increased the SLE risk about 8 fold. CONCLUSION: Present data suggest that GSTT1 null/ GSTM1 null/GSTP1 Ile/Val and Val/Val genotypes might largely contribute to the pathogenesis of SLE.
Project description:Although recent data suggest aristolochic acid as a putative cause of Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN), evidence also exists in favor of ochratoxin A (OTA) exposure as risk factor for the disease. The potential role of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes, such as the glutathione transferases (GSTs), in OTA biotransformation is based on OTA glutathione adducts (OTHQ-SG and OTB-SG) in blood and urine of BEN patients. We aimed to analyze the association between common GSTA1, GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1 polymorphisms and BEN susceptibility, and thereafter performed an in silico simulation of particular GST enzymes potentially involved in OTA transformations. GSTA1, GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 genotypes were determined in 207 BEN patients and 138 non-BEN healthy individuals from endemic regions by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Molecular modeling in silico was performed for GSTA1 protein. Among the GST polymorphisms tested, only GSTA1 was significantly associated with a higher risk of BEN. Namely, carriers of the GSTA1*B gene variant, associated with lower transcriptional activation, were at a 1.6-fold higher BEN risk than those carrying the homozygous GSTA1*A/*A genotype (OR = 1.6; p = 0.037). In in silico modeling, we found four structures, two OTB-SG and two OTHQ-SG, bound in a GSTA1 monomer. We found that GSTA1 polymorphism was associated with increased risk of BEN, and suggested, according to the in silico simulation, that GSTA1-1 might be involved in catalyzing the formation of OTHQ-SG and OTB-SG conjugates.
Project description:Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may increase breast cancer risk, and the association may be modified by inherited differences in deactivation of PAH intermediates by glutathione S-transferases (GSTs). Few breast cancer studies have investigated the joint effects of multiple GSTs and a PAH biomarker.We estimated the breast cancer risk associated with multiple polymorphisms in the GST gene (GSTA1, GSTM1, GSTP1, and GSTT1) and the interaction with PAH-DNA adducts and cigarette smoking.We conducted unconditional logistic regression using data from a population-based sample of women (cases/controls, respectively): GST polymorphisms were genotyped using polymerase chain reaction and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight assays (n = 926 of 916), PAH-DNA adduct blood levels were measured by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (n = 873 of 941), and smoking status was assessed by in-person questionnaires (n = 943 of 973).Odds ratios for joint effects on breast cancer risk among women with at least three variant alleles were 1.56 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.13-2.16] for detectable PAH-DNA adducts and 0.93 (95% CI, 0.56-1.56) for no detectable adducts; corresponding odds ratios for three or more variants were 1.18 (95% CI, 0.82-1.69) for ever smokers and 1.44 (95% CI, 0.97-2.14) for never smokers. Neither interaction was statistically significant (p = 0.43 and 0.62, respectively).We found little statistical evidence that PAHs interacted with GSTT1, GSTM1, GSTP1, and GSTA1 polymorphisms to further increase breast cancer risk.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) polymorphisms may impact on chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) risk or heterogeneous responses to Imatinib mesylate (IM). The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between GSTs polymorphisms and CML risk, treatment response. METHODS:We genotyped GSTM1, GSTT1 null deletion polymorphisms, and GSTP1 Ile105Val polymorphism by PCR methods and BCR-ABL transcripts were analyzed by qRT-PCR in 104 CML patients and 104 sex- and age-matched healthy individuals. RESULTS:Individual analysis showed significant association of GSTM1 (p = 0.008; OR = 0.46; 95% CI: 0.26-0.82) and GSTP1 genes (p = 0.04; OR = 1.56; 95% CI: 1.016-2.423) with CML risk. The combined analysis indicated that GSTM1 null/GSTT1 present, GSTM1-null/GSTP1M*(AG/GG) as well as GSTT1 present/ GSTP1M* genotype were associated with CML risk (ORg(-):2.28; 95% CI: 1.29-4.04; ORgg: 2.85; 95% CI: 1.36-5.97; OR(-)g: 1.75; 95% CI: 0.99-3.06, respectively). The proportion of CML cancer attributable to the interaction of smoking and GSTM1 null, GSTT1null, and GSTP1 M* was 42%, 39%, and 13%, respectively. Patients with GSTM1-null and GSTP1 AG/GG genotype had significantly a lower rate of MMR achievement (p = 0.00; p = 0.009 respectively). Event-free survival (EFS) percentage was similar between GSTM1 null and GSTM1 present patients (p = 0.21). CONCLUSION:Our study suggests the influence of GSTM1 and GSTP1 polymorphisms on CML risk and treatment response. The interaction between GSTs polymorphisms and smoking plays a significant role on CML susceptibility.
Project description:PURPOSE: The glutathione-S-transferase (GST)P1, GSTM1, and GSTT1 genotypes have been associated with an increased risk of prostate, bladder, and lung cancers. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the GSTP1, GSTM1, and GSTT1 genotypes and the risk of prostate cancer in Korean men. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study group consisted of 166 patients with histologically confirmed prostate cancer. The control group consisted of 327 healthy, cancer-free individuals. The diagnosis of prostate cancer was made by transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy. Patients with prostatic adenocarcinoma were divided into organ-confined (≤pT2) and non-organ-confined (≥pT3) subgroups. The histological grades were subdivided according to the Gleason score. The GSTP1, GSTM1, and GSTT1 genotypes were determined by using polymerase chain reaction-based methods. The relationship among GSTP1, GSTM1, and GSTT1 polymorphisms and prostate cancer in a case-control study was investigated. RESULTS: The frequency of the GSTM1 null genotype in the prostate cancer group (54.2%) was higher than in the control group (odds ratio=1.53, 95% confidence interval=1.20-1.96). The comparison of the GSTP1, GSTM1, and GSTT1 genotypes and cancer prognostic factors, such as staging and grading, showed no statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS: An increased risk for prostate cancer may be associated with the GSTM1 null genotype in Korean men, but no association was found with the GSTT1 or GSTP1 genotypes.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Fourteen previous meta-analyses have been published to analyze the polymorphisms of individual GSTM1 present/null, GSTT1 present/null, and GSTP1 IIe105Val on breast cancer (BC) risk. However, their meta-analyses did not explore the combined effects of the three genetic polymorphisms on BC risk. In addition, they did not evaluate the credibility of statistically significant associations. Furthermore, a multitude of new articles have been published on these themes, and therefore a meta-analysis and re-analysis of systematic previous meta-analyses were performed to further explore these issues. OBJECTIVES:To determine the association between the individual and combined effects of GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1 polymorphisms on breast cancer risk. METHODS:Crude odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were applied to estimate the association between individual and combined effects of GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1 polymorphisms on BC risk. To evaluate the credibility of statistically significant associations in the current and previous meta-analyses, we applied the the false-positive report probabilities (FPRP) test and the Venice criteria. RESULTS:101 publications were selected to evaluate the individual and combined effects of GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 polymorphisms on BC risk. Overall, statistically significant elevated BC risk was found in any individual and combined effects of GSTM1 present/null, GSTT1 present/null, and GSTP1 IIe105Val polymorphisms. However, when we restricted studies only involving with high-quality, matching, HWE, and genotyping examination performed blindly or with quality control, significantly increased BC risk was only found in overall population for GSTM1 null genotype, among all populations, Caucasians, and postmenopausal women for the combined effects of GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms, and in overall analysis for the combined effects of GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1 IIe105Val polymorphisms. Further, less-credible positive results were identified when we evaluated the credibility of positive results of the current and previous meta-analyses. CONCLUSIONS:This meta-analysis indicates that the individual and combined effects of GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 polymorphisms may be not associated with increased BC risk.