The Effect of the Duration of Basic Life Support Training on the Learners' Cardiopulmonary and Automated External Defibrillator Skills.
ABSTRACT: Background. Basic life support (BLS) training with hands-on practice can improve performance during simulated cardiac arrest, although the optimal duration for BLS training is unknown. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of various BLS training durations for acquiring cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and automated external defibrillator (AED) skills. Methods. We randomised 485 South Korean nonmedical college students into four levels of BLS training: level 1 (40?min), level 2 (80?min), level 3 (120?min), and level 4 (180?min). Before and after each level, the participants completed questionnaires regarding their willingness to perform CPR and use AEDs, and their psychomotor skills for CPR and AED use were assessed using a manikin with Skill-Reporter™ software. Results. There were no significant differences between levels 1 and 2, although levels 3 and 4 exhibited significant differences in the proportion of overall adequate chest compressions (p < 0.001) and average chest compression depth (p = 0.003). All levels exhibited a greater posttest willingness to perform CPR and use AEDs (all, p < 0.001). Conclusions. Brief BLS training provided a moderate level of skill for performing CPR and using AEDs. However, high-quality skills for CPR required longer and hands-on training, particularly hands-on training with AEDs.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:This study assessed the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a 2-hour compression-only cardiopulmonary resuscitation and automated external defibrillator (CO-CPRAED) course in secondary school students. DESIGN:Prospective pre-post feasibility study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS:128 students (12-15 years old) without prior basic life support (BLS) training at four secondary schools in Hong Kong. All students were followed up at 3 months after training. INTERVENTIONS:Emergency medicine-trained nurse and physicians taught the 2-hour CO-CPRAED course using the American Heart Association 'CPR in School Training Kit' programme. Students were trained in groups up to 40 students/session, with an instructor to student ratio not exceeding 1:10. To practise hands-on compressions, the manikin to student ratio was 1:1. For a simulated cardiac arrest, the manikin and AED to student ratio was 1:10. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOMES:CPR and AED knowledge, attitude statements towards bystander CPR and AED, quality of BLS performance skills during training and at 3 months. RESULTS:Some students (46%) knew how deep to push on an adult chest when doing CO-CPR before training. The course was associated with an increase in knowledge score (pretraining 55%, post-training 93%; adjusted mean difference (MD) 38%, 95% CI 33% to 43%; p<0.001). Most students (68%) thought that CPR education in senior secondary school was essential before training. The students had a very positive attitude towards CPR; no change in the mean (SD) attitude score out of 30 over time (pretraining 27.2 (2.5), post-training 27.6 (2.7); adjusted MD 0.5, 95% CI -0.1 to 1.0; p=0.132). Most students were competent in performing BLS immediately after training (77%) and at 3 months (83%) (adjusted MD 6%, 95% CI -4% to 15%; p=0.268). CONCLUSIONS:The results demonstrate the feasibility of scaling up the number of secondary schools trained in a brief CO-CPRAED course within the local school curriculum.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Many patients who suffer an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest will fail to receive bystander intervention (cardiopulmonary resuscitation [CPR] or defibrillation) despite widespread CPR training and the dissemination of automated external defibrillators (AEDs). We sought to investigate what factors encourage lay bystanders to initiate CPR and AED use in a cohort of bystanders previously trained in CPR techniques who were present at an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.<h4>Methods and results</h4>One-hundred and twenty-eight semistructured qualitative interviews with CPR-trained lay bystanders to consecutive out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, where an AED was present were conducted (from January 2012 to April 2015, in Denmark). Purposive maximum variation sampling was used to establish the breadth of the bystander perspective. Twenty-six of the 128 interviews were chosen for further in-depth analyses, until data saturation. We used cross-sectional indexing (using software), and inductive in-depth thematic analyses, to identify those factors that facilitated CPR and AED use. In addition to prior hands-on CPR training, the following were described as facilitators: prior knowledge that intervention is crucial in improving survival, cannot cause substantial harm, and that the AED will provide guidance through CPR; prior hands-on training in AED use; during CPR performance, teamwork (ie, support), using the AED voice prompt and a ventilation mask, as well as demonstrating leadership and feeling a moral obligation to act.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Several factors other than previous hands-on CPR training facilitate lay bystander instigation of CPR and AED use. The recognition and modification of these factors may increase lay bystander CPR rates and patient survival following an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The time to skill deterioration between primary training/retraining and further retraining in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and automated external defibrillation (AED) for lay-persons is unclear. The Public Access Defibrillation (PAD) trial was a multi-center randomized controlled trial evaluating survival after CPR-only versus CPR+AED delivered by onsite non-medical volunteer responders in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. AIMS:This sub-study evaluated the relationship of time between primary training/retraining and further retraining on volunteer performance during pretest AED and CPR skill evaluation. METHODS:Volunteers at 1260 facilities in 24 North American regions underwent training/retraining according to facility randomization, which included an initial session and a refresher session at approximately 6 months. Before the next retraining, a CPR and AED skill test was completed for 2729 volunteers. Primary outcome for the study was assessment of global competence of CPR or AED performance (adequate versus not adequate) using chi(2)-test for trends by time interval (3, 6, 9, and 12 months). Confirmatory (GEE) logistic regression analysis, adjusted for site and potential confounders was done. RESULTS:The proportion of volunteers judged to be competent did not diminish by interval (3, 6, 9, and 12 months) for either CPR or AED skills. After adjusting for site and potential confounders, longer intervals to further retraining was associated with a slightly lower likelihood of performing adequate CPR but not with AED scores. CONCLUSIONS:After primary training/retraining, the CPR skills of targeted lay responders deteriorate nominally but 80% remain competent up to 1 year. AED skills do not deteriorate significantly and 90% of volunteers remain competent up to 1 year.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) remains a big issue of critical care. It is well known that bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) with an automated external defibrillator (AED) used did improve the survival rate. Therefore, CPR education including basic life support (BLS) and AED has been advocated for years. It showed significant improvement of knowledge and willingness to perform CPR through adolescents after the course. However, little is known regarding the ability and learning effectiveness of school students who attend such courses. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the CPR effectiveness of both adolescents (12 years old) and adults who undergo the same course of BLS and AED.<h4>Methods</h4>This is a retrospective study. Sixth-grade elementary school students in Northern Taiwan were selected to compare with the adult group. Both took 90 minutes of the BLS and AED course by the doctor with BLS instructor qualification. The primary outcomes were CPR quality and passing or failing the skill examination parameters. The secondary outcome was the posttraining written test and questionnaire of CPR willingness.<h4>Results</h4>In the written test, there was a statistical difference in the pretest score except AED knowledge, but no difference was revealed in the posttest score. No statistical difference in CPR quality was noted. In the skill examination, only checking breathing status had statistical difference (elementary group (71%) vs. adult group (86%) (<i>p</i>=0.003)).<h4>Conclusion</h4>We revealed that sixth-grade elementary students' performance in CPR and AED was similar to that of adults after completing the current 90-minute course. Therefore, we strongly advocate offering CPR and AED courses to 12-year-old children, and these courses should emphasize checking the victim's breathing status.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The 'chain of survival'-including early call for help, early cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and early defibrillation-represents the most beneficial approach for favourable patient outcome after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). Despite increasing numbers of publicly accessible automated external defibrillators (AED) and interventions to increase public awareness for basic life support (BLS), the number of their use in real-life emergency situations remains low. METHODS:In this prospective population-based cross-sectional study, a total of 501 registered inhabitants of Vienna (Austria) were randomly approached via telephone calls between 08/2014 and 09/2014 and invited to answer a standardized questionnaire in order to identify public knowledge and awareness of BLS and AED-use. RESULTS:We found that more than 52 percent of participants would presume OHCA correctly and would properly initiate BLS attempts. Of alarming importance, only 33 percent reported that they would be willing to perform CPR and 50 percent would use an AED device. There was a significantly lower willingness to initiate BLS attempts (male: 40% vs. female: 25%; OR: 2.03 [95%CI: 1.39-2.98]; p<0.001) and to use an AED device (male: 58% vs. female: 44%; OR: 1.76 [95%CI: 1.26-2.53]; p = 0.002) in questioned female individuals compared to their male counterparts. Interestingly, we observed a strongly decreasing level of knowledge and willingness for BLS attempts (-14%; OR: 0.72 [95%CI: 0.57-0.92]; p = 0.027) and AED-use (-19%; OR: 0.68 [95%CI: 0.54-0.85]; p = 0.001) with increasing age. CONCLUSION:We found an overall poor knowledge and awareness concerning BLS and the use of AEDs among the Viennese population. Both female and elderly participants reported the lowest willingness to perform BLS and use an AED in case of OHCA. Specially tailored programs to increase awareness and willingness among both the female and elderly community need to be considered for future educational interventions.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Virtual reality is an innovative technology for medical education associated with high empirical realism. Therefore, this study compares a conventional cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training with a Virtual Reality (VR) training aiming to demonstrate: (a) non-inferiority of the VR intervention in respect of no flow time and (b) superiority in respect of subjective learning gain.<h4>Methods</h4>In this controlled randomized study first year, undergraduate students were allocated in the intervention group and the control group. Fifty-six participants were randomized to the intervention group and 104 participants to the control group. The intervention group received an individual 35-min VR Basic Life Support (BLS) course and a basic skill training. The control group took part in a "classic" BLS-course with a seminar and a basic skill training. The groups were compared in respect of no flow time in a final 3-min BLS examination (primary outcome) and their learning gain (secondary outcome) assessed with a comparative self-assessment (CSA) using a questionnaire at the beginning and the end of the course. Data analysis was performed with a general linear fixed effects model.<h4>Results</h4>The no flow time was significantly shorter in the control group (Mean values: control group 82?s vs. intervention group 93?s; p?=?0.000). In the CSA participants of the intervention group had a higher learning gain in 6 out of 11 items of the questionnaire (p?<?0.05).<h4>Conclusion</h4>A "classic" BLS-course with a seminar and training seems superior to VR in teaching technical skills. However, overall learning gain was higher with VR. Future BLS course-formats should consider the integration of VR technique into the classic CPR training or vice versa, to use the advantage of both teaching techniques.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Effective education in basic life support (BLS) may improve the early initiation of high-quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation and automated external defibrillation (CPR-AED). AIM:To compare the learning outcome in terms of practical skills and knowledge of BLS after participating in learning activities related to BLS, with and without web-based education in cardiovascular diseases (CVD). METHODS:Laymen (n = 2,623) were cluster randomised to either BLS education or to web-based education in CVD before BLS training. The participants were assessed by a questionnaire for theoretical knowledge and then by a simulated scenario for practical skills. The total score for practical skills in BLS six months after training was the primary outcome. The total score for practical skills directly after training, separate variables and self-assessed knowledge, confidence and willingness, directly and six months after training, were the secondary outcomes. RESULTS:BLS with web-based education was more effective than BLS without web-based education and obtained a statistically significant higher total score for practical skills at six months (mean 58.8, SD 5.0 vs mean 58.0, SD 5.0; p = 0.03) and directly after training (mean 59.6, SD 4.8 vs mean 58.7, SD 4.9; p = 0.004). CONCLUSION:A web-based education in CVD in addition to BLS training enhanced the learning outcome with a statistically significant higher total score for performed practical skills in BLS as compared to BLS training alone. However, in terms of the outcomes, the differences were minor, and the clinical relevance of our findings has a limited practical impact.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>This study aimed to evaluate how BLS courses affect primary school students' knowledge, attitudes, and life support skills; investigate how medical students' knowledge and competence in teaching BLS can improve by serving as instructors.<h4>Methods</h4>This experimental study was conducted in a rural primary school. First-year medical students conducted a BLS course for grade 4 and 5 primary school students with a 6-7:1 ratio of trainees-to-trainer. All trainers had completed a BLS course before the course. This 3.5-hour simulation-based course covered chest compressions and automated external defibrillator use. The pre- and post-course assessments included multiple choice questions toward BLS, practical skills test, and attitude test. For medical students, evaluation was conducted by attitude test, both pre- and post-teaching.<h4>Results</h4>The mean pre- and post-test scores increased from 5.74±0.10 to 9.43±0.13 (P<0.01). The increase in the scores was the same for both the students and the teachers (3.05±0.60 vs. 3.68±0.16, P=0.33). After the course, more than 90% of the students could perform all the procedures involved in BLS and automated external defibrillation. Medical students showed an improved understanding of CPR and confidence in performing and teaching CPR (both, P<0.01).<h4>Conclusion</h4>Primary school students can learn how to perform BLS through simulation-based learning. Simulation-based training can improve their attitude and provide them with knowledge and crucial skill sets, improving their confidence in performing BLS. Furthermore, teachers' attitudes and confidence toward CPR improved after teaching CPR.
Project description:Objective : The objective of this study was to report observed changes in an intern's ability to initiate critical emergency skills in different cardiac arrest scenarios with high-fidelity simulation over a 10-month period. Methods : One intern's performance was retrospectively analyzed using video recordings of 4 simulations at different stages in the training program. The key outcome was the duration of time expired for 4 critical skills, including activating the emergency response system, initiating cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), using an automated external defibrillator (AED), and passively administrating oxygen. Results : The intern became more efficient in each subsequent simulation for activating the emergency response system and initiating CPR. The time to use the AED stayed relatively constant. The administration of oxygen was inconsistent. Conclusion : An improvement in the speed of applying emergency critical skills was observed with this intern. These improvements in skill may improve patient outcomes and survival rates. We propose further educational research with high-fidelity simulation in the area of assessing emergency skills.
Project description:The aim was to compare students' practical cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) skills and willingness to perform bystander CPR, after a 30 min mobile application (app)-based versus a 50 min DVD-based training.Seventh grade students in two Swedish municipalities.A cluster randomised trial. The classes were randomised to receive app-based or DVD-based training. Willingness to act and practical CPR skills were assessed, directly after training and at 6 months, by using a questionnaire and a PC Skill Reporting System. Data on CPR skills were registered in a modified version of the Cardiff test, where scores were given in 12 different categories, adding up to a total score of 12-48 points. Training and measurements were performed from December 2013 to October 2014.63 classes or 1232 seventh grade students (13-year-old) were included in the study.Primary end point was the total score of the modified Cardiff test. The individual variables of the test and self-reported willingness to make a life-saving intervention were secondary end points.The DVD-based group was superior to the app-based group in CPR skills; a total score of 36 (33-38) vs 33 (30-36) directly after training (p<0.001) and 33 (30-36) and 31 (28-34) at 6 months (p<0.001), respectively. At 6 months, the DVD group performed significantly better in 8 out of 12 CPR skill components. Both groups improved compression depth from baseline to follow-up. If a friend suffered cardiac arrest, 78% (DVD) versus 75% (app) would do compressions and ventilations, whereas only 31% (DVD) versus 32% (app) would perform standard CPR if the victim was a stranger.At 6 months follow-up, the 50 min DVD-based group showed superior CPR skills compared with the 30 min app-based group. The groups did not differ in regard to willingness to make a life-saving effort.