Project description:Mitochondrial compromise has been documented in infants born to women infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) who received nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) therapy during pregnancy. To model these human exposures, we examined mitochondrial integrity at birth and 1 year in brain cortex and liver from offspring of retroviral-free Erythrocebus patas dams-administered human-equivalent NRTI doses for the last half (10 weeks) of gestation. Additional infants, followed for 1 year, were given the same drugs as their mothers for the first 6 weeks of life. Exposures included: no drug, Zidovudine (AZT), Lamivudine (3TC), AZT/3TC, AZT/Didanosine (ddI), and Stavudine (d4T)/3TC. In brain and liver, oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) enzyme activities (complexes I, II, and IV) showed minimal differences between unexposed and NRTI-exposed offspring at both times. Brain and liver mitochondria from most NRTI-exposed patas, both at birth and 1 year of age, contained significant (p < 0.05) morphological damage observed by electron microscopy (EM), based on scoring of coded photomicrographs. Brain and liver mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) levels in NRTI-exposed patas were depleted significantly in the 3TC and d4T/3TC groups at birth and were depleted significantly (p < 0.05) at 1 year in all NRTI-exposed groups. In 1-year-old infants exposed in utero to NRTIs, mtDNA depletion was 28.8-51.8% in brain and 37.4-56.5% in liver. These investigations suggest that some NRTI-exposed human infants may sustain similar mitochondrial compromise in brain and liver and should be followed long term for cognitive integrity and liver function.
Project description:We systematically reviewed studies of the virological efficacy of the 4 new tenofovir (TDF)-containing regimens recommended for initial antiretroviral (ARV) therapy in the 2010 World Health Organization ARV Treatment Guidelines. Thirty-three studies assessed the efficacy of 1 or more TDF-containing regimens: TDF/lamivudine (3TC)/nevirapine (NVP) (n = 3), TDF/ emtricitabine (FTC)/NVP (n = 9), TDF/3TC/efavirenz (EFV) (n = 6), and TDF/FTC/EFV (n = 19). TDF/3TC/NVP was the least well-studied and appeared the least efficacious of the 4 regimens. In 2 comparative studies, TDF/3TC/NVP was associated with significantly more virological failure than AZT/3TC/NVP; a third study was terminated prematurely because of early virological failure. TDF/FTC/NVP was either equivalent or inferior to its comparator arms. TDF/3TC/EFV was equivalent to its comparator arms. TDF/FTC/EFV was equivalent or superior to its comparator arms. Possible explanations for these findings include the greater antiviral activity of EFV versus NVP and longer intracellular half-life of FTC-triphosphate versus 3TC-triphosphate. Further study of TDF/3TC/NVP is required before it is widely deployed for initial ARV therapy.
Project description:Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), essential components of combinational therapies used for treatment of human immunodeficiency virus-1, damage heart mitochondria. Here, we have shown mitochondrial compromise in H9c2 rat cardiomyocytes exposed for 16 passages (P) to the NRTIs zidovudine (AZT, 50?M) and didanosine (ddI, 50?M), and we have demonstrated protection from mitochondrial compromise in cells treated with 200?M 1-oxyl-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-hydroxypiperidine (Tempol) or 200?M 1-hydroxy-4-[2-triphenylphosphonio)-acetamido]-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine (Tempol-H), along with AZT/ddI, for 16P. Exposure to AZT/ddI caused a moderate growth inhibition at P3, P5, P7, and P13, which was not altered by addition of Tempol or Tempol-H. Mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation capacity was determined as uncoupled oxygen consumption rate (OCR) by Seahorse XF24 Analyzer. At P5, P7, and P13, AZT/ddI-exposed cells showed an OCR reduction of 8.8-57.2% in AZT/ddI-exposed cells, compared with unexposed cells. Addition of Tempol or Tempol-H, along with AZT/ddI, resulted in OCR levels increased by about 300% above the values seen with AZT/ddI alone. The Seahorse data were further supported by electron microscopy (EM) studies in which P16 cells exposed to AZT/ddI/Tempol had less mitochondrial pathology than P16 cells exposed to AZT/ddI. Western blots of P5 cells showed that Tempol and Tempol-H upregulated expression of mitochondrial uncoupling protein-2 (UCP-2). However, Complex I activity that was reduced by AZT/ddI, was not restored in the presence of AZT/ddI/Tempol. Superoxide levels were increased in the presence of AZT/ddI and significantly decreased in cells exposed to AZT/3TC/Tempol at P3, P7, and P10. In conclusion, Tempol protects against NRTI-induced mitochondrial compromise, and UCP-2 plays a role through mild uncoupling.
Project description:BACKGROUND: WHO-guidelines for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 in resource-limited settings recommend complex maternal antiretroviral prophylaxis comprising antenatal zidovudine (AZT), nevirapine single-dose (NVP-SD) at labor onset and AZT/lamivudine (3TC) during labor and one week postpartum. Data on resistance development selected by this regimen is not available. We therefore analyzed the emergence of minor drug-resistant HIV-1 variants in Tanzanian women following complex prophylaxis. METHOD: 1395 pregnant women were tested for HIV-1 at Kyela District Hospital, Tanzania. 87/202 HIV-positive women started complex prophylaxis. Blood samples were collected before start of prophylaxis, at birth and 1-2, 4-6 and 12-16 weeks postpartum. Allele-specific real-time PCR assays specific for HIV-1 subtypes A, C and D were developed and applied on samples of mothers and their vertically infected infants to quantify key resistance mutations of AZT (K70R/T215Y/T215F), NVP (K103N/Y181C) and 3TC (M184V) at detection limits of <1%. RESULTS: 50/87 HIV-infected women having started complex prophylaxis were eligible for the study. All women took AZT with a median duration of 53 days (IQR 39-64); all women ingested NVP-SD, 86% took 3TC. HIV-1 resistance mutations were detected in 20/50 (40%) women, of which 70% displayed minority species. Variants with AZT-resistance mutations were found in 11/50 (22%), NVP-resistant variants in 9/50 (18%) and 3TC-resistant variants in 4/50 women (8%). Three women harbored resistant HIV-1 against more than one drug. 49/50 infants, including the seven vertically HIV-infected were breastfed, 3/7 infants exhibited drug-resistant virus. CONCLUSION: Complex prophylaxis resulted in lower levels of NVP-selected resistance as compared to NVP-SD, but AZT-resistant HIV-1 emerged in a substantial proportion of women. Starting AZT in pregnancy week 14 instead of 28 as recommended by the current WHO-guidelines may further increase the frequency of AZT-resistance mutations. Given its impact on HIV-transmission rate and drug-resistance development, HAART for all HIV-positive pregnant women should be considered.
Project description:Single-dose nevirapine (sdNVP)-which prevents mother-to-child transmission of HIV-selects non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) resistance mutations in the majority of women and HIV-infected infants receiving it. This open-label, randomised trial examined the efficacy of short-course zidovudine (AZT) and lamivudine (3TC) with sdNVP in reducing NNRTI resistance in mothers, and as a secondary objective, in infants, in a setting where sdNVP was standard-of-care.sdNVP alone, administered at the onset of labour and to the infant, was compared to sdNVP with AZT plus 3TC, given as combivir (CBV) for 4 (NVP/CBV4) or 7 (NVP/CBV7) days, initiated simultaneously with sdNVP in labour; their newborns received the same regimens. Women were randomised 1ratio1ratio1. HIV-1 resistance was assessed by population sequencing at: baseline, 2, and 6 wk after birth. An unplanned interim analysis resulted in early stopping of the sdNVP arm. 406 pregnant women were randomised and took study medication (sdNVP 74, NVP/CBV4 164, and NVP/CBV7 168). HIV-1 resistance mutations emerged in 59.2%, 11.7%, and 7.3% of women in the sdNVP, NVP/CBV4, and NVP/CBV7 arms by 6 wk postpartum; differences between NVP-only and both NVP/CBV arms were significant (p<0.0001), but the difference between NVP/CBV4 and NVP/CBV7 was not (p = 0.27). Estimated efficacy comparing combined CBV arms with sdNVP was 85.6%. Similar resistance reductions were seen in infants who were HIV-infected by their 6-wk visit.A short course of AZT plus 3TC, supplementing maternal and infant sdNVP, reduces emergent NNRTI resistance mutations in both mothers and their infants. However, this trial was not powered to detect small differences between the CBV arms.www.ClinicalTrials.govNCT 00144183.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Within sub-Saharan Africa, helminth and malaria infections cause considerable morbidity in HIV-positive pregnant women and their offspring. Helminth infections are also associated with a higher risk of mother-to-child HIV transmission. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of, and the protective and risk factors for helminth and malaria infections in pregnant HIV-positive Rwandan women receiving anti-retroviral therapy (ART). METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: Pregnant females (n = 980) were recruited from health centres in rural and peri-urban locations in the central and eastern provinces of Rwanda. Helminth infection was diagnosed using the Kato Katz method whilst the presence of Plasmodium falciparum was identified from blood smears. The prevalence of helminth infections was 34.3%; of malaria 13.3%, and of co-infections 6.6%. Helminth infections were more common in rural (43.1%) than peri-urban (18.0%; p<0.0005) sites. A CD4 count ≤ 350 cells/mm(3) was associated with a higher risk of helminth infections (odds ratio, 3.39; 95% CIs, 2.16-5.33; p<0.0005) and malaria (3.37 [2.11-5.38]; p<0.0005) whilst helminth infection was a risk factor for malaria infection and vice versa. Education and employment reduced the risk of all types of infection whilst hand washing protected against helminth infection (0.29 [0.19-0.46]; p<0.0005);). The TDF-3TC-NVP (3.47 [2.21-5.45]; p<0.0005), D4T-3TC-NVP (2.47 [1.27-4.80]; p<0.05) and AZT-NVP (2.60 [1.33-5.08]; p<0.05) regimens each yielded higher helminth infection rates than the AZT-3TC-NVP regimen. Anti-retroviral therapy had no effect on the risk of malaria. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: HIV-positive pregnant women would benefit from the scaling up of de-worming programs alongside health education and hygiene interventions. The differential effect of certain ART combinations (as observed here most strongly with AZT-3TC-NVP) possibly protecting against helminth infection warrants further investigation.
Project description:Antiretroviral drugs (ARV), specifically nucleoside analogs, are toxic to mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Other metabolic pathways, such as fatty acid oxidation, organic acid metabolism and amino acid metabolism, are dependent on normal oxidative phosphorylation but remain unexamined as potential points of ARV toxicity.We analyzed newborn screening data from New York and compared proportions of abnormal newborn metabolic screens in HIV antibody screen-positive and HIV screen-negative neonates. Subsequently, we compared acylcarnitine levels in ARV-exposed (n = 16) and ARV-unexposed (n = 14) HIV-exposed infants to assess for dysfunctional fatty and organic acid metabolism.: The rate of abnormal newborn metabolic screens in HIV screen-positive infants was higher than that in the general population (2.2% versus 1.2%; P = 0.00025), most of which were for disorders of mitochondria-related metabolism. Abnormal acylcarnitine levels occurred more frequently in ARV-exposed compared with ARV-unexposed infants (43% versus 0%; P = 0.02).A higher proportion of positive metabolic screens in HIV screen-positive neonates suggests that HIV or ARV exposure is associated with dysfunctional intermediary metabolism in newborns. Abnormal acylcarnitine levels were more frequent in ARV-exposed infants, suggesting that ARV may perturb normal fatty acid oxidation in some infants. Studies designed to validate and determine the clinical significance of these findings are warranted.
Project description:The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of three nevirapine-based antiretroviral treatments for adult antiretroviral-naïve Chinese patients with HIV-1 infection.This was a prospective, multicenter study. 198 antiretroviral-naïve HIV-1 positive subjects with CD4 lymphocyte counts between 100/ul and 350/ul and plasma HIV-1 RNA levels more than 500 copies/ml were randomized to start three NVP-based antiretroviral treatments: group A, NVP+AZT+ddI; group B, NVP+3TC+d4T; group C, NVP+AZT+3TC. Viral responses, immunologic responses, adverse events and drug resistance were monitored at baseline and the end of week 4, 12, 24, 36, 52. Viralogical response and immunological response were also compared in different strata of baseline CD4 T lymphocyte counts and plasma HIV-1 RNA concentrations. At baseline, the plasma HIV-1 RNA was 4.44+/-0.68, 4.52+/-0.71 and 4.41+/-0.63 lg copies/ml in group A, B and C respectively (p = 0.628). At the end of the study, the plasma viral load reached 2.54+/-1.11, 1.89+/-0.46 and 1.92+/-0.58 lg copies/ml in group A, B and C respectively (p<0.001). At week 52, suppression of plasma HIV-1 RNA to less than 50 copies/ml was achieved in more patients in group B and C than in group A (68.2%, 69% vs. 39.7%; p<0.001). In planned subgroup analyses, the decrease of viral response rate was seen in group A when CD4 cell count >200/ul (subgroup H). But in subgroup L, viral response rate of three groups has no significant statistic difference. There were no statistically significant differences among three groups in immunological response within any of the CD4 or pVL strata. 3 out of 193 patients with available genotype at baseline showed primary drug resistant. Of 26 patients with virologic failure, 17 patients showed secondary drug resistant, 16 subjects in group A and 1 subject in group B. Logistic regression analysis indicated that presence of hepatotoxicity was associated with HCV-Ab positive (OR = 2.096, 95%CI: 1.106-3.973, P = 0.023) and higher CD4 baseline (CD4 count >250/ul) (OR = 2.096, 95%CI: 1.07-4.107, P = 0.031).Our findings strongly support the use of 3TC+d4T and 3TC+AZT as the nucleoside analogue combination in NVP-based antiretroviral therapy. The regimen of AZT+ddI+NVP produced poor virological response especially in the stratum of CD4 count more than 200/ul. More patients showed secondary drug resistant in this arm too. Patients with HCV-Ab+ and CD4 count >250/ul appear to have significantly high risk of hepatoxicity.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00618176.
Project description:We sought to evaluate the effects of antiretroviral therapy on skeletal metabolism in Chinese individuals with human immunodeficiency virus. Patients switched to tenofovir/lamivudine + lopinavir/ritonavir after treatment failure had an increase in bone resorption marker levels by nearly 60%, which is greater than the magnitude previously described in non-Chinese populations.Few studies have evaluated the effects of antiretroviral therapy on skeletal metabolism in Asian populations infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).We performed a secondary analysis of bone turnover markers (BTM) at baseline and 2 years in stored plasma samples collected from 2/2009 to 1/2013 as part of a multi-center trial. Two groups were compared: (1) treatment-naïve patients initiated on zidovudine (AZT)/lamivudine (3TC) plus nevirapine (NVP) and (2) patients who failed first-line therapy and were switched to tenofovir (TDF)/3TC plus lopinavir/ritonavir (LPVr). Tests included the bone resorption marker, C-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type-1 collagen (CTX), and the bone formation marker procollagen type 1 N-terminal propeptide (P1NP).In the TDF/3TC?+?LPVr group, samples were available from 59 patients at baseline and 56 patients at 2 years. Of these, 36 patients had samples available from both time points. In the AZT/3TC?+?NVP group, plasma samples were analyzed from 82 participants at baseline and of those, 61 had samples at 2 years. Median change over 2 years was greater in the TDF/3TC?+?LPVr group for both CTX (+0.24 ng/mL, interquartile ranges (IQR) 0.10-0.43 vs. +0.09 ng/mL, IQR -0.03 to 0.18, p = 0.001) and P1NP (+25.5 ng/mL, IQR 2.4-51.3 vs. +7.11 ng/mL, IQR -4.3 to 21.6, p = 0.012). Differences remained after adjusting for potential confounders in the multivariable analysis.Switching to TDF/3TC?+?LPVr after treatment failure resulted in greater increases in BTMs than initiation with AZT/3TC?+?NVP in Chinese patients with HIV. Following this change, bone resorption marker levels increased by nearly 60 %, which is greater than the 25-35% increase from baseline described previously in non-Chinese populations. Further studies are warranted to elucidate these findings.
Project description:Virological residual activity (VRA) denotes the degree of HIV RNA suppression achieved by antiretroviral therapy in the presence of resistant virus. This concept is particularly important in resource-limited settings, where rapid switching after detection of virological failure may not be feasible. Using data from the NORA trial, we estimated VRA for two regimens-zidovudine-lamivudine-abacavir (ZDV-3TC-ABC) and zidovudine-lamivudine-nevirapine (ZDV-3TC-NVP)-and related this to the phenotypic drug sensitivity of the component drugs in the two regimens. Plasma samples at weeks 0, 48, and 96 were retrospectively assayed for HIV-1 RNA, and genotypic/phenotypic resistance testing was performed if HIV-1 RNA exceeded 1,000 copies/ml. Virological residual activity (VRA) was defined as the difference between log(10)(HIV RNA) at week 48 or 96 and week 0 and related to 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) relative to wild-type virus for ZDV and ABC (fold change [FC]). Twenty-seven samples in the ZDV-3TC-NVP group and 56 in the ZDV-3TC-ABC group contributed to the analysis. Mean VRA was significantly higher in the ZDV-3TC-ABC group than in the ZDV-3TC-NVP at week 48 (1.62 versus 0.90) and week 96 (1.29 versus 0.78). There was a weak and nonsignificant relationship between VRA and ZDV FC, with VRA decreasing by 0.1 log(10) copies/ml per 2-fold increase in ZDV. The association with ABC FC was much stronger, with a marked reduction in VRA occurring at ABC FC values greater than approximately 2. This information should be considered in future treatment guidelines relevant to resource-poor settings.