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Expansion and Activation of CD103(+) Dendritic Cell Progenitors at the Tumor Site Enhances Tumor Responses to Therapeutic PD-L1 and BRAF Inhibition.


ABSTRACT: Large numbers of melanoma lesions develop resistance to targeted inhibition of mutant BRAF or fail to respond to checkpoint blockade. We explored whether modulation of intratumoral antigen-presenting cells (APCs) could increase responses to these therapies. Using mouse melanoma models, we found that CD103(+) dendritic cells (DCs) were the only APCs transporting intact antigens to the lymph nodes and priming tumor-specific CD8(+) T cells. CD103(+) DCs were required to promote anti-tumoral effects upon blockade of the checkpoint ligand PD-L1; however, PD-L1 inhibition only led to partial responses. Systemic administration of the growth factor FLT3L followed by intratumoral poly I:C injections expanded and activated CD103(+) DC progenitors in the tumor, enhancing responses to BRAF and PD-L1 blockade and protecting mice from tumor rechallenge. Thus, the paucity of activated CD103(+) DCs in tumors limits checkpoint-blockade efficacy and combined FLT3L and poly I:C therapy can enhance tumor responses to checkpoint and BRAF blockade.

SUBMITTER: Salmon H 

PROVIDER: S-EPMC4980762 | BioStudies | 2016-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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