Acidosis reduces the function and expression of ?1D-adrenoceptor in superior mesenteric artery of Capra hircus.
ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to characterize the ?1-adrenoceptor (?1-AR) subtypes and evaluate the effect of acidosis on ?1-AR function and expression in goat superior mesenteric artery (GSMA).GSMA rings were mounted in a thermostatically controlled (37.0°C ± 0.5°C) organ bath containing 20 ml of modified Krebs-Henseleit solution, maintained at pHo of 7.4, 6.8, 6.0, 5.5, 5.0, and 4.5. Noradrenaline (NA)- and phenylephrine (PE)-induced contractile response was elicited in the absence or presence of endothelium and prazosin at pHo of 7.4, 6.0, and 5.0. The responses were recorded isometrically by an automatic organ bath connected to PowerLab and analyzed using Labchart 7.1.3 software. Expression of ?1D-AR was compared at physiological and acidic pHo using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).NA- and PE-induced contractile responses were attenuated proportionately with a decrease in extracellular pH (pHo), i.e. 7.4 ? 6.8 ? 6.0 ? 5.5 ? 5.0 ? 4.5. Endothelium denudation increased the contractile response at both normal and acidic pHo. Prazosin (1 nM, 10 nM, and 0.1 ?M) inhibited the NA- and PE-induced contractile response at pHo 7.4 and the blocking effect of prazosin was potentiated at pHo of 6.0 and 5.0. RT-PCR analysis for ?1D-AR in GSMA showed that the mRNA expression of ?1D-AR was decreased under acidic pHo as compared to physiological pHo.(i) Adrenergic receptor mediates vasoconstriction in GSMA under normal physiological pHo, and ?1D is the possible subtype involved in this event (ii) acidosis attenuates the vasocontractile response due to reduced function and expression of ?1D-AR and also increased the release of endothelial-relaxing factors.
Project description:It is unclear why alpha(1D)-adrenergic receptors (alpha(1D)-ARs) play a critical role in the mediation of peripheral vascular resistance and blood pressure in situ but function inefficiently when studied in vitro. The present study examined the causes for these inconsistencies in native alpha(1)-adrenergic functional performance between the vascular smooth muscle and myocytes.The alpha(1)-adrenergic mediated contraction, Ca(2+) signaling and the subcellular receptor distribution were evaluated using the Fluo-4, BODIPY-FL prazosin and subtype-specific antibodies.Rat aortic rings and freshly dissociated myocytes displayed contractile and increased intracellular Ca(2+) responses to stimulation with phenylephrine (PE, 10 micromol), respectively. However, the PE-induced responses disappeared completely in cultured aortic myocytes, whereas PE-enhanced Ca(2+) transients were seen in cultured rat cardiac myocytes. Further studies indicated that alpha(1D)-ARs, the major receptor subtype responsible for the alpha(1)-adrenergic regulation of aortic contraction, were distributed both intracellularly and at the cell membrane in freshly dispersed aortic myocytes, similar to the alpha(1A)-AR subcellular localization in the cultured cardiomyocytes. In the cultured aortic myocytes, however, in addition to a marked decrease in their protein expression relative to the aorta, most labeling signals for alpha(1D)-ARs were found in the cytoplasm. Importantly, treating the culture medium with charcoal/dextran caused the reappearance of alpha(1D)-ARs at the cell surface and a partial restoration of the Ca(2+) signal response to PE in approximately 30% of the cultured cells.Reduction in alpha(1D)-AR total protein expression and disappearance from the cell surface contribute to the insensitivity of cultured vascular smooth muscle cells to alpha(1)-adrenergic receptor activation.
Project description:1. Effects of A-322312 (alpha(1B)-adrenoceptor (AR) antagonist), A-119637 (alpha(1D)-AR antagonist), prazosin (non-selective alpha(1)-AR antagonist), and yohimbine (alpha(2)-AR antagonist) were studied in rat corpus cavernosum (CC) and cavernous artery (Acc) preparations. Effects of intracavernous (i.c.) or intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of alpha(1)-AR antagonists on apomorphine-induced erections were investigated. 2. A-119637 attenuated electrically induced contractions in isolated CC (-logIC(50); 8.12+/-0.15), and relaxed noradrenaline (NA)-contracted preparations by more than 90% at 10(-7) M. At the same concentration, the -logEC(50) value for NA in Acc was altered from 6.79+/-0.07 to 4.86+/-0.13. In the CC and Acc, prazosin similarly inhibited contractile responses. 3. Inhibitory effects of A-322312 (10(-7) M) in electrically activated CC were 32.3+/-5.1%, whereas no effect on concentration-response curves for NA was observed in the Acc. Yohimbine (10(-8) M and 10(-7) M), enhanced electrically-induced contractions in isolated CC by 20 to 50%. At 10(-6) M, inhibitory effects of yohimbine were obtained. 4. A-119637 (0.3 micromol kg(-1), i.p.) tripled the number of erections, and produced a 6 fold increase in the duration of apomorphine-induced erectile responses. A-322312, prazosin, or yohimbine did not enhance erections induced by apomorphine. None of the alpha(1)-AR antagonists significantly increased ICP upon i.c. administration. Decreases in blood pressure were seen with A-119637 and prazosin. 5. The present findings show that there is a functional predominance of the alpha(1D)-AR subtype in the rat erectile tissue, and that blockade of this receptor facilitates rat penile erection induced by a suboptimal dose of apomorphine.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Maintained penile erection depends on the absence of alpha-adrenoceptor (alpha-AR) activation and so can be facilitated by alpha-blockers. This study seeks the alpha(1)-AR subtypes involved in order to inform the pro-erectile consequences of subtype selective blockade. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Wire myography was used with dorsal (nutritional supply) and cavernous (erectile inflow) penile arteries; standard alpha-AR-selective agonists and antagonists were employed to classify responses. KEY RESULTS: In both penile arteries noradrenaline (NA) and phenylephrine (PE, alpha(1)-AR agonist) caused concentration-dependent contractions. Sensitivity to NA was increased by NA uptake blockers, cocaine (3 microM) and corticosterone (30 microM). PE responses were antagonised by phentolamine (non-selective alpha-AR: dorsal pK(B) 8.00, cavernous 8.33), prazosin (non-subtype-selective alpha(1)-AR: dorsal 8.60, cavernous 8.41) and RS100329 (alpha(1A)-AR selective: dorsal 9.03, cavernous 8.80) but not by BMY7378 (alpha(1D)-AR selective: no effect at 1-100 nM) or Rec15/2615 (alpha(1B)-AR selective: no effect at 1-100 nM). Schild analysis was straightforward in cavernous artery, indicating that PE activates only alpha(1A)-AR. In dorsal artery Schild slopes were low, though alpha(1A)-AR was still indicated. Analysis using UK 14,304 and rauwolscine indicated an alpha(2)-AR component in dorsal artery that may account for low slopes to alpha(1)-AR antagonists. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Penile arteries have a predominant, functional alpha(1A)-AR population with little evidence of other alpha(1)-AR subtypes. Dorsal arteries (nutritional supply) also have alpha(2)-ARs. Thus, alpha-AR blockers with affinity for alpha(1A)-AR or alpha(2)-AR would potentially have pro-erectile properties; the combination of these perhaps being most effective. This should inform the design of drugs to assist/avoid penile erection.
Project description:Acute sympathetic stress causes excessive secretion of catecholamines and induces cardiac injuries, which are mainly mediated by ?-adrenergic receptors (?-ARs). However, ?1-adrenergic receptors (?1-ARs) are also expressed in the heart and are activated upon acute sympathetic stress. In the present study, we investigated whether ?1-AR activation induced cardiac inflammation and the underlying mechanisms. Male C57BL/6 mice were injected with a single dose of ?1-AR agonist phenylephrine (PE, 5 or 10?mg/kg, s.c.) with or without pretreatment with ?-AR antagonist prazosin (5?mg/kg, s.c.). PE injection caused cardiac dysfunction and cardiac inflammation, evidenced by the increased expression of inflammatory cytokine IL-6 and chemokines MCP-1 and MCP-5, as well as macrophage infiltration in myocardium. These effects were blocked by prazosin pretreatment. Furthermore, PE injection significantly increased the expression of NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) and the cleavage of caspase-1 (p20) and interleukin-18 in the heart; similar results were observed in both Langendorff-perfused hearts and cultured cardiomyocytes following the treatment with PE (10??M). Moreover, PE-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation and cardiac inflammation was blocked in Nlrp3-/- mice compared with wild-type mice. In conclusion, ?1-AR overactivation induces cardiac inflammation by activating NLRP3 inflammasomes.
Project description:We investigate sensing and signaling mechanisms for H(+), [Formula: see text] and CO2 in basilar arteries using out-of-equilibrium solutions. Selectively varying pHo, [[Formula: see text]]o, or pCO2, we find: (a) lowering pHo attenuates vasoconstriction and vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) Ca(2+)-responses whereas raising pHo augments vasoconstriction independently of VSMC [Ca(2+)]i, (b) lowering [[Formula: see text]]o increases arterial agonist-sensitivity of tone development without affecting VSMC [Ca(2+)]i but c) no evidence that CO2 has direct net vasomotor effects. Receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase (RPTP)? is transcribed in endothelial cells, and direct vasomotor effects of [Formula: see text] are absent in arteries from RPTP?-knockout mice. At pHo 7.4, selective changes in [[Formula: see text]]o or pCO2 have little effect on pHi At pHo 7.1, decreased [[Formula: see text]]o or increased pCO2 causes intracellular acidification, which attenuates vasoconstriction. Under equilibrated conditions, anti-contractile effects of CO2/[Formula: see text] are endothelium-dependent and absent in arteries from RPTP?-knockout mice. With CO2/[Formula: see text] present, contractile responses to agonist-stimulation are potentiated in arteries from RPTP?-knockout compared to wild-type mice, and this difference is larger for respiratory than metabolic acidosis. In conclusion, decreased pHo and pHi inhibit vasoconstriction, whereas decreased [[Formula: see text]]o promotes vasoconstriction through RPTP?-dependent changes in VSMC Ca(2+)-sensitivity. [Formula: see text] serves dual roles, providing substrate for pHi-regulating membrane transporters and modulating arterial responses to acid-base disturbances.
Project description:alpha(1)-adrenoceptor subtypes in human skeletal muscle resistance arteries were characterized using agonists noradrenaline (non-selective) and A61603 (alpha(1A)-selective), the antagonists prazosin (non-selective), 5-methyl-urapidil (alpha(1A)-selective) and BMY7378 (alpha(1D)-selective) and the alkylating agent chloroethylclonidine (preferential for alpha(1B)). Small arteries were obtained from the non-ischaemic skeletal muscle of limbs amputated for critical limb ischaemia and isometric tension recorded using wire myography. Prazosin antagonized responses to noradrenaline with a pA(2) value of 9.18, consistent with the presence of alpha(1)-adrenoceptors, although the Schild slope (1.32) was significantly different from unity. 5-Methyl-urapidil competitively antagonized responses to noradrenaline with a pK(B) value of 8.48 and a Schild slope of 0.99, consistent with the presence of alpha(1A)-adrenoceptors. In the presence of 300 nM 5-methyl-urapidil, noradrenaline exhibited biphasic concentration response curves, indicating the presence of a minor population of a 5-methyl-urapidil-resistant subtype. Contractile responses to noradrenaline were not affected by 1 microM chloroethylclonidine suggesting the absence of alpha(1B)-adrenoceptors. Maximum responses to noradrenaline and A61603 were reduced to a similar extent by 10 microM chloroethylclonidine, suggesting an effect of chloroethylclonidine at alpha(1A)-adrenoceptors at the higher concentration. BMY7378 (10 and 100 nM) had no effect on responses to noradrenaline. BMY7378 (1 microM) poorly shifted the potency of noradrenaline giving a pA(2) of 6.52. These results rule out the presence of the alpha(1D)-subtype. These results show that contractile responses to noradrenaline in human skeletal muscle resistance arteries are predominantly mediated by the alpha(1A)-adrenoceptor subtype with a minor population of an unknown alpha(1)-adrenoceptor subtype.
Project description:We observed in PRESTO-Tango ?-arrestin recruitment assays that the ?1-adrenergic receptor (AR) antagonist prazosin activates chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor (CXCR)4. This prompted us to further examine this unexpected pharmacological behavior. We screened a panel of 14 ?1/2- and ?1/2/3-AR antagonists for CXCR4 and atypical chemokine receptor (ACKR)3 agonist activity in PRESTO-Tango assays against the cognate agonist CXCL12. We observed that multiple ?1-AR antagonists activate CXCR4 (CXCL12 = prazosin = cyclazosin > doxazosin) and ACKR3 (CXCL12 = prazosin = cyclazosin > alfuzosin = doxazosin = phentolamine > terazosin = silodosin = tamsulosin). The two strongest CXCR4/ACKR3 activators, prazosin and cyclazosin, were selected for a more detailed evaluation. We found that the drugs dose-dependently activate both receptors in ?-arrestin recruitment assays, stimulate ERK1/2 phosphorylation in HEK293 cells overexpressing each receptor, and that their effects on CXCR4 could be inhibited with AMD3100. Both ?1-AR antagonists induced significant chemical shift changes in the 1H-13C-heteronuclear single quantum correlation spectrum of CXCR4 and ACKR3 in membranes, suggesting receptor binding. Furthermore, prazosin and cyclazosin induced internalization of endogenous CXCR4/ACKR3 in human vascular smooth muscle cells (hVSMC). While these drugs did not in induce chemotaxis in hVSMC, they inhibited CXCL12-induced chemotaxis with high efficacy and potency (IC50: prazosin-4.5 nM, cyclazosin 11.6 pM). Our findings reveal unexpected pharmacological properties of prazosin, cyclazosin, and likely other ?1-AR antagonists. The results of the present study imply that prazosin and cyclazosin are biased or partial CXCR4/ACKR3 agonists, which function as potent CXCL12 antagonists. Our findings could provide a mechanistic basis for previously observed anti-cancer properties of ?1-AR antagonists and support the concept that prazosin could be re-purposed for the treatment of disease processes in which CXCR4 and ACKR3 are thought to play significant pathophysiological roles, such as cancer metastases or various autoimmune pathologies.
Project description:Extracellular-signal-regulated protein kinases (ERKs) are activated rapidly and transiently in response to phenylephrine (PE) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) in cardiac myocytes, but whether this is linked to the subsequent development of the hypertrophic phenotype remains equivocal. To investigate this, we examined the dependence of the hypertrophic response on the length of exposure to PE in neonatal myocyte cultures. In addition to the initial transient activation of ERKs (maximum at 5-10 min), PE (10 microM) induced a second, more prolonged peak of activity several hours later. The activity of a transfected atrial natriuretic factor-luciferase reporter gene was increased 10- to 24-fold by PE. This response was inhibited by the alpha(1)-antagonist prazosin (100 nM) and by U0126 (10 microM) and PD184352 (1 microM), inhibitors of ERK activation, irrespective of whether these were added before or up to 24 h after the addition of PE. Prazosin had no effect on ET-1 (50 nM)-stimulated atrial natriuretic factor-luciferase activity. Protein synthesis was enhanced by 35+/-6% by PE, and this was blocked by prazosin added 1 h after the addition of PE, but decreased only by half when added 8 h after PE. Similarly, PE (48 h) increased myocyte area by 49% and this was prevented by prazosin added 1 h after PE, but decreased only by half when added at 24 h. These results demonstrate that prolonged exposure to PE is required to elicit alterations in gene expression, protein synthesis and cell size, characteristic of hypertrophied myocytes, and they confirm that the initial peak of ERK activity is insufficient to trigger hypertrophic responses.
Project description:Norepinephrine is a neurotransmitter that signals by stimulating the ?1, ?2 and ? adrenergic receptor (AR). We determined the role of these receptors in regulating the immediate early genes, Activity Regulated Cytoskeleton Associated Protein (Arc) and Zif268 in the rat cerebral cortex. RX821002, an ?2-AR antagonist, produced Arc and Zif268 elevations across cortical layers. Next we examined the effects of delivering RX821002 with an ?1-AR antagonist, prazosin, and a ?-AR antagonist, propranolol. RX821002 given with a prazosin and propranolol cocktail, or with each of these antagonists individually, decreased Arc and Zif268 to saline-treated control levels in most cortical layers. Arc and Zif268 levels were also similar to saline-treated control levels when rats were given a prazosin and propranolol cocktail alone, or when each of these antagonists were delivered individually. Taken together, these data reveal that ?2-AR uniquely exert a tonic inibitory regulation of both Arc and Zif268 compared to ?1 and ?-AR. However, the ability of RX821002 to increase Arc and Zif268 is interdependent with ?1 and ?-AR signaling.
Project description:RATIONALE:Recovery from a traumatic experience requires extinction of cue-based fear responses, a process that is impaired in post-traumatic stress disorder. While studies suggest a link between fear behavioral flexibility and noradrenaline signaling, the role of specific receptors and brain regions in these effects is unclear. OBJECTIVES:Here, we examine the role of prazosin, an ?1-adrenergic receptor (?1-AR) antagonist, in auditory fear conditioning and extinction. METHODS:C57Bl/6N mice were subjected to auditory fear conditioning and extinction in combination with systemic (0.1-2 mg/kg) or local microinjections (3 or 6 mM) of the ?1-AR antagonist prazosin into the prelimbic division of medial prefrontal cortex or basolateral amygdala. Conditioned fear and anxiety-like behaviors were compared with vehicle-injected control animals. RESULTS:Mice that received systemic prazosin prior to fear conditioning exhibited similar initial levels of cue-elicited freezing compared to vehicle controls on the following day. However, at all doses tested, fear that was acquired during prazosin treatment was more readily extinguished, whereas anxiety-like behavior on the day of extinction was unaffected. A similar pattern of results was observed when prazosin was microinjected into the basolateral amygdala but not the prelimbic cortex. In contrast to pre-conditioning injections, prazosin administration prior to extinction had no effect on freezing. CONCLUSIONS:Our results indicate that ?1-AR activity during aversive conditioning is dispensable for memory acquisition but renders conditioned fear more impervious to extinction. This suggests that behavioral flexibility is constrained by noradrenaline at the time of initial learning via activation of a specific AR isoform.