Communicating Results of a Dietary Exposure Study Following Consumption of Traditionally Smoked Salmon.
ABSTRACT: One expectation of community-based participatory research (CBPR) is participant access to study results. However, reporting experimental data produced by studies involving biological measurements in the absence of clinical relevance can be challenging to scientists and participants. We applied best practices in data sharing to report the results of a study designed to explore polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons absorption, metabolism, and excretion following consumption of traditionally smoked salmon by members of the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR). A dietary exposure study was developed, in which nine Tribal members consumed 50 g of traditionally smoked salmon and provided repeated urine samples over 24 hours. During recruitment, participants requested access to their data following analysis. Disclosing data is an important element of CBPR and must be treated with the same rigor as that given to the data analysis. The field of data disclosure is relatively new, but when handled correctly can improve education within the community, reduce distrust, and enhance environmental health literacy. Using the results from this study, we suggest mechanisms for sharing data with a Tribal community.
Project description:Few studies have been published on the excretion rates of parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and hydroxy-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OH-PAHs) following oral exposure. This study investigated the metabolism and excretion rates of 4 parent PAHs and 10 OH-PAHs after the consumption of smoked salmon. Nine members of the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation consumed 50 g of traditionally smoked salmon with breakfast and five urine samples were collected during the following 24 h. The concentrations of OH-PAHs increased from 43.9 ?g/g creatinine for 2-OH-Nap to 349 ng/g creatinine for 1-OH-Pyr, 3 to 6 h post-consumption. Despite volunteers following a restricted diet, there appeared to be a secondary source of naphthalene and fluorene, which led to excretion efficiencies greater than 100%. For the parent PAHs that were detected in urine, the excretion efficiencies ranged from 13% for phenanthrene (and its metabolite) to 240% for naphthalene (and its metabolites). The half-lives for PAHs ranged from 1.4 h for retene to 3.3h for pyrene. The half-lives for OH-PAHs were higher and ranged from 1.7 h for 9-OH-fluorene to 7.0 h for 3-OH-fluorene. The concentrations of most parent PAHs, and their metabolites, returned to the background levels 24 h post-consumption.
Project description:A method was developed for the measurement of 19 parent PAHs (PAHs) and 34 hydroxylated PAHs (OH-PAHs) in urine and personal air samples of particulate matter less than 2.5 ?m in diameter (PM?.?) using GC-MS and validated using NIST SRM 3672 (Organic Contaminants in Smoker's Urine) and SRM 3673 (Organic Contaminants in Nonsmoker's Urine). The method was used to measure PAHs and OH-PAHs in urine and personal PM?.? samples collected from the operators of two different fish smoking facilities (tipi and smoke shed) burning two different wood types (alder and apple) on the Confederated Tribes of Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) while they smoked salmon. Urine samples were spiked with ?-glucuronidase/arylsulfatase to hydrolyze the conjugates of OH-PAHs and the PAHs and OH-PAHs were extracted using Plexa and C18 solid phases, in series. The 34 OH-PAHs were derivatized using MTBSTFA, and the mixture was measured by GC-MS. The personal PM?.? samples were extracted using pressurized liquid extraction, derivatized with MTBSTFA and analyzed by GC-MS for PAHs and OH-PAHs. Fourteen isotopically labeled surrogates were added to accurately quantify PAHs and OH-PAHs in the urine and PM?.? samples and three isotopically labeled internal standards were used to calculate the recovery of the surrogates. Estimated detection limits in urine ranged from 6.0 to 181 pg/ml for OH-PAHs and from 3.0 to 90 pg/ml for PAHs, and, in PM?.?, they ranged from 5.2 to 155 pg/m(3) for OH-PAHs and from 2.5 to 77 pg/m(3) for PAHs. The results showed an increase in OH-PAH concentrations in urine after 6h of fish smoking and an increase in PAH concentrations in air within each smoking facility. In general, the PAH exposure in the smoke shed was higher than in the tipi and the PAH exposure from burning apple wood was higher than burning alder.
Project description:We assessed the impact of Launching Native Health Leaders (LNHL), a peer-mentoring and networking program that introduced American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) undergraduates to health and research careers and concepts of community-based participatory research (CBPR).We conducted 15 interviews and 1 focus group with students who had attended 1 or more LNHL meetings, which took place during 9 professional health research conferences in 2006 to 2009. We completed data collection in 2010, within 1 to 4 years of LNHL participant engagement in program activities.Participants described identity and cultural challenges they encountered in academic institutions and how their views shifted from perceiving research as an enterprise conducted by community outsiders who were not to be trusted toward an understanding of CBPR as contributing to AI/AN health.LNHL provided a safe environment for AI/AN students to openly explore their place in the health and research arenas. Programs such as LNHL support AI/AN student development as leaders in building trust for academic-tribal partnerships.
Project description:When conducting research with American Indian tribes, informed consent beyond conventional institutional review board (IRB) review is needed because of the potential for adverse consequences at a community or governmental level that are unrecognized by academic researchers.In this article, we review sovereignty, research ethics, and data-sharing considerations when doing community-based participatory health-related or natural-resource-related research with American Indian nations and present a model material and data-sharing agreement that meets tribal and university requirements.Only tribal nations themselves can identify potential adverse outcomes, and they can do this only if they understand the assumptions and methods of the proposed research. Tribes must be truly equal partners in study design, data collection, interpretation, and publication. Advances in protection of intellectual property rights (IPR) are also applicable to IRB reviews, as are principles of sovereignty and indigenous rights, all of which affect data ownership and control.Academic researchers engaged in tribal projects should become familiar with all three areas: sovereignty, ethics and informed consent, and IPR. We recommend developing an agreement with tribal partners that reflects both health-related IRB and natural-resource-related IPR considerations.
Project description:Although it is known that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can be found in smoked meats, little is known about their prevalence in Native American smoked fish. In this work, the effect of traditional Native American fish smoking methods on dietary exposure to PAHs and possible risks to human health has been assessed. Smoking methods considered smoking structure (tipi or shed) and wood type (apple or alder). Neither smoking structure nor wood type accounted for differences in smoked salmon content of 33 PAHs. Carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic PAH loads in traditionally smoked salmon were 40-430 times higher than those measured in commercial products. Dietary exposure to PAHs could result in excess lifetime cancer risks between 1 × 10(-5) and 1 × 10(-4) at a daily consumption rate of 5 g d(-1) and could approach 1 × 10(-2) at 300 g d(-1). Hazard indexes approached 0.005 at 5 g d(-1), or approximately 0.3 at 300 g d(-1). Levels of PAHs present in smoked salmon prepared using traditional Native American methods may pose elevated cancer risks if consumed at high consumption rates over many years.
Project description:The Mescalero Apache Family Listening Program (MAFLP) is a culturally centered family prevention program with third, fourth, and fifth graders; a parent/caregiver; and a family elder. The program follows a positive youth development model to develop stronger communication and shared cultural practices between elders, parents, and youth in the tribe to reduce substance initiation of use among the youth. The MAFLP was created using a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach in partnership with the University of New Mexico. The research focus of MAFLP is centered on the adaptation of a family curriculum from a Navajo and Pueblo version of the Family Listening Program to an Apache version, the establishment of a (Apache) Tribal Research Team, and the piloting of the curriculum with Apache families. MAFLP was piloted twice, and evaluation measures were collected focused on formative and impact evaluation. This article provides a background on Mescalero Apache then introduces the Navajo and Pueblo version of a Family Listening and Family Circle Program, respectively, next, the CBPR research partnership between Mescalero Apache and the University of New Mexico and the creation of a Mescalero Apache Tribal Research Team followed by the development and adaptation of a Mescalero Apache Family Listening Program including implementation and evaluation, and concluding with preliminary findings.
Project description:Cold smoked salmon and sushi salmon have been implicated in outbreaks of listeriosis. We performed challenge tests and a durability study with Listeria monocytogenes on different salmon products to determine the growth potential of this important food-borne pathogen. Data from the challenge test showed a significant growth potential of L. monocytogenes on all of the tested salmon products, with faster growth in sushi salmon than in cold smoked salmon. In identical products that were naturally contaminated at low levels, the durability study did not confirm a high growth potential, possibly due to interactions with competing microflora. The injection of sodium lactate (NaL) at a high concentration (30%) into cold smoked salmon significantly reduced the growth potential of L. monocytogenes. In addition to good manufacturing practices, the injection of higher concentrations of NaL may therefore be a useful additional hurdle to prevent growth of L. monocytogenes to high numbers in the tested salmon products.
Project description:OBJECTIVE: To examine the effectiveness of current community-based participatory research (CBPR) clinical trials involving racial and ethnic minorities. DATA SOURCE: All published peer-reviewed CBPR intervention articles in PubMed and CINAHL databases from January 2003 to May 2010. STUDY DESIGN: We performed a systematic literature review. DATA COLLECTION/EXTRACTION METHODS: Data were extracted on each study's characteristics, community involvement in research, subject recruitment and retention, and intervention effects. PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: We found 19 articles meeting inclusion criteria. Of these, 14 were published from 2007 to 2010. Articles described some measures of community participation in research with great variability. Although CBPR trials examined a wide range of behavioral and clinical outcomes, such trials had very high success rates in recruiting and retaining minority participants and achieving significant intervention effects. CONCLUSIONS: Significant publication gaps remain between CBPR and other interventional research methods. CBPR may be effective in increasing participation of racial and ethnic minority subjects in research and may be a powerful tool in testing the generalizability of effective interventions among these populations. CBPR holds promise as an approach that may contribute greatly to the study of health care delivery to disadvantaged populations.
Project description:To describe the use of a clinically enhanced maternal and child health (MCH) database to strengthen community-engaged research activities, and to support the sustainability of data infrastructure initiatives.Population-based, longitudinal database covering over 2.3 million mother-infant dyads during a 12-year period (1998-2009) in Florida.A community-based participatory research (CBPR) project in a socioeconomically disadvantaged community in central Tampa, Florida.Case study of the use of an enhanced state database for supporting CBPR activities.A federal data infrastructure award resulted in the creation of an MCH database in which over 92 percent of all birth certificate records for infants born between 1998 and 2009 were linked to maternal and infant hospital encounter-level data. The population-based, longitudinal database was used to supplement data collected from focus groups and community surveys with epidemiological and health care cost data on important MCH disparity issues in the target community. Data were used to facilitate a community-driven, decision-making process in which the most important priorities for intervention were identified.Integrating statewide all-payer, hospital-based databases into CBPR can empower underserved communities with a reliable source of health data, and it can promote the sustainability of newly developed data systems.
Project description:The objective of this project was to develop a community-academic coalition partnership to conduct community-based participatory research (CBPR) to address health disparities in older adults with chronic conditions living in the Quebrada Arriba community.We used the 'Developing and Sustaining CPPR Partnerships: A Skill-Building Curriculum', to create the Quebrada Arriba Community-Academic Partnership (QACAP). We assessed the meetings effectiveness and the CBPR experiences of the coalition members in the community-academic partnership.The stepwise process resulted in: the development of The Coalition for the Health and Wellbeing of Older People of Quebrada Arriba; the partnership's mission and vision; the operating procedures; the formulation of the research question, and; the action plan for obtaining funding resources. The mean levels of satisfaction for each of the items of the Meeting Effectiveness Evaluation tool were 100%. The mean agreement rating scores on variables related to having a positive experience with the coalition, members' representativeness of community interest, respectful contacts between members, the coalition's vision and mission, the participation of the members in establishing the prioritized community problem, and sharing of resources between the members was 100%.The steps used to build the QACAP provided an effective structure to create the coalition and captured the results of coalition activities. Partners' time to build trust and developing a sufficient understanding of local issues, high interest of the community members, flexibility of the partners, capitalization on the partners' strengths, and the shared decision building process were key contributors of this coalition's success.