Isolation and characterization of a full-length cDNA coding for an adipose differentiation-related protein.
ABSTRACT: We have previously isolated from a 1246 adipocyte cDNA library a cDNA clone called 154, corresponding to a mRNA that increases abundantly at a very early time during the differentiation of 1246 adipocytes and in adipocyte precursors in primary culture. We show here that the mRNA encoded by this cDNA is expressed abundantly and preferentially in mouse fat pads. A full-length cDNA for clone 154 was isolated by the RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) protocol. Sequence analysis of this cDNA indicates that it encodes a protein of the 425 amino acids [tentatively named adipose differentiation-related protein (ADRP)] that does not have any similarity with sequences contained in the GenBank DNA and Protein Identification Resource protein data bases. Immunoblot of 1246 cell extracts with an antibody raised against the expressed ADRP shows that the 1246 cells contain a 50-kDa protein, the production of which increases as the cells differentiate. Localization of ADRP in 1246 cells indicates that ADRP is absent from nuclear and cytosolic fractions and is found as a membrane-associated protein. These results demonstrate that adipocyte differentiation is accompanied by early expression of a mRNA encoding a membrane-associated adipose differentiation related protein that is adipose tissue specific in vivo.
Project description:Adipose differentiation related protein (ADRP) is a 50 kDa protein expressed at high level in differentiated adipocytes. ADRP expression is very low in undifferentiated adipocytes and increases rapidly and dramatically as the cells undergo adipose differentiation. In the present study, we demonstrate that ADRP expression at the mRNA and protein level is stimulated in adipocyte precursor cells in a time- and dose-dependent fashion by treatment with cyclooxygenase inhibitors, particularly indomethacin and ibuprofen. Lipoxygenase inhibitors such as AA861 and nordihydroguaiaretic acid were ineffective. Stimulation of ADRP expression was observed with 10(-5) M ibuprofen but maximal stimulation required a concentration of 3 x 10(-4) M. Nuclear run-on experiments indicated that indomethacin or ibuprofen stimulated the transcription of the ADRP gene in undifferentiated adipocytes. In addition to stimulating the induction of ADRP in undifferentiated cells, ibuprofen and indomethacin also stimulated the level of ADRP mRNA and protein in differentiated adipocytes. These experiments provide new information on the regulation of ADRP, an early inducible gene in the adipocyte differentiation programme in adipocyte precursors and in adipocytes and identify a new target for cyclooxygenase inhibitor action during adipocyte differentiation.
Project description:Lipid droplet-associated proteins play an important role in adipocyte triglyceride (TG) metabolism. Here, we show that trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), but not cis-9,trans-11 CLA, increased lipolysis and altered human adipocyte lipid droplet morphology. Before this change in morphology, there was a rapid trans-10,cis-12 CLA-induced increase in the accumulation of perilipin A in the cytosol, followed by the disappearance of perilipin A protein. In contrast, protein levels of adipose differentiation-related protein (ADRP) were increased in cultures treated with trans-10,cis-12 CLA. Immunostaining revealed that ADRP localized to the surface of small lipid droplets, displacing perilipin. Intriguingly, trans-10,cis-12 CLA increased ADRP protein expression to a much greater extent than ADRP mRNA without affecting stability, suggesting translational control of ADRP. To this end, we found that trans-10,cis-12 CLA increased activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin/p70 S6 ribosomal protein kinase/S6 ribosomal protein (mTOR/p70S6K/S6) pathway. Collectively, these data demonstrate that the trans-10,cis-12 CLA-mediated reduction of human adipocyte TG content is associated with the differential localization and expression of lipid droplet-associated proteins. This process involves both the translational control of ADRP through the activation of mTOR/p70S6K/S6 signaling and transcriptional control of perilipin A.
Project description:Milk lipid globules from humans, cows and rats contained a protein identified as adipocyte differentiation-related protein (ADRP) associated with the globule surface membrane material. This protein, previously believed to be specific to adipocytes, was a major constituent of the globule surface and was present in a detergent-insoluble complex that contained stoichiometric amounts of butyrophilin and xanthine oxidase. Identification of ADRP was by sequence similarity of tryptic peptides from cow and human proteins with the sequence inferred from the cDNA for mouse ADRP. The putative ADRP of lipid globules from cow, human and rat milk was recognized specifically by antisera raised against a peptide synthesized to duplicate the N-terminal 26 residues of the mouse protein. In homogenates of lactating mammary gland, ADRP was found only in endoplasmic reticulum and in lipid droplet fractions. ADRP was modified, apparently post-translationally, and one modification apparently was acylation, primarily with C14, C16 and C18 fatty acids. Two isoelectric variants of ADRP were present in cow globule membrane material. In vitro, ADRP served as a substrate for protein kinases associated with milk lipid globule membrane, but this protein did not seem to become phosphorylated intracellularly.
Project description:The PAT proteins, named after the three PLIN/ADRP/TIP47 (PAT) proteins, PLIN for perilipin, ADRP for adipose differentiation-related protein and TIP47 for tail-interacting protein of 47 kDa, now officially named M6PRBP1 for mannose-6-phosphate receptor binding protein 1, is a set of intracellular lipid droplet binding proteins. They are localized in the outer membrane monolayer enveloping lipid droplets and are involved in the metabolism of intracellular lipid. This work describes the cloning and sequencing of porcine PLIN and M6PRBP1 cDNAs, the chromosome mapping of these two genes, as well as the expression pattern of porcine PAT genes. Sequence analysis shows that the porcine PLIN cDNA contains an open reading frame of 1551 bp encoding 516 amino acids and that the porcine M6PRBP1 cDNA contains a coding region of 1320 bp encoding 439 amino acids. Comparison of PLIN and M6PRBP1 amino-acid sequences among various species reveals that porcine and bovine proteins are the most conserved. Porcine PLIN and M6PRBP1 genes have been mapped to pig chromosomes 7 and 2, respectively, by radiation hybrid analysis using the IMpRH panel. Expression analyses in pig showed a high expression of PLIN mRNA in adipose tissue, M6PRBP1 mRNA in small intestine, kidney and spleen and ADRP mRNA in adipose tissue, lung and spleen.
Project description:The major cAMP-dependent protein kinase (A-kinase) substrate in adipocytes is perilipin, a protein found exclusively at the surface of the lipid storage droplets. Using anti-perilipin serum, we have isolated two related classes of full-length coding cDNAs, designated perilipin A and B, from a rat adipocyte cDNA expression library. The two cDNAs derive from two mRNA species that arise by differential splicing. The mRNAs are predicted to encode perilipins A and B, proteins of 517 aa (56,870 Da) and 422 aa (46,420 Da), respectively, which share a common 406-aa N-terminal sequence. The predicted perilipin A contains peptides present in proteolytic digests of the purified 62-kDa form of perilipin from rat adipocytes, as well as the requisite consensus A-kinase phosphorylation sites. Like perilipin A, the B form is expressed in adipocytes and is associated with lipid storage droplets. Modeling of predicted secondary structures fails to reveal an underlying basis for the tenacious association of perilipins with lipid droplets. These proteins exhibit a significant sequence relationship (approximately 65% similarity through 105 aa) with only one other known protein, the adipocyte differentiation-related protein (ADRP). Like the perilipins, ADRP appears to be adipocyte-specific, which suggests that they interact in a related intracellular pathway. The molecular probes for perilipins A and B described here will permit detailed analyses of their functional role(s) in lipid metabolism.
Project description:In obesity, adipose tissue undergoes dynamic remodeling processes such as adipocyte hypertrophy, hypoxia, immune responses, and adipocyte death. However, whether and how invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells contribute to adipose tissue remodeling are elusive. In this study, we demonstrate that iNKT cells remove unhealthy adipocytes and stimulate the differentiation of healthy adipocytes. In obese adipose tissue, iNKT cells were abundantly found nearby dead adipocytes. FasL-positive adipose iNKT cells exerted cytotoxic effects to eliminate hypertrophic and pro-inflammatory Fas-positive adipocytes. Furthermore, in vivo adipocyte-lineage tracing mice model showed that activation of iNKT cells by alpha-galactosylceramide promoted adipocyte turnover, eventually leading to potentiation of the insulin-dependent glucose uptake ability in adipose tissue. Collectively, our data propose a novel role of adipose iNKT cells in the regulation of adipocyte turnover in obesity.
Project description:Atherosclerosis is a leading cause of death worldwide and is characterized by lipid-laden foam cell formation. Recently, pycnogenol (PYC) has drawn much attention because of its prominent effect on cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, its protective effect against atherosclerosis and the underlying mechanism remains undefined. Here PYC treatment reduced areas of plaque and lipid deposition in atherosclerotic mice, concomitant with decreases in total cholesterol and triglyceride levels and increases in HDL cholesterol levels, indicating a potential antiatherosclerotic effect of PYC through the regulation of lipid levels. Additionally, PYC preconditioning markedly decreased foam cell formation and lipid accumulation in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated human THP-1 monocytes. A mechanistic analysis indicated that PYC decreased the lipid-related protein expression of adipose differentiation-related protein (ADRP) and adipocyte lipid-binding protein (ALBP/aP2) in a dose-dependent manner. Further analysis confirmed that PYC attenuated LPS-induced lipid droplet formation via ADRP and ALBP expression through the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway, because pretreatment with anti-TLR4 antibody or a specific inhibitor of NF-κB (PDTC) strikingly mitigated the LPS-induced increase in ADRP and ALBP. Together, our results provide insight into the ability of PYC to attenuate bacterial infection-triggered pathological processes associated with atherosclerosis. Thus PYC may be a potential lead compound for the future development of antiatherosclerotic CVD therapy.
Project description:Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a cap-n-collar basic leucine zipper (CNC-bZIP) transcription factor that is well established as a master regulator of phase II detoxification and antioxidant gene expression and is strongly expressed in tissues involved in xenobiotic metabolism including liver and kidney. Nrf2 is also abundantly expressed in adipose tissue; however, the exact function of Nrf2 in adipocyte biology is unclear. In the current study we show that targeted knock-out of Nrf2 in mice decreases adipose tissue mass, promotes formation of small adipocytes, and protects against weight gain and obesity otherwise induced by a high fat diet. In mouse embryonic fibroblasts, 3T3-L1 cells, and human subcutaneous preadipocytes, selective deficiency of Nrf2 impairs adipocyte differentiation. Deficiency of Nrf2 also leads to decreased expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma), CCAAT enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPalpha), and their downstream targets during adipocyte differentiation. Conversely, activation of Nrf2 in 3T3-L1 cells by stable knockdown of its negative regulator Keap1 enhances and accelerates hormone-induced adipocyte differentiation. Transfection of Nrf2 stimulates Ppargamma promoter activity, and stable knockdown of Keap1 enhances PPARgamma expression in 3T3-L1 cells. In addition, chromatin immunoprecipitation studies show that Nrf2 associates with consensus binding sites for Nrf2 in the Ppargamma promoter. These findings demonstrate a novel biologic role for Nrf2 beyond its participation in detoxification and antioxidant pathways and place Nrf2 within the limited network of transcription factors that control adipocyte differentiation by regulating expression of PPARgamma.
Project description:Caveolin, a 21- to 24-kDa integral membrane protein, is a principal component of caveolae membranes. Caveolin interacts directly with heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide binding proteins (G proteins) and can functionally regulate their activity. Here, an approximately 20-kDa caveolin-related protein, caveolin-2, was identified through microsequencing of adipocyte-derived caveolin-enriched membranes; caveolin was retermed caveolin-1. Caveolins 1 and 2 are similar in most respects. mRNAs for both caveolin-1 and caveolin-2 are most abundantly expressed in white adipose tissue and are induced during adipocyte differentiation. Caveolin-2 colocalizes with caveolin-1, indicating that caveolin-2 also localizes to caveolae. However, caveolin-1 and caveolin-2 differ in their functional interactions with heterotrimeric G proteins, possibly explaining why caveolin-1 and -2 are coexpressed within a single cell.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Obesity results from an imbalance between food intake and energy expenditure, which leads to an excess of adipose tissue. The excess of adipose tissue and adipocyte dysfunction associated with obesity are linked to the abnormal regulation of adipogenesis. The objective of this study was to analyze the expression profile of cell-cycle- and lipid-metabolism-related genes of adipose tissue in morbid obesity. METHODS: We used a custom-made focused cDNA microarray to determine the adipose tissue mRNA expression profile. Gene expression of subcutaneous abdominal fat samples from 15 morbidly obese women was compared with subcutaneous fat samples from 10 nonobese control patients. The findings were validated in an independent population of 31 obese women and 9 obese men and in an animal model of obesity (Lepob/ob mice) by real-time RT-PCR. RESULTS: Microarray analysis revealed that transcription factors that regulate the first stages of adipocyte differentiation, such as CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta (C/EBP?) and JUN, were upregulated in the adipose tissues of morbidly obese patients. The expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?), a transcription factor which controls lipid metabolism and the final steps of preadipocyte conversion into mature adipocytes, was downregulated. The expression of three cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors that regulate clonal expansion and postmitotic growth arrest during adipocyte differentiation was also altered in obese subjects: p18 and p27 were downregulated, and p21 was upregulated. Angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4), which regulates angiogenesis, lipid and glucose metabolism and it is know to increase dramatically in the early stages of adipocyte differentiation, was upregulated. The expression of C/EBP?, p18, p21, JUN, and ANGPTL4 presented similar alterations in subcutaneous adipose tissue of Lepob/ob mice. CONCLUSIONS: Our microarray gene profiling study revealed that the expression of genes involved in adipogenesis is profoundly altered in the subcutaneous adipose tissue of morbidly obese subjects. This expression pattern is consistent with an immature adipocyte phenotype that could reflect the expansion of the adipose tissue during obesity.