Treatment of Spinal Tuberculosis by Debridement, Interbody Fusion and Internal Fixation via Posterior Approach Only.
ABSTRACT: Surgical treatment for spinal tuberculosis includes focal tuberculosis debridement, segmental stability reconstruction, neural decompression and kyphotic deformity correction. For the lesions mainly involved anterior and middle column of the spine, anterior operation of debridement and fusion with internal fixation has been becoming the most frequently used surgical technique for the spinal tuberculosis. However, high risk of structural damage might relate with anterior surgery, such as damage in lungs, heart, kidney, ureter and bowel, and the deformity correction is also limited. Due to the organs are in the front of spine, there are less complications in posterior approach. Spinal pedicle screw passes through the spinal three-column structure, which provides more powerful orthopedic forces compared with the vertebral body screw, and the kyphotic deformity correction effect is better in posterior approach. In this paper, we report a 68-year-old male patient with thoracic tuberculosis who underwent surgical treatment by debridement, interbody fusion and internal fixation via posterior approach only. The patient was placed in prone position under general anesthesia. Posterior midline incision was performed, and the posterior spinal construction was exposed. Then place pedicle screw, and fix one side rod temporarily. Make the side of more bone destruction and larger abscess as lesion debridement side. Resect the unilateral facet joint, and retain contralateral structure integrity. Protect the spinal cord, nerve root. Clear sequestrum, necrotic tissue, abscess of paravertebral and intervertebral space. Specially designed titanium mesh cages or bone blocks were implanted into interbody. Fix both side rods and compress both sides to make the mesh cages and bone blocks tight. Reconstruct posterior column structure with allogeneic bone and autologous bone. Using this technique, the procedures of debridement, spinal cord decompression, deformity correction, bone grafting, and internal fixation can be completed with only one incision and surgical position, and the deformity correction efficiency is higher than anterior surgery.
Project description:The purpose of this study is to determine the efficacy and safety of Smith-Petersen osteotomy combined with anterior debridement and allogenic strut bone grafting for the treatment of active thoracic and lumbar spinal tuberculosis with kyphotic deformity in young children.Spinal tuberculosis is more destructive in young children and often causes severe kyphosis and paraplegia. Despite much progress has been made, surgical treatment is still controversial and technically challenging.From October 2010 to August 2014, 25 children (11 males, 14 females; aged under 6 years) with active thoracic and lumbar spinal tuberculosis treated by Smith-Petersen osteotomy combined with anterior debridement and allogenic strut bone grafting were enrolled in this study. The pre- and postoperative data, follow-up medical records, imaging studies, and laboratory data were collected prospectively. Clinical outcomes were evaluated on the basis of kyphotic angle and the Frankel motor score system. The changes in C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), clinical symptoms, and complications were investigated. Graft fusion was evaluated using the Bridwell grading criteria.The mean age was 3.5 ± 1.76 years (range, 1-6 years). All patients were followed up for 25 to 45 months (average, 34.3 ± 5.86 months). The average kyphotic angle was changed significantly from a preoperative value of 44.1 ± 10.8° to a postoperative value of 11.4 ± 3.9°, with an average correction rate of 74% (P < .05). According to the Frankle motor score system, neurological deficits were significantly improved by the time of the last follow-up, with an average improvement of 1.7 grades (P < .05). There were 2 cases of rod breakage and 1 case of graft bone displacement. No patients experienced a recurrence of tuberculosis. According to Bridwell criteria, the degree of fusion was grade I in 23 patients and grade II in 2 patients with a fusion rate of 92%.For young children with active thoracic and lumbar spinal tuberculosis, Smith-Petersen osteotomy combined with anterior debridement and allogenic strut bone grafting is a safe and simple procedure to achieve sufficient kyphosis correction, good neurological recovery, and reliable anterior column reconstruction.
Project description:Childhood spinal tuberculosis, especially when associated with severe vertebral destruction of more than two vertebral bodies can end up in severe deformity. These children show progressive deformity throughout the period of growth and can develop severe kyphosis of >100°. Such kyphosis is severely disabling with significant risk of neurological deficit and respiratory compromise. Surgical correction of these deformities by both anterior and posterior approaches has been described but each have serious limitations of approach, correctability and safety. We describe here a technique of posterior closing-anterior opening osteotomy, which allowed us to correct a rigid post-tubercular deformity of 118° in a 13-year-old boy with neglected spinal tuberculosis. The patient was a 13-year-old boy, who had contracted spinal tuberculosis at the age of 6 years. Although the disease was cured by anti-tubercular chemotherapy, he continued to deteriorate in deformity and presented to us with severe thoracolumbar kyphosis (118°). He was neurologically intact but was beginning to show shortness of breath on exertion. Patient also had fore shortening of the trunk with impingement of the rib cage on the iliac crest. Radiographs revealed complete destruction of T12, L1 and L2 vertebral bodies with the T11 vertebra fusing with L3 anteriorly. CT scans and MRI revealed severe collapse of the vertebral column and the spinal cord being stretched over the 'internal gibbus', which was formed by the remnants of the destroyed vertebrae. A single stage closing-opening osteotomy was done by a midline posterior approach with continuous intraoperative spinal cord monitoring. The procedure involved extensive laminectomy of T11-L2, pedicle screw fixation of three levels above and three levels below the apex, a wedge osteotomy at the apex of the deformity from both sides, anterior column reconstruction by appropriate-sized titanium cage and gradual correction of deformity by closing the posterior column using the cage as a fulcrum. This allowed us to achieve a correction to 38° (68% correction). There was no intraoperative or perioperative adverse event and patient had good functional and radiological outcome at 1-year follow-up. In this Grand Rounds case presentation, we have also discussed the aetiology and evolution of severe post-tubercular kyphosis, which is the most common cause of spinal deformity in the developing world. Early identification of children at risk for severe deformity, the time and ideal methods of prevention of such deformities are discussed. The pros and cons of the available options of surgical correction of established deformity and the merits of our surgical technique are discussed.
Project description:This article describes the arch plate technique for treating lumbosacral tuberculosis. Lumbosacral tuberculosis often leads to the destruction of anterior vertebral columns and presacral or iliopsoas abscess, which requires an anterior approach to achieve thorough debridement. Due to the complexity of the anatomical structure of lumbosacral spine and the high requirement of fixation stability, a combined posterior approach to perform internal fixation is necessary, which is rather traumatic. On the other hand, most of the current anterior lumbosacral internal fixation systems cannot be applied to spinal tuberculosis patients who have irregular bony endplate destruction. The arch plate was designed as a cephalic narrow and caudal wide trapezoid or triangle outline according to the preliminary anatomic research. In terms of the endplate bony destruction, a multidirectional technique was introduced in the arch screws, which enables surgeons to arbitrarily change the direction of the screw in the range of 5°-20°, which increases the length and the inclination angles in the sagittal plane of the implant screw and makes sure that the autologous iliac bone graft fits the irregular bone destruction for maximum stability. This study demonstrated the effectiveness of one-stage anterior debridement, bone grafting, and arch plate fixation to treat lumbosacral tuberculosis. The risk of intraoperative and postoperative complications, such as injury to major vessels, could be minimized. This surgical procedure had many advantages, including a shorter operation time, less blood loss, and better functional recovery over the conventional combined anterior and posterior approach.
Project description:Between 2000 and 2004, 40 cases (average age 38, range 16-65 years) of spinal tuberculosis were treated with anterior debridement and iliac bone graft with one-stage anterior or posterior instrumentation in our unit. All patients received at least 2 weeks of regular antituberculous chemotherapy before surgery. We followed up all patients for 12-48 months (mean 22 months). Local symptoms of all patients were relieved significantly 1-3 weeks postoperatively; 23 of 25 cases (92%) with neurogical deficit had excellent or good clinical results. Erythrocyte sedimentation rates (ESR) returned from 51 mm/h to 32 mm/h (average) two weeks postoperatively. Kyphosis degrees were corrected by a mean of 16 degrees . Fusion rate of the grafting bone was 72.5% one year postoperatively and 90% two years postoperatively. Severe complications did not occur. We therefore believe that patients undergoing anterior debridement and iliac bone grafting with one-stage anterior or posterior instrumentation achieve satisfactory clinical and radiographic outcomes.
Project description:Posterior fixation is superior to anterior fixation in the correction of kyphosis and maintenance of spinal stability for the treatment of thoracic spinal tuberculosis. However, the process of selecting the appropriate spinal fixation method remains controversial, and preoperative biomechanical evaluation has not yet been investigated. In this study, we aimed to analyze the application of the assisted finite element analysis (FEA) and the three-dimensional (3D) printed model for the patient-specific preoperative planning of thoracic spinal tuberculosis. An adult patient with thoracic spinal tuberculosis was included. A finite element model of the T7-T11 thoracic spine segments was reconstructed to analyze the biomechanical effect of four different operative constructs. The von Mises stress values of the implants in the vertical axial load and flexion and extension conditions under a 400-N vertical axial pre-load and a 10-N?m moment were calculated and compared. A 3D printed model was used to describe and elucidate the patient's condition and simulate the optimal surgical design. According to the biomechanical evaluation, the patient-specific preoperative surgical design was prepared for implementation. The anterior column, which was reconstructed with titanium alloy mesh and a bone graft with posterior fixation using seven pedicle screws (M+P) and performed at the T7-T11 level, decreased the von Mises stress placed on the right rod, T7 pedicle screw, and T11 pedicle. Moreover, the M+P evaded the left T9 screw without load bearing. The 3D printed model and preoperative surgical simulation enhanced the understanding of the patient's condition and facilitated patient-specific preoperative planning. Good clinical results, including no complication of implants, negligible loss of the Cobb angle, and good bone fusion, were achieved using the M+P surgical design. In conclusion, M+P was recommended as the optimal method for preoperative planning since it enabled the preservation of the normal vertebra and prevented unnecessary internal fixation. Our study indicated that FEA and the assisted 3D printed model are tools that could be extremely useful and effective in the patient-specific preoperative planning for thoracic spinal tuberculosis, which can facilitate preoperative surgical simulation and biomechanical evaluation, as well as improve the understanding of the patient's condition.
Project description:Study Design Case report. Objective To analyze the surgical difficulties in restoring global spinal stability and to describe an effective surgical option for tuberculosis with extensive destruction of the lumbosacral spine. Advanced tuberculosis with destruction of the lumbosacral spine can result in a kyphosis or hypolordosis, leading to back pain, spinal instability, and neurological deficits. The conventional treatment goals of lumbosacral tuberculosis are to correct and prevent a lumbar kyphosis, treat or prevent a neurological deficit, and restore global spinal stability. Instrumentation at the lumbosacral junction is technically demanding due to the complex local anatomy, the unique biomechanics, and the difficult fixation in the surrounding diseased bone. Methods We report a 21-year-old woman with tuberculosis from L1 to S2 with back pain and spinal instability. The radiographs showed a kyphosis of the lumbar spine. The magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography scans revealed extensive destruction of the lumbar and lumbosacral spine. Spinopelvic stabilization combined with anterior debridement and reconstruction with free fibular strut graft was performed. Results The radiographs at follow-up showed a good correction of the kyphosis and excellent graft incorporation and fusion. Conclusions Anterior column reconstruction with a fibular strut graft helps restore and maintain the vertebral height. Posterior stabilization with spinopelvic fixation can be an effective surgical option for reconstructing the spine in extensive lumbosacral tuberculosis with sacral body destruction, requiring long fusions to the sacrum. It augments spinal stability, prevents graft-related complications, and accelerates the graft incorporation and fusion, thereby permitting early mobilization and rehabilitation. In spinal tuberculosis, antitubercular therapy may have to be prolonged in cases with large disease load, based on the clinicoradiographic and laboratory parameters.
Project description:Cervicothoracic spinal tuberculosis is a rare disease. Due to its difficult and challenging surgical exposure, its surgical treatment approach remains inconclusive. Long-term follow-up studies to address this puzzling issue are rarely seen in the literature. The purpose of this study was to explore the selection of surgical treatment approaches for cervicothoracic spinal tuberculosis through a 10-year case review.From January 2003 to January 2013, 45 patients suffering from cervicothoracic spinal tuberculosis were treated surgically. According to the relation between the tuberculosis lesion segments and the suprasternal notch on sagittal MRI, 19 patients were treated with a single-stage anterior debridement, fusion and instrumentation approach, and the other 26 patients were treated with a single-stage anterior debridement and fusion, posterior fusion and instrumentation approach. The clinical efficacy was evaluated using statistical analysis based on the Cobb angle of kyphosis, the Neck Disability Index (NDI) and the Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) scoring system. The neurofunctional recovery was assessed by the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) system.All patients were followed up for 6.6 years on average (range 3-13 years). No instrumentation loosening, migration or breakage was observed during the follow-up. The kyphosis angle and NDI and JOA scores were significantly changed from preoperative values of 34.7±6.8°, 39.6±4.6 and 10.7±2.8 to postoperative values of 10.2±2.4°, 11.4±3.6 and 17.6±2.4, respectively (p<0.05). Aside from one recurrent patient, bone fusion was achieved in the other 44 patients within 6 to 9 months (mean 7.2 months). No severe postoperative complications occurred, and patients' neurologic function was improved in various degrees.In the surgical treatment of cervicothoracic spinal tuberculosis, single-stage cervical anterior approach with or without partial manubriotomy is capable of complete debridement for tuberculosis lesions. The manner of fixation should be selected based on the anatomical relation of the suprasternal notch and the diseased segments as revealed on sagittal MRI images.
Project description:Progressive and/or painful adult spinal deformity in the thoracolumbar and lumbar spine is sometimes treated surgically by long posterior fusions from the thoracic spine down to the pelvis, especially where there is a major thoracic curve component. Recent advances in anterior spinal instrumentation and spinal surgery technique have demonstrated the improved corrective ability offered by anterior stabilization systems, and the added benefit of limiting the number of vertebral fusion levels required for control of the deformity. The "hybrid technique" is a novel use of anterior instrumentation that applies limited anterior instrumentation down to the low lumbar spine (rods and screws), and partially overlapping short-segment posterior instrumentation to the sacrum (pedicle screws and rods). These constructs avoid posterior thoracic instrumentation and fusions, and avoid extension of posterior instrumentation to the pelvis. In the first 10 patients treated using this technique, thoracolumbar and lumbar major curve correction has averaged 71 and 82% in the immediate postoperative period (n = 7), respectively, and 59 and 68% at 2-year follow-up, respectively. The technique is an appealing and attractive alternative for treatment of thoracolumbar and lumbar scoliosis in the adult population, and avoids the requirement for applying spinal fixation to the thoracic spine and the pelvis.
Project description:The correlation between implant density and deformity correction has not yet led to a precise conclusion in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of low density (LD) and high density (HD) pedicle screw instrumentation in terms of the clinical, radiological and Scoliosis Research Society (SRS)-22 outcomes in Lenke 1 AIS.We retrospectively reviewed 62 consecutive Lenke 1 AIS patients who underwent posterior spinal arthrodesis using all-pedicle screw instrumentation with a minimum follow-up of 24 months. The implant density was defined as the number of screws per spinal level fused. Patients were then divided into two groups according to the average implant density for the entire study. The LD group (n = 28) had fewer than 1.61 screws per level, while the HD group (n = 34) had more than 1.61 screws per level. The radiographs were analysed preoperatively, postoperatively and at final follow-up. The perioperative and SRS-22 outcomes were also assessed. Independent sample t tests were used between the two groups.Comparisons between the two groups showed no significant differences in the correction of the main thoracic curve and thoracic kyphosis, blood transfusion, hospital stay, and SRS-22 scores. Compared with the HD group, there was a decreased operating time (278.4 vs. 331.0 min, p = 0.004) and decreased blood loss (823.6 vs. 1010.9 ml, p = 0.048), pedicle screws needed (15.1 vs. 19.6, p < 0.001), and implant costs ($10,191.0 vs. $13,577.3, p = 0.003) in the LD group.Both low density and high density pedicle screw instrumentation achieved satisfactory deformity correction in Lenke 1 AIS patients. However, the operating time and blood loss were reduced, and the implant costs were decreased with the use of low screw density constructs.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Escobar syndrome or multiple pterygium syndrome is characterized by a web across every flexion crease in the extremities, most notably the popliteal space. In addition, this syndrome is associated with two other structural anomalies: a vertical talus and congenital lordoscoliosis. We present a case report of a patient with Escobar syndrome who was initially managed conservatively and subsequently had severe and debilitating progression and respiratory decompensation ultimately requiring surgical intervention. STUDY DESIGN: Case report. METHODS: After preoperative evaluation by a pediatrician, pulmonologist, and otolaryngologist, the patient underwent one-stage anterior and posterior spinal fusion with instrumentation as well as multiple osteotomies, rib resections, and vertebrectomies. RESULTS: The patient's postoperative course was complicated by wound necrosis requiring irrigation and debridement, a urinary tract infection, and a tracheostomy for persistent atelectasis. The patient eventually recovered from all complications. There were never any focal neurologic deficits. The patient had a 3-year follow-up with radiographically confirmed maintenance of correction. Fusion was obtained in the anterior and posterior segments. Clinically, the patient is able to stand upright, can participate in functional activities, and has not required any pain medication. The patient's functional vital capacity improved from 23% predicted preoperatively to 60% predicted postoperatively. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with severe spinal deformity secondary to Escobar syndrome can be successfully treated surgically. We propose early surgical intervention in this group to prevent curve progression, restrictive lung disease, and the need for complex salvage procedures.