Abscisic acid regulates root growth under osmotic stress conditions via an interacting hormonal network with cytokinin, ethylene and auxin.
ABSTRACT: Understanding the mechanisms regulating root development under drought conditions is an important question for plant biology and world agriculture. We examine the effect of osmotic stress on abscisic acid (ABA), cytokinin and ethylene responses and how they mediate auxin transport, distribution and root growth through effects on PIN proteins. We integrate experimental data to construct hormonal crosstalk networks to formulate a systems view of root growth regulation by multiple hormones. Experimental analysis shows: that ABA-dependent and ABA-independent stress responses increase under osmotic stress, but cytokinin responses are only slightly reduced; inhibition of root growth under osmotic stress does not require ethylene signalling, but auxin can rescue root growth and meristem size; osmotic stress modulates auxin transporter levels and localization, reducing root auxin concentrations; PIN1 levels are reduced under stress in an ABA-dependent manner, overriding ethylene effects; and the interplay among ABA, ethylene, cytokinin and auxin is tissue-specific, as evidenced by differential responses of PIN1 and PIN2 to osmotic stress. Combining experimental analysis with network construction reveals that ABA regulates root growth under osmotic stress conditions via an interacting hormonal network with cytokinin, ethylene and auxin.
Project description:Auxin acts synergistically with cytokinin to control the shoot stem-cell niche, while both hormones act antagonistically to maintain the root meristem. In aluminum (Al) stress-induced root growth inhibition, auxin plays an important role. However, the role of cytokinin in this process is not well understood. In this study, we show that cytokinin enhances root growth inhibition under stress by mediating Al-induced auxin signaling. Al stress triggers a local cytokinin response in the root-apex transition zone (TZ) that depends on IPTs, which encode adenosine phosphate isopentenyltransferases and regulate cytokinin biosynthesis. IPTs are up-regulated specifically in the root-apex TZ in response to Al stress and promote local cytokinin biosynthesis and inhibition of root growth. The process of root growth inhibition is also controlled by ethylene signaling which acts upstream of auxin. In summary, different from the situation in the root meristem, auxin acts with cytokinin in a synergistic way to mediate aluminum-induced root growth inhibition in Arabidopsis.
Project description:Root determines plant distribution, development progresses, stress response, as well as crop qualities and yields, which is under the tight control of genetic programs and environmental stimuli. Ethylene responsive factor proteins (ERFs) play important roles in plant growth and development. Here, the regulatory function of OsERF2 involved in root growth was investigated using the gain-function mutant of OsERF2 (nsf2857) and the artificial microRNA-mediated silenced lines of OsERF2 (Ami-OsERF2). nsf2857 showed short primary roots compared with the wild type (WT), while the primary roots of Ami-OsERF2 lines were longer than those of WT. Consistent with this phenotype, several auxin/cytokinin responsive genes involved in root growth were downregulated in nsf2857, but upregulated in Ami-OsERF2. Then, we found that nsf2857 seedlings exhibited decreased ABA accumulation and sensitivity to ABA and reduced ethylene-mediated root inhibition, while those were the opposite in Ami-ERF2 plants. Moreover, several key genes involved in ABA synthesis were downregulated in nsf2857, but unregulated in Ami-ERF2 lines. In addition, OsERF2 affected the accumulation of sucrose and UDPG by mediating expression of key genes involved in sucrose metabolism. These results indicate that OsERF2 is required for the control of root architecture and ABA- and ethylene-response by tuning expression of series genes involved in sugar metabolism and hormone signaling pathways.
Project description:Co-ordination of auxin and cytokinin activities determines root meristem size during post-embryonic development. Calcineurin B-like proteins (CBLs) and their interacting protein kinases (CIPKs) constitute signaling modules that relay calcium signals. Here we report that CIPK25 is involved in regulating the root meristem size. Arabidopsis plants lacking CIPK25 expression displayed a short root phenotype and a slower root growth rate with fewer meristem cells. This phenotype was rescued by restoration of CIPK25 expression. CIPK25 interacted with CBL4 and -5, and displayed strong gene expression in the flower and root, except in the cell proliferation domain in the root apical meristem. Its expression in the root was positively and negatively regulated by auxin and cytokinin, respectively. The cipk25 T-DNA insertion line was compromised in auxin transport and auxin-responsive promoter activity. The cipk25 mutant line showed altered expression of auxin efflux carriers (PIN1 and PIN2) and an Aux/IAA family gene SHY2. Decreased PIN1 and PIN2 expression in the cipk25 mutant line was completely restored when combined with a SHY2 loss-of-function mutation, resulting in recovery of root growth. SHY2 and PIN1 expression was partially regulated by cytokinin even in the absence of CIPK25, suggesting a CIPK25-independent cytokinin signaling pathway(s). Our results revealed that CIPK25 plays an important role in the co-ordination of auxin and cytokinin signaling in root meristem development.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Drought is an important constraint on grapevine sustainability. Vitis riparia, widely used in rootstock and scion breeding, has been studied in isolated leaf drying response studies; however, it is essential to identify key root and shoot water deficit signaling traits in intact plants. This information will aid improved scion and rootstock selection and management practices in grapevine. RNAseq data were generated from V. riparia roots and shoots under water deficit and well-watered conditions to determine root signaling and shoot responses to water deficit. RESULTS:Shoot elongation, photosynthetic rate, and stomatal conductance were significantly reduced in water deficit (WD) treated than in well-watered grapevines. RNAseq analysis indicated greater transcriptional differences in shoots than in roots under WD, with 6925 and 1395 genes differentially expressed, respectively (q-value < 0.05). There were 50 and 25 VitisNet pathways significantly enriched in WD relative to well-watered treatments in grapevine shoots and roots, respectively. The ABA biosynthesis genes beta-carotene hydroxylase, zeaxanthin epoxidase, and 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenases were up-regulated in WD root and WD shoot. A positive enrichment of ABA biosynthesis genes and signaling pathways in WD grapevine roots indicated enhanced root signaling to the shoot. An increased frequency of differentially expressed reactive oxygen species scavenging (ROS) genes were found in the WD shoot. Analyses of hormone signaling genes indicated a strong ABA, auxin, and ethylene network and an ABA, cytokinin, and circadian rhythm network in both WD shoot and WD root. CONCLUSIONS:This work supports previous findings in detached leaf studies suggesting ABA-responsive binding factor 2 (ABF2) is a central regulator in ABA signaling in the WD shoot. Likewise, ABF2 may have a key role in V. riparia WD shoot and WD root. A role for ABF3 was indicated only in WD root. WD shoot and WD root hormone expression analysis identified strong ABA, auxin, ethylene, cytokinin, and circadian rhythm signaling networks. These results present the first ABA, cytokinin, and circadian rhythm signaling network in roots under water deficit. These networks point to organ specific regulators that should be explored to further define the communication network from soil to shoot.
Project description:Auxin controls multiple aspects of plant growth and development. However, its role in stress responses remains poorly understood. Auxin acts on the transcriptional regulation of target genes, mainly through Auxin Response Factors (ARF). This study focuses on the involvement of SlARF4 in tomato tolerance to salinity and osmotic stress. Using a reverse genetic approach, we found that the antisense down-regulation of SlARF4 promotes root development and density, increases soluble sugars content and maintains chlorophyll content at high levels under stress conditions. Furthermore, ARF4-as displayed higher tolerance to salt and osmotic stress through reduced stomatal conductance coupled with increased leaf relative water content and Abscisic acid (ABA) content under normal and stressful conditions. This increase in ABA content was correlated with the activation of ABA biosynthesis genes and the repression of ABA catabolism genes. Cu/ZnSOD and mdhar genes were up-regulated in ARF4-as plants which can result in a better tolerance to salt and osmotic stress. A CRISPR/Cas9 induced SlARF4 mutant showed similar growth and stomatal responses as ARF4-as plants, which suggest that arf4-cr can tolerate salt and osmotic stresses. Our data support the involvement of ARF4 as a key factor in tomato tolerance to salt and osmotic stresses and confirm the use of CRISPR technology as an efficient tool for functional reverse genetics studies.
Project description:Plant development is governed by signaling molecules called phytohormones. Typically, in certain developmental processes more than 1 hormone is implicated and, thus, coordination of their overlapping activities is crucial for correct plant development. However, molecular mechanisms underlying the hormonal crosstalk are only poorly understood. Multiple hormones including cytokinin and auxin have been implicated in the regulation of root development. Here we dissect the roles of cytokinin in modulating growth of the primary root. We show that cytokinin effect on root elongation occurs through ethylene signaling whereas cytokinin effect on the root meristem size involves ethylene-independent modulation of transport-dependent asymmetric auxin distribution. Exogenous or endogenous modification of cytokinin levels and cytokinin signaling lead to specific changes in transcription of several auxin efflux carrier genes from the PIN family having a direct impact on auxin efflux from cultured cells and on auxin distribution in the root apex. We propose a novel model for cytokinin action in regulating root growth: Cytokinin influences cell-to-cell auxin transport by modification of expression of several auxin transport components and thus modulates auxin distribution important for regulation of activity and size of the root meristem.
Project description:Abscisic acid (ABA) regulates many aspects of plant growth and development, including inhibition of root elongation and seed germination. We performed an ABA resistance screen to identify factors required for ABA response in root elongation inhibition. We identified two classes of Arabidopsis thaliana AR mutants that displayed ABA-resistant root elongation: those that displayed resistance to ABA in both root elongation and seed germination and those that displayed resistance to ABA in root elongation but not in seed germination. We used PCR-based genotyping to identify a mutation in ABA INSENSITIVE2 (ABI2), positional information to identify mutations in AUXIN RESISTANT1 (AUX1) and ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE2 (EIN2), and whole genome sequencing to identify mutations in AUX1, AUXIN RESISTANT4 (AXR4), and ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE ROOT1/PIN-FORMED2 (EIR1/PIN2). Identification of auxin and ethylene response mutants among our isolates suggested that auxin and ethylene responsiveness were required for ABA inhibition of root elongation. To further our understanding of auxin/ethylene/ABA crosstalk, we examined ABA responsiveness of double mutants of ethylene overproducer1 (eto1) or ein2 combined with auxin-resistant mutants and found that auxin and ethylene likely operate in a linear pathway to affect ABA-responsive inhibition of root elongation, whereas these two hormones likely act independently to affect ABA-responsive inhibition of seed germination.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula L.) is an herbaceous weed that maintains a perennial growth pattern through seasonal production of abundant underground adventitious buds (UABs) on the crown and lateral roots. During the normal growing season, differentiation of bud to shoot growth is inhibited by physiological factors external to the affected structure; a phenomenon referred to as paradormancy. Initiation of shoot growth from paradormant UABs can be accomplished through removal of the aerial shoots (hereafter referred to as paradormancy release). RESULTS:In this study, phytohormone abundance and the transcriptomes of paradormant UABs vs. shoot-induced growth at 6, 24, and 72 h after paradormancy release were compared based on hormone profiling and RNA-seq analyses. Results indicated that auxin, abscisic acid (ABA), and flavonoid signaling were involved in maintaining paradormancy in UABs of leafy spurge. However, auxin, ABA, and flavonoid levels/signals decreased by 6 h after paradormancy release, in conjunction with increase in gibberellic acid (GA), cytokinin, jasmonic acid (JA), ethylene, and brassinosteroid (BR) levels/signals. Twenty four h after paradormancy release, auxin and ABA levels/signals increased, in conjunction with increase in GA levels/signals. Major cellular changes were also identified in UABs at 24 h, since both principal component and Venn diagram analysis of transcriptomes clearly set the 24 h shoot-induced growth apart from other time groups. In addition, increase in auxin and ABA levels/signals and the down-regulation of 40 over-represented AraCyc pathways indicated that stress-derived cellular responses may be involved in the activation of stress-induced re-orientation required for initiation of shoot growth. Seventy two h after paradormancy release, auxin, cytokinin, and GA levels/signals were increased, whereas ABA, JA, and ethylene levels/signals were decreased. CONCLUSION:Combined results were consistent with different phytohormone signals acting in concert to direct cellular changes involved in bud differentiation and shoot growth. In addition, shifts in balance of these phytohormones at different time points and stress-related cellular responses after paradormancy release appear to be critical factors driving transition of bud to shoot growth.
Project description:Plant root architecture dynamically adapts to various environmental conditions, such as salt-containing soil. The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) is involved among others also in these developmental adaptations, but the underlying molecular mechanism remains elusive. Here, a novel branch of the ABA signaling pathway in Arabidopsis involving PYR/PYL/RCAR (abbreviated as PYLs) receptor-protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) complex that acts in parallel to the canonical PYLs-protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C) mechanism is identified. The PYLs-PP2A signaling modulates root gravitropism and lateral root formation through regulating phytohormone auxin transport. In optimal conditions, PYLs ABA receptor interacts with the catalytic subunits of PP2A, increasing their phosphatase activity and thus counteracting PINOID (PID) kinase-mediated phosphorylation of PIN-FORMED (PIN) auxin transporters. By contrast, in salt and osmotic stress conditions, ABA binds to PYLs, inhibiting the PP2A activity, which leads to increased PIN phosphorylation and consequently modulated directional auxin transport leading to adapted root architecture. This work reveals an adaptive mechanism that may flexibly adjust plant root growth to withstand saline and osmotic stresses. It occurs via the cross-talk between the stress hormone ABA and the versatile developmental regulator auxin.
Project description:Auxin regulates a plethora of events during plant growth and development, acting in concert with other phytohormones. YUCCA genes encode flavin monooxygenases that function in tryptophan-dependent auxin biosynthesis. To understand the contribution of the YUCCA4 (YUC4) gene on auxin homeostasis, plant growth and interaction with abscisic acid (ABA) signaling, 35S::YUC4 seedlings were generated, which showed elongated hypocotyls with hyponastic leaves and changes in root system architecture that correlate with enhanced auxin responsive gene expression. Differential expression of PIN1, 2, 3 and 7 auxin transporters was detected in roots of YUC4 overexpressing seedlings compared to the wild-type: PIN1 was down-regulated whereas PIN2, PIN3 and PIN7 were up-regulated. Noteworthy, 35S::YUC4 lines showed enhanced sensitivity to ABA on seed germination and post-embryonic root growth, involving ABI4 transcription factor. The auxin reporter genes DR5::GUS, DR5::GFP and BA3::GUS further revealed that abscisic acid impairs auxin responses in 35S::YUC4 seedlings. Our results indicate that YUC4 overexpression influences several aspects of auxin homeostasis and reveal the critical roles of ABI4 during auxin-ABA interaction in germination and primary root growth.