Sensitivities to various epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors of uncommon epidermal growth factor receptor mutations L861Q and S768I: What is the optimal epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor?
ABSTRACT: Most patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring common epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations, such as deletions in exon 19 or the L858R mutation in exon 21, respond dramatically to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKI), and their sensitivities to various EGFR-TKI have been well characterized. Our previous article showed the in vitro sensitivities of EGFR exon 18 mutations to EGFR-TKI, but little information regarding the sensitivities of other uncommon EGFR mutations is available. First, stable transfectant Ba/F3 cell lines harboring EGFR L858R (Ba/F3-L858R), L861Q (Ba/F3-L861Q) or S768I (Ba/F3-S768I) mutations were created and their drug sensitivities to various EGFR-TKI were examined. Both the Ba/F3-L861Q and Ba/F3-S768I cell lines were less sensitive to erlotinib, compared with the Ba/F3-L858R cell line, but their sensitivities to afatinib were similar to that of the Ba/F3-L858R cell line. The Ba/F3-L861Q cell line was similarly sensitive and the Ba/F3-S768I cell line was less sensitive to osimertinib, compared with the Ba/F3-L858R cell line. The results of western blot analyses were consistent with these sensitivities. Next, similar experiments were also performed using the KYSE270 (L861Q) and KYSE 450 (S768I) cell lines, and their results were compatible with those of the transfectant Ba/F3 cell lines. Our findings suggest that NSCLC harboring the EGFR L861Q mutation might be sensitive to afatinib or osimertinib and that NSCLC harboring the EGFR S768I mutation might be sensitive to afatinib. Overall, afatinib might be the optimal EGFR-TKI against these uncommon EGFR mutations.
Project description:Somatic mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene are present in approximately 20% (in Caucasians) to 40% (in East Asians) of adenocarcinomas of the lung. Targeted therapy for these lung cancers has been established based on evidence regarding mainly common mutations; that is, exon 19 deletions (Del19) and L858R. EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI), gefitinib, erlotinib or afatinib showed high objective response rates (ORR) of approximately 60%. Several studies suggested that Del19 might be more sensitive to EGFR-TKI than L858R. On the other hand, it has been difficult to establish evidence for other less common mutations, accounting for 12% of all EGFR mutations, because there are many variants and many studies have excluded patients with these uncommon mutations. However, recent studies revealed that these rare genotypes could be targetable if appropriate TKI are selected. For example, G719X (X denotes A, S, C and so on), Del18, E709K, insertions in exon 19 (Ins19), S768I or L861Q showed moderate sensitivities to gefitinib or erlotinb with ORR of 30%-50%. However, afatinib appeared to be especially effective for these tumors. Although Ins20s (except for insFQEA) have been regarded as resistant mutations, osimertinib may be effective for rare subtypes of them and nazartinib (EGF816) is promising for the majority of them. For the further development of targeted therapy in all EGFR mutations, it is important to precisely detect targetable mutations, to select the most appropriate TKI for each mutation, and to continue investigating in vitro studies and collecting clinical data on even rare mutations.
Project description:Third-generation epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) were developed to overcome EGFR T790M-mediated resistance to first- and second-generation EGFR-TKIs. Third-generation EGFR-TKIs, such as osimertinib and nazartinib, are effective for patients with the EGFR T790M mutation. However, there are no direct comparison data to guide the selection of a third-generation EGFR-TKI for patients with different EGFR mutations. We previously established an in vitro model to estimate the therapeutic windows of EGFR-TKIs by comparing their relative efficacies against cells expressing mutant or wild type EGFRs. The present study used this approach to characterize the efficacy of third-generation EGFR-TKIs and compare them with that of other EGFR-TKIs. Treatment efficacy was examined using human lung cancer-derived cell lines and Ba/F3 cells, which were transduced with clinically relevant mutant EGFRs. Interestingly, mutation-related differences in EGFR-TKI sensitivity were observed. For classic EGFR mutations (exon 19 deletion and L858R, with or without T790M), osimertinib showed lower IC50 values and wider therapeutic windows than nazartinib. For less common EGFR mutations (G719S or L861Q), afatinib showed the lowest IC50 values. For G719S+T790M or L861Q+T790M, the IC50 values of osimertinib and nazartinib were around 100 nM, which was 10- to 100-fold higher than those for classic+T790M mutations. On the contrary, osimertinib and nazartinib showed similar efficacies in cells expressing EGFR exon 20 insertions. The findings highlight the diverse mutation-related sensitivity pattern of EGFR-TKIs. These data may help in the selection of EGFR-TKIs for non-small cell lung cancer patients harboring EGFR mutations.
Project description:Despite the worldwide approval of three generations of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) for advanced non-small cell lung cancers with EGFR mutations, no TKI with a broad spectrum of activity against all clinically relevant mutations is currently available. In this study, we sought to evaluate a covalent mutation-specific EGFR TKI, TAS6417 (also named CLN-081), with the broadest level of activity against EGFR mutations with a prevalence of ?1%. Lung cancer and genetically engineered cell lines, as well as murine xenograft models were used to evaluate the efficacy of TAS6417 and other approved/in-development EGFR TKIs (erlotinib, afatinib, osimertinib, and poziotinib). We demonstrate that TAS6417 is a robust inhibitor against the most common EGFR mutations (exon 19 deletions and L858R) and the most potent against cells harboring EGFR-T790M (first/second-generation TKI resistance mutation). In addition, TAS6417 has activity in cells driven by less common EGFR-G719X, L861Q, and S768I mutations. For recalcitrant EGFR exon 20 insertion mutations, selectivity indexes (wild-type EGFR/mutant EGFR ratio of inhibition) favored TAS6417 in comparison with poziotinib and osimertinib, indicating a wider therapeutic window. Taken together, we demonstrate that TAS6417 is a potent EGFR TKI with a broad spectrum of activity and a wider therapeutic window than most approved/in-development generations of EGFR inhibitors. IMPLICATIONS: TAS6417/CLN-081 is a potent EGFR TKI with a wide therapeutic window and may be effective in lung cancer patients with clinically relevant EGFR mutations.
Project description:Targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring sensitizing mutations in the tyrosine kinase (TKI) domain has led to a significant change in the management of this disease. The classic or sensitizing mutations are G719X mutation in exon 18, in-frame deletions or insertion of exon 19, L858R or L861Q mutation in exon 21. Approximately 90% of these mutations are exon 19 deletion or exon 21 L858R point mutation. Gefitinib and erlotinib are reversible first-generation inhibitors of mutant EGFR, and treatment with these agents in the first-line setting has demonstrated a progression-free survival of 9.5-13.7 months. However, the majority of these patients ultimately develop resistance to these drugs. Afatinib is an irreversible pan-ErbB inhibitor that was developed to circumvent the problem of resistance to first-generation TKIs. The LUX-Lung studies have evaluated the efficacy and toxicities of afatinib in treatment-naïve and refractory NSCLC patients. The promising results of some of these trials led to approval of afatinib by the US Food and Drug Administration for patients with advanced NSCLC and EGFR exon 19 deletions or exon 21 (L858R) substitution mutations. Afatinib causes toxicities similar to those of the first-generation EGFR TKIs, such as diarrhea, rash, acne, and stomatitis, and overall is well tolerated. This article focuses on the clinical studies of afatinib in patients with NSCLC.
Project description:Lung cancer patients with mutations in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) benefit from treatments targeting tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). However, both intrinsic and acquired resistance of tumors to TKIs are common, and EGFR variants have been identified that are resistant to multiple TKIs. In the present study, we characterized selected EGFR variants previously observed in lung cancer patients and expressed in a murine bone marrow pro-B Ba/F3 cell model. Among these EGFR variants, we report that an exon 20 deletion/insertion mutation S768insVGH is resistant to erlotinib (a first-generation TKI), but sensitive to osimertinib (a third-generation TKI). We also characterized a rare exon 21 germline variant, EGFR P848L, which transformed Ba/F3 cells and conferred resistance to multiple EGFR-targeting TKIs. Our analysis revealed that P848L (a) does not bind erlotinib; (b) is turned over less rapidly than L858R (a common tumor-derived EGFR mutation); (c) is not autophosphorylated at Tyr 1045 [the major docking site for Cbl proto-oncogene (c-Cbl) binding]; and (d) does not bind c-Cbl. Using viability assays including 300 clinically relevant targeted compounds, we observed that Ba/F3 cells transduced with EGFR P848L, S768insVGH, or L858R have very different drug-sensitivity profiles. In particular, EGFR P848L, but not L858R or S768insVGH, was sensitive to multiple Janus kinase 1/2 inhibitors. In contrast, cells driven by L858R, but not by P848L, were sensitive to multikinase MAPK/extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) kinase and ERK inhibitors including EGFR-specific TKIs. These observations suggest that continued investigation of rare TKI-resistant EGFR variants is warranted to identify optimal treatments for cancer.
Project description:Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene mutations (G719X, exon 19 deletions/insertions, L858R, and L861Q) predict favorable responses to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, EGFR exon 20 insertion mutations (~10% of all EGFR mutations) are generally associated with insensitivity to available TKIs (gefitinib, erlotinib, and afatinib). The basis of this primary resistance is poorly understood. We studied a broad subset of exon 20 insertion mutations, comparing in vitro TKI sensitivity with responses to gefitinib and erlotinib in NSCLC patients, and found that most are resistant to EGFR TKIs. The crystal structure of a representative TKI-insensitive mutant (D770_N771insNPG) reveals an unaltered adenosine triphosphate-binding pocket, and the inserted residues form a wedge at the end of the C helix that promotes the active kinase conformation. Unlike EGFR-L858R, D770_N771insNPG activates EGFR without increasing its affinity for EGFR TKIs. Unexpectedly, we find that EGFR-A763_Y764insFQEA is highly sensitive to EGFR TKIs in vitro, and patients whose NSCLCs harbor this mutation respond to erlotinib. Analysis of the A763_Y764insFQEA mutant indicates that the inserted residues shift the register of the C helix in the N-terminal direction, altering the structure in the region that is also affected by the TKI-sensitive EGFR-L858R. Our studies reveal intricate differences between EGFR mutations, their biology, and their response to EGFR TKIs.
Project description:BACKGROUND:In the majority of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with uncommon EGFR mutations, first generation epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) are ineffective. The second-generation TKI, afatinib, is considered effective in patients with uncommon mutations, however, long-term survivors have been rare. CASE REPORT:We report herein a patient with lung adenocarcinoma harboring double uncommon EGFR L861Q and G719X mutations, who is free of disease 32 months after initiation of afatinib therapy. To our best knowledge, this patient has the longest response among other patients with double uncommon mutations. CONCLUSION:Patients with this type of NSCLC may obtain long-term survival with afatinib.
Project description:Data on non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with non-classic epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations are scarce, especially in non-Asian populations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate prevalence, clinical characteristics and outcome on EGFR-TKI treatment according to type of EGFR mutation in a Dutch cohort of NSCLC patients.We retrospectively evaluated a cohort of 240 EGFR-mutated NSCLC patients. Data on demographics, clinical and tumour-related features, EGFR-TKI treatment and clinical outcome were collected and compared between patients with classic EGFR mutations, EGFR exon 20 insertions and other uncommon EGFR mutations.Classic EGFR mutations were detected in 186 patients (77.5%) and non-classic EGFR mutations in 54 patients (22.5%); 23 patients with an exon 20 insertion (9.6%) and 31 patients with an uncommon EGFR mutation (12.9%). Median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) on EGFR-TKI treatment were 2.9 and 9.7 months, respectively, for patients with an EGFR exon 20 insertion, and 6.4 and 20.2 months, respectively, for patients with an uncommon EGFR mutation. Patients with a double uncommon EGFR mutation that included G719X/L861Q/S768I had longer PFS and OS on EGFR-TKI treatment compared with patients with a single G719X/L861Q/S768I EGFR mutation (both P=0.02).In our Dutch cohort, prevalence and genotype distribution of non-classic EGFR mutations were in accordance with previously reported data. The PFS and OS on EGFR-TKI treatment in patients with an uncommon EGFR mutation were shorter compared with patients with classic EGFR mutations, but varied among different uncommon EGFR mutations.
Project description:Mutant selective irreversible pyrimidine-based EGFR kinase inhibitors, including WZ4002, CO-1686, and AZD9291, are effective in preclinical models and in lung cancer patients harboring the EGFR T790M gefitinib/erlotinib resistance mutation. However, little is known about how cancers develop acquired resistance to this class of EGFR inhibitors. We sought to identify and study EGFR mutations that confer resistance to this class of agents.We performed an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) mutagenesis screen in EGFR-mutant (sensitizing alone or with concurrent EGFR T790M) Ba/F3 cells and selected drug-resistant clones. We evaluated the sensitivity of EGFR inhibitors in models harboring drug-resistant EGFR mutations.We identified 3 major drug resistance mutations. EGFR L718Q, L844V, and C797S cause resistance to both WZ4002 and CO-1686 while, in contrast, only EGFR C797S leads to AZD9291 resistance. Cells containing an EGFR-sensitizing mutation, Del 19 or L858R, in conjunction with L718Q, L844V, or C797S retain sensitivity to quinazoline-based EGFR inhibitors, gefitinib and afatinib. The C797S mutation, in the presence of Del 19 or L858R and T790M, causes resistance to all current EGFR inhibitors, but L858R/T790M/C797S remains partially sensitive to cetuximab which leads to disruption of EGFR dimerization.Our findings provide insights into resistance mechanisms to irreversible pyrimidine-based EGFR inhibitors and identify specific genomic contexts in which sensitivity is retained to existing clinical EGFR inhibitors. These findings will guide the development of new strategies to inhibit EGFR.
Project description:Adequate preclinical model and model establishment procedure are required to accelerate translational research in lung cancer. We streamlined a protocol for establishing patient-derived cells (PDC) and identified effective targeted therapies and novel resistance mechanisms using PDCs. We generated 23 PDCs from 96 malignant effusions of 77 patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma. Clinical and experimental factors were reviewed to identify determinants for PDC establishment. PDCs were characterized by driver mutations and in vitro sensitivity to targeted therapies. Seven PDCs were analyzed by whole-exome sequencing. PDCs were established at a success rate of 24.0%. Utilizing cytological diagnosis and tumor colony formation can improve the success rate upto 48.8%. In vitro response to a tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) in PDC reflected patient treatment response and contributed to identifying effective therapies. Combination of dabrafenib and trametinib was potent against a rare BRAF K601E mutation. Afatinib was the most potent EGFR-TKI against uncommon EGFR mutations including L861Q, G719C/S768I, and D770_N771insG. Aurora kinase A (AURKA) was identified as a novel resistance mechanism to olmutinib, a mutant-selective, third-generation EGFR-TKI, and inhibition of AURKA overcame the resistance. We presented an efficient protocol for establishing PDCs. PDCs empowered precision medicine with promising translational values.