Prevalence of pfhrp2 and/or pfhrp3 Gene Deletion in Plasmodium falciparum Population in Eight Highly Endemic States in India.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Plasmodium falciparum encoded histidine rich protein (HRP2) based malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are used in India. Deletion of pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 genes contributes to false negative test results, and large numbers of such deletions have been reported from South America, highlighting the importance of surveillance to detect such deletions. METHODS:This is the first prospective field study carried out at 16 sites located in eight endemic states of India to assess the performance of PfHRP2 based RDT kits used in the national malaria control programme. In this study, microscopically confirmed P. falciparum but RDT negative samples were assessed for presence of pfhrp2, pfhrp3, and their flanking genes using PCR. RESULTS:Among 1521 microscopically positive P. falciparum samples screened, 50 were negative by HRP2 based RDT test. Molecular testing was carried out using these 50 RDT negative samples by assuming that 1471 RDT positive samples carried pfhrp2 gene. It was found that 2.4% (36/1521) and 1.8% (27/1521) of samples were negative for pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 genes, respectively. However, the frequency of pfhrp2 deletions varied between the sites ranging from 0-25% (2.4, 95% CI; 1.6-3.3). The frequency of both pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 gene deletion varied from 0-8% (1.6, 95% CI; 1.0-2.4). CONCLUSION:This study provides evidence for low level presence of pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 deleted P. falciparum parasites in different endemic regions of India, and periodic surveillance is warranted for reliable use of PfHRP2 based RDTs.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2)-based malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are effective and widely used for the detection of wild-type Plasmodium falciparum infections. Although recent studies have reported false negative HRP2 RDT results due to pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 gene deletions in different countries, there is a paucity of data on the deletions of these genes in Tanzania. METHODS:A community-based cross-sectional survey was conducted between July and November 2017 in four regions: Geita, Kigoma, Mtwara and Ruvuma. All participants had microscopy and RDT performed in the field and provided a blood sample for laboratory multiplex antigen detection (for Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase, aldolase, and P. falciparum HRP2). Samples showing RDT false negativity or aberrant relationship of HRP2 to pan-Plasmodium antigens were genotyped to detect the presence/absence of pfhrp2/3 genes. RESULTS:Of all samples screened by the multiplex antigen assay (n?=?7543), 2417 (32.0%) were positive for any Plasmodium antigens while 5126 (68.0%) were negative for all antigens. The vast majority of the antigen positive samples contained HRP2 (2411, 99.8%), but 6 (0.2%) had only pLDH and/or aldolase without HRP2. Overall, 13 samples had an atypical relationship between a pan-Plasmodium antigen and HRP2, but were positive by PCR. An additional 16 samples with negative HRP2 RDT results but P. falciparum positive by microscopy were also chosen for pfhrp2/3 genotyping. The summation of false negative RDT results and laboratory antigen results provided 35 total samples with confirmed P. falciparum DNA for pfhrp2/3 genotyping. Of the 35 samples, 4 (11.4%) failed to consistently amplify positive control genes; pfmsp1 and pfmsp2 and were excluded from the analysis. The pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 genes were successfully amplified in the remaining 31 (88.6%) samples, confirming an absence of deletions in these genes. CONCLUSIONS:This study provides evidence that P. falciparum parasites in the study area have no deletions of both pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 genes. Although single gene deletions could have been missed by the multiplex antigen assay, the findings support the continued use of HRP2-based RDTs in Tanzania for routine malaria diagnosis. There is a need for the surveillance to monitor the status of pfhrp2 and/or pfhrp3 deletions in the future.
Project description:Deletions of the Plasmodium falciparum hrp2 and hrp3 genes can affect the performance of HRP2-based malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs). Such deletions have been reported from South America, India and Eritrea. Whether these parasites are widespread in East Africa is unknown. A total of 274 samples from asymptomatic children in Mbita, western Kenya, and 61 genomic data from Kilifi, eastern Kenya, were available for analysis. PCR-confirmed samples were investigated for the presence of pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 genes. In samples with evidence of deletion, parasite presence was confirmed by amplifying three independent genes. We failed to amplify pfhrp2 from 25 of 131 (19.1%) PCR-confirmed samples. Of these, only 8 (10%) samples were microscopic positive and were classified as pfhrp2-deleted. Eight microscopically-confirmed pfhrp2-deleted samples with intact pfhrp3 locus were positive by HRP2-based RDT. In addition, one PCR-confirmed infection showed a deletion at the pfhrp3 locus. One genomic sample lacked pfhrp2 and one lacked pfhrp3. No sample harbored parasites lacking both genes. Parasites lacking pfhrp2 are present in Kenya, but may be detectable by HRP-based RDT at higher parasitaemia, possibly due to the presence of intact pfhrp3. These findings warrant further systematic study to establish prevalence and diagnostic significance.
Project description:BACKGROUND:In 2017, nearly 80% of malaria morbidity and mortality occurred in sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries and India. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), especially those targeting histidine-rich protein 2 (PfHRP2) of Plasmodium falciparum, have become an important diagnostic tool in these malaria-endemic areas. However, the chances of RDT-oriented successful treatment are increasingly jeopardized by the appearance of mutants with deletions in pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 genes. This systematic review and meta-analysis determines the prevalence of field P. falciparum isolates with deletion in pfhrp2 and/or pfhrp3 genes and their proportion among false-negative results in the PfHRP2-based RDTs in SSA and India. METHODS:Eight electronic databases were used for searching potentially relevant publications for the systematic review analysis, wherein the main methodological aspects of included studies were analysed and some missing links in the included studies were identified. RESULTS:A total of 19 studies were included, 16 from SSA and 3 from India. The pooled prevalence of pfhrp2 deletions was 8 and 5% while 16 and 4% for pfhrp3 gene deletions in Africa and India, respectively. The pooled proportion of pfhrp2 gene deletions found among false negative PfHRP2-based RDTs results was about 27.0 and 69.0% in Africa and India, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:This review study indicates a relatively high proportion of both pfhrp2/3 genes deletions in P. falciparum isolates and among false-negative malaria cases using PfHRP2-based RDT results in SSA and India. Recently the deletions in pfhrp2/3 genes have also been reported from two African countries (Nigeria and Sudan). This review emphasizes the importance of more extensive studies and standardization of studies addressing the pfhrp2/3 gene deletions in malarious areas.
Project description:BACKGROUND:With the documentation of cases of falciparum malaria negative by rapid diagnostic tests (RDT), though at low frequency from natural isolates in a small pocket of Odisha, it became absolutely necessary to investigate the status of HRP-2 based RDT throughout the state and in different seasons of the year. METHODS:Suspected individuals were screened for malaria infection by microscopy and RDT in 25/30 districts of Odisha, India. Discrepancies in results were confirmed by PCR. False negative RDT samples for Plasmodium falciparum mono-infection were evaluated for detection of HRP2 antigen in ELISA and genotyped for pfhrp2, pfhrp3 and their flanking genes. Multiplicity of infection was ascertained based on msp1 and msp2 genotyping and parasitaemia level was determined by microscopy. RESULTS:Of the total 1058 patients suspected for malaria, 384 were microscopically confirmed for P. falciparum mono-infection and RDT failure was observed in 58 samples at varying proportion in different regions of the state. The failure in detection was due to undetectable level of HRP-2. Although most of these samples were screened during rainy season (45/345), significantly high proportion (9/17) of RDT negative samples were obtained during the summer compared to rainy season (P?=?0.0002; OR?=?7.5). PCR genotyping of pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 in RDT negative samples showed 38/58 (65.5) samples to be pfhrp2 negative and 24/58 (41.4) to be pfhrp3 negative including dual negative in 17/58 (29.3). Most of the RDT negative samples (39/58) were with single genotype infection and high proportions of pfhrp2 deletion (7/9) was observed in summer. No difference in parasitaemia level was observed between RDT positive and RDT negative patients. CONCLUSION:High prevalence of parasites with pfhrp2 deletion including dual deletions (pfhrp2 and pfhrp3) is a serious cause of concern, as these patients could not be given a correct diagnosis and treatment. Therefore, HRP2-based RDT for diagnosing P. falciparum infection in Odisha is non-reliable and must be performed in addition to or replaced by other appropriate diagnostic tools for clinical management of the disease.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) have revolutionized the diagnosis of malaria. Among the various factors affecting RDTs sensitivity is genetic variation of the antigen used. The genetic variation in PfHRP2 and PfHRP3 proteins was studied among the Indian Plasmodium falciparum isolates. METHODS:One hundred and forty isolates of P. falciparum were collected from six geographical regions of India. Target genes encoding PfHRP2 and PfHRP3 antigens were sequenced to study genetic polymorphism. Minimum detection limit giving a positive rapid diagnostic test was also determined. RESULTS:Extensive variations were observed in amino acid repeat types of PfHRP2 and PfHRP3. PfHRP2 exhibited more polymorphism than PfHRP3. Significant relation was observed between type 2 and type 7 repeats and RDT detection rate as higher number of these repeats showed better sensitivity with RDTs. CONCLUSION:The results provide insights into the genetic diversity of Pfhrp2 and Pfhrp3 genes among Indian P. falciparum population and its relation to RDT sensitivity.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Many health facilities in malaria endemic countries are dependent on Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for diagnosis and some National Health Service (NHS) hospitals without expert microscopists rely on them for diagnosis out of hours. The emergence of P. falciparum lacking the gene encoding histidine-rich protein 2 and 3 (HRP2 and HRP3) and escaping RDT detection threatens progress in malaria control and elimination. Currently, confirmation of RDT negative due to the deletion of pfhrp2 and pfhrp3, which encodes a cross-reactive protein isoform, requires a series of PCR assays. These tests have different limits of detection and many laboratories have reported difficulty in confirming the absence of the deletions with certainty. METHODS:We developed and validated a novel and rapid multiplex real time quantitative (qPCR) assay to detect pfhrp2, pfhrp3, confirmatory parasite and human reference genes simultaneously. We also applied the assay to detect pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 deletion in 462 field samples from different endemic countries and UK travellers. RESULTS:The qPCR assay demonstrated diagnostic sensitivity of 100% (n = 19, 95% CI= (82.3%; 100%)) and diagnostic specificity of 100% (n = 31; 95% CI= (88.8%; 100%)) in detecting pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 deletions. In addition, the assay estimates P. falciparum parasite density and accurately detects pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 deletions masked in polyclonal infections. We report pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 deletions in parasite isolates from Kenya, Tanzania and in UK travellers. INTERPRETATION:The new qPCR is easily scalable to routine surveillance studies in countries where P. falciparum parasites lacking pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 are a threat to malaria control.
Project description:Commercial malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) detect P. falciparum histidine rich protein 2 (PfHRP2) and cross react with PfHRP3, a structural homologue. Here, we analysed natural variations in PfHRP2 and PfHRP3 sequences from Indian isolates and correlated these variations with RDT reactivity. A total 1392?P. falciparum positive samples collected from eight endemic states were PCR amplified for Pfhrp2 and Pfhrp3 genes and were sequenced. The deduced protein sequences were analysed for repeat variations and correlated with RDT reactivity. Out of 1392 PCR amplified samples, a single sample was Pfhrp2 negative and two samples were Pfhrp3 negative. Complete Pfhrp2 and Pfhrp3 sequences were obtained for 769 samples and 750 samples, respectively. A total of 16 distinct repeat motifs were observed for Pfhrp2 and 11 for Pfhrp3, including some new repeat types. No correlation was found between variations in the size of Pfhrp2 repeat types 2 and 7, nor between any combinations of repeat motifs, and performance of a commercial RDT at low parasite densities. The findings suggest that sequence diversity in Pfhrp2 and Pfhrp3 genes in Indian isolates is not likely to negatively influence performance of currently used PfHRP2 RDTs.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The Plasmodium falciparum parasite is the only human malaria that produces the histidine-rich protein 2 and 3 (HRP2/3) antigens. Currently, HRP2/3 are widely used in malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), but several global reports have recently emerged showing genetic deletion of one or both of these antigens in parasites. Deletion of these antigens could pose a major concern for P. falciparum diagnosis in Haiti which currently uses RDTs based solely on the detection of the HRP2/3 antigens. METHODS:From September 2012 through February 2014, dried blood spots (DBS) were collected in Haiti from 9317 febrile patients presenting to 17 health facilities in 5 departments throughout the country as part of a bed net intervention study. All DBS from RDT positive persons and a random sampling of DBS from RDT negative persons were assayed for P. falciparum DNA by nested and PET-PCR (n?=?2695 total). All PCR positive samples (n?=?331) and a subset of PCR negative samples (n?=?95) were assayed for three malaria antigens by a multiplex bead assay: pan-Plasmodium aldolase (pAldo), pan-Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH), and HRP2/3. Any samples positive for P. falciparum DNA, but negative for HRP2/3 antigens were tested by nested PCR for Pfhrp2 and Pfhrp3 gene deletions. RESULTS:Of 2695 DBS tested for Plasmodium DNA, 345 (12.8%) were originally found to be positive for P. falciparum DNA; 331 of these had DBS available for antigen detection. Of these, 266 (80.4%) were positive for pAldo, 221 (66.8%) positive for pLDH, and 324 (97.9%) were positive for HRP2/3 antigens. Seven samples (2.1%) positive for P. falciparum DNA were not positive for any of the three antigens by the bead assay, and were investigated for potential Pfhrp2/3 gene deletion by PCR. These samples either successfully amplified Pfhrp2/3 genes or were at an estimated parasite density too low for sufficient DNA to perform successful genotyping. CONCLUSIONS:Malaria positive samples in multiple Haitian sites were found to contain the HRP2/3 antigens, and no evidence was found of Pfhrp2/3 deletions. Malaria RDTs based on the detection of the HRP2/3 antigens remain a reliable P. falciparum diagnostic tool as Haiti works towards malaria elimination.
Project description:Deletions in Plasmodium falciparum histidine rich protein 2(pfhrp2) gene threaten the usefulness of the most widely used HRP2-based malaria rapid diagnostic tests (mRDTs) that cross react with its structural homologue, PfHRP3. Parasites with deleted pfhrp2/3 genes remain undetected and untreated due to 'false-negative' RDT results. As Ethiopia recently launched malaria elimination by 2030 in certain selected areas, the availability of RDTs and the scale of their use have rapidly increased in recent years. Thus, it is important to explore the presence and prevalence of deletion in the target genes, pfhrp2 and pfhrp3. From a total of 189 febrile patients visited Adama Malaria Diagnostic centre, sixty-four microscopically-and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-confirmed P. falciparum clinical isolates were used to determine the frequency of pfhrp2/3 gene deletions. Established PCR assays were applied to DNA extracted from blood spotted onto filter papers to amplify across pfhrp2/3 exons and flanking regions. However, analysis of deletions in pfhrp2, pfhrp3 and flanking genomic regions was successful for 50 of the samples. The pfhrp2 gene deletion was fixed in the population with all 50(100%) isolates presenting a deletion variant. This deletion extended downstream towards the Pf3D7 0831900 (MAL7PI.230) gene in 11/50 (22%) cases. In contrast, only 2/50 (4%) of samples had deletions for the Pf3D7 0831700 (MALPI.228) gene, upstream of pfhrp2. Similarly, the pfhrp3 gene was deleted in all isolates (100%), while 40% of the isolates had an extension of the deletion to the downstream flanking region that codes for Pf3D7 13272400 (MAL13PI.485).The pfhrp3 deletion also extended upstream to Pf3D7 081372100 (MAL13PI.475) region in 49/50 (95%) of the isolates, exhibiting complete absence of the locus. Although all samples showed deletions of pfhrp2 exon regions, amplification of an intron region was successful in five cases. Two different repeat motifs in the intron regions were observed in the samples tested. Pfhrp2/3 gene deletions are fixed in Ethiopia and this will likely reduce the effectiveness of PfHRP2-based mRDTs. It will be important to determine the sensitivity PfHRP 2/3-based RDTs in these populations and conduct a countrywide survey to determine the extent of these deletions and its effect on routine RDT-based malaria diagnosis.
Project description:Background:Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) account for more than two-thirds of malaria diagnoses in Africa. Deletions of the Plasmodium falciparum hrp2 (pfhrp2) gene cause false-negative RDT results and have never been investigated on a national level. Spread of pfhrp2-deleted P. falciparum mutants, resistant to detection by HRP2-based RDTs, would represent a serious threat to malaria elimination efforts. Methods:Using a nationally representative cross-sectional study of 7,137 children under five years of age from the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), we tested 783 subjects with RDT-/PCR+ results using PCR assays to detect and confirm deletions of the pfhrp2 gene. Spatial and population genetic analyses were employed to examine the distribution and evolution of these parasites. Results:We identified 149 pfhrp2-deleted parasites, representing 6.4% of all P. falciparum infections country-wide (95% confidence interval 5.1-8.0%). Bayesian spatial analyses identified statistically significant clustering of pfhrp2 deletions near Kinshasa and Kivu. Population genetic analysis revealed significant genetic differentiation between wild-type and pfhrp2-deleted parasite populations (GST = .046, p ? .00001). Conclusions:Pfhrp2-deleted P. falciparum is a common cause of RDT-/PCR+ malaria among asymptomatic children in the DRC and appears to be clustered within select communities. Surveillance for these deletions is needed, and alternatives to HRP2-specific RDTs may be necessary.