H3K27me3 Does Not Orchestrate the Expression of Lineage-Specific Markers in hESC-Derived Hepatocytes In Vitro.
ABSTRACT: Although pluripotent stem cells can be differentiated into the hepatocyte lineages, such cells retain an immature phenotype. As the chromatin state of regulatory regions controls spatiotemporal gene expression during development, we evaluated changes in epigenetic histone marks in lineage-specific genes throughout in vitro hepatocyte differentiation from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). Active acetylation and methylation marks at promoters and enhancers correlated with progressive changes in gene expression. However, repression-associated H3K27me3 marks at these control regions showed an inverse correlation with gene repression during transition from hepatic endoderm to a hepatocyte-like state. Inhibitor of Enhancer of Zeste Homolog 2 (EZH2) reduced H3K27me3 decoration but did not improve hepatocyte maturation. Thus, H3K27me3 at regulatory regions does not regulate transcription and appears dispensable for hepatocyte lineage differentiation of hESCs in vitro.
Project description:Polycomb (PcG) and Trithorax (TrxG) group proteins act antagonistically to establish tissue-specific patterns of gene expression. The PcG protein Ezh2 facilitates repression by catalysing histone H3-Lys27 trimethylation (H3K27me3). For expression, H3K27me3 marks are removed and replaced by TrxG protein catalysed histone H3-Lys4 trimethylation (H3K4me3). Although H3K27 demethylases have been identified, the mechanism by which these enzymes are targeted to specific genomic regions to remove H3K27me3 marks has not been established. Here, we demonstrate a two-step mechanism for UTX-mediated demethylation at muscle-specific genes during myogenesis. Although the transactivator Six4 initially recruits UTX to the regulatory region of muscle genes, the resulting loss of H3K27me3 marks is limited to the region upstream of the transcriptional start site. Removal of the repressive H3K27me3 mark within the coding region then requires RNA Polymerase II (Pol II) elongation. Interestingly, blocking Pol II elongation on transcribed genes leads to increased H3K27me3 within the coding region, and formation of bivalent (H3K27me3/H3K4me3) chromatin domains. Thus, removal of repressive H3K27me3 marks by UTX occurs through targeted recruitment followed by spreading across the gene.
Project description:The polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) methylates lysine 27 of histone H3 (H3K27) through its catalytic subunit Ezh2. PRC2-mediated di- and tri-methylation (H3K27me2/H3K27me3) have been interchangeably associated with gene repression. However, it remains unclear whether these two degrees of H3K27 methylation have different functions. In this study, we have generated isogenic mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) with a modified H3K27me2/H3K27me3 ratio. Our findings document dynamic developmental control in the genomic distribution of H3K27me2 and H3K27me3 at regulatory regions in ESCs. They also reveal that modifying the ratio of H3K27me2 and H3K27me3 is sufficient for the acquisition and repression of defined cell lineage transcriptional programs and phenotypes and influences induction of the ESC ground state.
Project description:DNA methylation and histone H3 lysine 9 dimethylation (H3K9me2) are important epigenetic repression marks for silencing transposons in heterochromatin and regulating gene expression in plant development. However, the mechanistic relationship to other repressive marks, such as histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3), is unclear. OsFIE1 (Fertilization Independent Endosperm 1) encodes an Esc-like core component of the Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2), which is involved in H3K27me3-mediated gene repression. Here, we identify a gain-of-function epi-allele (Epi-df) of rice OsFIE1; this allele exhibits a dwarf stature and various floral defects that are inherited in a dominant fashion. We found that Epi-df has no changes in its nucleotide sequence, but is hypo-methylated in the promoter and the 5' region of OsFIE1 and has reduced H3K9me2 and increased H3K4me3. In Epi-df, OsFIE1 was ectopically expressed and its imprinting status was disrupted. OsFIE1 interacted with rice E(z) homologs, consistent with its role in H3K27me3 repression. Ectopic expression of OsFIE1 in Epi-df resulted in alteration of H3K27me3 levels in hundreds of genes. Therefore, this work identifies a novel epi-allele involved in H3K27me3-mediated gene repression, that itself is highly regulated by histone H3K9me2, thereby shedding light on the link between two important epigenetic marks regulating rice development. We report the application of ChIP-Seq technology for high-throughput profiling of histone modifications in WT (wild type) and Epi-df (mutant). We demonstrate that the H3K27me3 status is perturbed at target genes and leads to mis-regulated expression in Epi-df.
Project description:Polycomb Group (PcG) proteins mediate chromatin repression in plants and animals by catalyzing H3K27 methylation and H2AK118/119 mono-ubiquitination through the activity of the Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) and PRC1, respectively. PcG proteins were extensively studied in higher plants, but their function and target genes in unicellular branches of the green lineage remain largely unknown. To shed light on PcG function and modus operandi in a broad evolutionary context, we demonstrate phylogenetic relationship of core PRC1 and PRC2 proteins and H3K27me3 biochemical presence in several unicellular algae of different phylogenetic subclades. We focus then on one of the species, the model red alga Cyanidioschizon merolae, and show that H3K27me3 occupies both, genes and repetitive elements, and mediates the strength of repression depending on the differential occupancy over gene bodies. Furthermore, we report that H3K27me3 in C. merolae is enriched in telomeric and subtelomeric regions of the chromosomes and has unique preferential binding toward intein-containing genes involved in protein splicing. Thus, our study gives important insight for Polycomb-mediated repression in lower eukaryotes, uncovering a previously unknown link between H3K27me3 targets and protein splicing.
Project description:Dynamic changes in DNA methylation and demethylation reprogram transcriptional outputs to instruct lineage specification during development. Here, we applied an integrative epigenomic approach to unveil DNA (hydroxy)methylation dynamics representing major endodermal lineage intermediates during pancreatic differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). We found that 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) marks genomic regions to be demethylated in the descendent lineage, thus reshaping the DNA methylation landscapes during pancreatic lineage progression. DNA hydroxymethylation is positively correlated with enhancer activities and chromatin accessibility, as well as the selective binding of lineage-specific pioneer transcription factors, during pancreatic differentiation. We further discovered enrichment of hydroxymethylated regions (termed '5hmC-rim') at the boundaries of large hypomethylated functional genomic regions, including super-enhancer, DNA methylation canyon and broad-H3K4me3 peaks. We speculate that '5hmC-rim' might safeguard low levels of cytosine methylation at these regions. Our comprehensive analysis highlights the importance of dynamic changes of epigenetic landscapes in driving pancreatic differentiation of hESC.
Project description:Genome packaging by nucleosomes is a hallmark of eukaryotes. Histones and the pathways that deposit, remove, and read histone modifications are deeply conserved. Yet, we lack information regarding chromatin landscapes in extant representatives of ancestors of the main groups of eukaryotes, and our knowledge of the evolution of chromatin-related processes is limited. We used the bryophyte Marchantia polymorpha, which diverged from vascular plants circa 400 mya, to obtain a whole chromosome genome assembly and explore the chromatin landscape and three-dimensional genome organization in an early diverging land plant lineage. Based on genomic profiles of ten chromatin marks, we conclude that the relationship between active marks and gene expression is conserved across land plants. In contrast, we observed distinctive features of transposons and other repetitive sequences in Marchantia compared with flowering plants. Silenced transposons and repeats did not accumulate around centromeres. Although a large fraction of constitutive heterochromatin was marked by H3K9 methylation as in flowering plants, a significant proportion of transposons were marked by H3K27me3, which is otherwise dedicated to the transcriptional repression of protein-coding genes in flowering plants. Chromatin compartmentalization analyses of Hi-C data revealed that repressed B compartments were densely decorated with H3K27me3 but not H3K9 or DNA methylation as reported in flowering plants. We conclude that, in early plants, H3K27me3 played an essential role in heterochromatin function, suggesting an ancestral role of this mark in transposon silencing.
Project description:The ability of a cell to dynamically switch its chromatin between different functional states constitutes a key mechanism regulating gene expression. Histone mark "readers" display distinct binding specificity to different histone modifications and play critical roles in regulating chromatin states. Here, we show a plant-specific histone reader SHORT LIFE (SHL) capable of recognizing both H3K27me3 and H3K4me3 via its bromo-adjacent homology (BAH) and plant homeodomain (PHD) domains, respectively. Detailed biochemical and structural studies suggest a binding mechanism that is mutually exclusive for either H3K4me3 or H3K27me3. Furthermore, we show a genome-wide co-localization of SHL with H3K27me3 and H3K4me3, and that BAH-H3K27me3 and PHD-H3K4me3 interactions are important for SHL-mediated floral repression. Together, our study establishes BAH-PHD cassette as a dual histone methyl-lysine binding module that is distinct from others in recognizing both active and repressive histone marks.
Project description:Through the histone methyltransferase EZH2, the Polycomb complex PRC2 mediates H3K27me3 and is associated with transcriptional repression. PRC2 regulates cell-fate decisions in model organisms; however, its role in regulating cell differentiation during human embryogenesis is unknown. Here, we report the characterization of EZH2-deficient human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). H3K27me3 was lost upon EZH2 deletion, identifying an essential requirement for EZH2 in methylating H3K27 in hESCs, in contrast to its non-essential role in mouse ESCs. Developmental regulators were derepressed in EZH2-deficient hESCs, and single-cell analysis revealed an unexpected acquisition of lineage-restricted transcriptional programs. EZH2-deficient hESCs show strongly reduced self-renewal and proliferation, thereby identifying a more severe phenotype compared to mouse ESCs. EZH2-deficient hESCs can initiate differentiation toward developmental lineages; however, they cannot fully differentiate into mature specialized tissues. Thus, EZH2 is required for stable ESC self-renewal, regulation of transcriptional programs, and for late-stage differentiation in this model of early human development.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Gene expression of lymphocytes was found to be influenced by histone methylation in mammals and trimethylation of lysine 27 on histone H3 (H3K27me3) normally represses genes expressions. Peripheral blood lymphocytes are the main source of somatic cells in the milk of dairy cows that vary frequently in response to the infection or injury of mammary gland and number of parities.<h4>Methods</h4>The genome-wide status of H3K27me3 modifications on blood lymphocytes in lactating Holsteins was performed via ChIP-Seq approach. Combined with digital gene expression (DGE) technique, the regulation effects of H3K27me3 on genes expressions were analyzed.<h4>Results</h4>The ChIP-seq results showed that the peaks of H3K27me3 in cows lymphocytes were mainly enriched in the regions of up20K (~50%), down20K (~30%) and intron (~28%) of the genes. Only ~3% peaks were enriched in exon regions. Moreover, the highest H3K27me3 modification levels were mainly around the 2 Kb upstream of transcriptional start sites (TSS) of the genes. Using conjoint analysis with DGE data, we found that H3K27me3 marks tended to repress target genes expressions throughout whole gene regions especially acting on the promoter region. A total of 53 differential expressed genes were detected in third parity cows compared to first parity, and the 25 down-regulated genes (PSEN2 etc.) were negatively correlated with H3K27me3 levels on up2Kb to up1Kb of the genes, while the up-regulated genes were not showed in this relationship.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The first blueprint of bovine H3K27me3 marks that mediates gene silencing was generated. H3K27me3 plays its repressed role mainly in the regulatory region in bovine lymphocytes. The up2Kb to up1Kb region of the down-regulated genes in third parity cows could be potential target of H3K27me3 regulation. Further studies are warranted to understand the regulation mechanisms of H3K27me3 on somatic cell count increases and milk losses in latter parities of cows.
Project description:Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) share an identical genome with lineage-committed cells, yet possess the remarkable properties of self-renewal and pluripotency. The diverse cellular properties in different cells have been attributed to their distinct epigenomes, but how much epigenomes differ remains unclear. Here, we report that epigenomic landscapes in hESCs and lineage-committed cells are drastically different. By comparing the chromatin-modification profiles and DNA methylomes in hESCs and primary fibroblasts, we find that nearly one-third of the genome differs in chromatin structure. Most changes arise from dramatic redistributions of repressive H3K9me3 and H3K27me3 marks, which form blocks that significantly expand in fibroblasts. A large number of potential regulatory sequences also exhibit a high degree of dynamics in chromatin modifications and DNA methylation. Additionally, we observe novel, context-dependent relationships between DNA methylation and chromatin modifications. Our results provide new insights into epigenetic mechanisms underlying properties of pluripotency and cell fate commitment.