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Impact of organised mammography screening on breast cancer mortality in a case-control and cohort study.


ABSTRACT:

Background

The usefulness of case-control studies has been questioned. Our aim was to evaluate the long-term effect of screening on breast cancer mortality within the population-based mammography programme in Finland using a case-control design, and to compare the analyses with the earlier cohort study.

Methods

The cases were women invited to screening, diagnosed and died from breast cancer in 1992-2011 while being 50-84 years at death. We chose 10 controls for each case with non-restrictive eligibility criteria. Our data included 1907 cases and 18 978 matched controls. We analysed associations between the screening participation and the risk of breast cancer death using the conditional Cox proportional hazards model. The effect estimates were corrected for self-selection bias.

Results

An overall effect of screening was 0.67 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.49-0.90), and that remained unchanged over time. Analyses with matching criteria comparable to the cohort study yielded an effect (0.70, 95% CI: 0.49-1.00) in 1992-2003 similar to that of the previous cohort analysis (0.72, 95% CI: 0.56-0.88).

Conclusions

Organised mammography screening decreases mortality from breast cancer by 33% among the participants. If made comparable, a case-cohort study can yield effect estimates similar to a cohort study.

PROVIDER: S-EPMC4984912 | BioStudies |

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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