Water entry of a body which moves in more than six degrees of freedom.
ABSTRACT: The water entry of a three-dimensional smooth body into initially calm water is examined. The body can move freely in its 6 d.f. and may also change its shape over time. During the early stage of penetration, the shape of the body is approximated by a surface of double curvature and the radii of curvature may vary over time. Hydrodynamic loads are calculated by the Wagner theory. It is shown that the water entry problem with arbitrary kinematics of the body motion, can be reduced to the vertical entry problem with a modified vertical displacement of the body and an elliptic region of contact between the liquid and the body surface. Low pressure occurrence is determined; this occurrence can precede the appearance of cavitation effects. Hydrodynamic forces are analysed for a rigid ellipsoid entering the water with 3 d.f. Experimental results with an oblique impact of elliptic paraboloid confirm the theoretical findings. The theoretical developments are detailed in this paper, while an application of the model is described in electronic supplementary materials.
Project description:In this article, we demonstrate single-layered, "microfluidic drifting" based three-dimensional (3D) hydrodynamic focusing devices with particle/cell focal positioning approaching submicron precision along both lateral and vertical directions. By systematically optimizing channel geometries and sample/sheath flow rates, a series of "microfluidic drifting" based 3D hydrodynamic focusing devices with different curvature angles are designed and fabricated. Their performances are then evaluated using confocal microscopy, fast camera imaging, and side-view imaging techniques. Using a device with a curvature angle of 180°, we have achieved a standard deviation of ±0.45 ?m in particle focal position and a coefficient of variation (CV) of 2.37% in flow cytometric measurements. To the best of our knowledge, this is the best CV that has been achieved using a microfluidic flow cytometry device. Moreover, the device showed the capability to distinguish 8 peaks when subjected to a stringent 8-peak rainbow calibration test, signifying the ability to perform sensitive, accurate tests similar to commercial flow cytometers. We have further tested and validated our device by detection of HEK-293 cells. With its advantages in simple fabrication (i.e., single-layered device), precise 3D hydrodynamic focusing (i.e., submicrometer precision along both lateral and vertical directions), and high detection resolution (i.e., low CV), our method could serve as an important basis for high-performance, mass-producible microfluidic flow cytometry.
Project description:Spinal anomalies are a recognised source of downgrading in finfish aquaculture, but identifying their cause(s) is difficult and often requires extensive knowledge of the underlying pathology. Late-onset spinal curvatures (lordosis, kyphosis, scoliosis) can affect up to 40% of farmed New Zealand Chinook (king) salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) at harvest, but little is known about their pathogenesis. Curvature development was radiographically documented in two related cohorts of commercially-farmed Chinook salmon throughout seawater production to determine (1) the timing of radiographic onset and relationships between (2) the curvature types, (3) the spinal regions in which they develop and (4) their associations with co-existing vertebral body anomalies (vertebral compression, fusion and vertical shift). Onset of curvature varied between individuals, but initially occurred eight months post-seawater transfer. There were strong associations between the three curvature types and the four recognised spinal regions: lordosis was predominantly observed in regions (R)1 and R3, kyphosis in R2 and R4, manifesting as a distinct pattern of alternating lordosis and kyphosis from head to tail. This was subsequently accompanied by scoliosis, which primarily manifested in spinal regions R2 and R3, where most of the anaerobic musculature is concentrated. Co-existing vertebral body anomalies, of which vertebral compression and vertical shift were most common, appeared to arise either independent of curvature development or as secondary effects. Our results suggest that spinal curvature in farmed New Zealand Chinook salmon constitutes a late-onset, rapidly-developing lordosis-kyphosis-scoliosis (LKS) curvature complex with a possible neuromuscular origin.
Project description:We describe four complete specimens of the early squid-like cephalopod Clarkeiteuthis conocauda from the Toarcian Posidonienschiefer (Jurassic) each preserved with the bony fish Leptolepis bronni in its arms. Based on the arrangement of prey and predator, we suggest that the cephalopods caught and killed the fishes while still in well-oxygenated waters and then descended into oxygen-depleted water layers (distraction sinking) where the cephalopod suffocated. This explains the exceptional preservation, for which the Posidonienschiefer is famed. This association raises the question for the hunting behaviour of belemnoid Coleoidea. Using the proportions of soft and skeletal body parts of diplobelids and belemnitids, we estimated their body mass and buoyancy and determined the centres of mass and buoyancy. These two points were very close to each other in belemnitids, implying a low hydrodynamic stability (when ignoring the fins), while in diplobelids, the distance between those centres was greater. This suggests that diplobelids usually assumed an oblique to vertical orientation of the body axis while belemnitids could effortlessly achieve a horizontal orientation of their body. Presuming larger fins were attached to the bigger belemnitid rostra, belemnitids were better swimmers and perhaps pursuit predators while diplobelids rather ambushed their prey.
Project description:Bacteria such as Escherichia coli swim along circular trajectories adjacent to surfaces. Thereby, the orientation (clockwise, counterclockwise) and the curvature depend on the surface properties. We employ mesoscale hydrodynamic simulations of a mechano-elastic model of E. coli, with a spherocylindrical body propelled by a bundle of rotating helical flagella, to study quantitatively the curvature of the appearing circular trajectories. We demonstrate that the cell is sensitive to nanoscale changes in the surface slip length. The results are employed to propose a novel approach to directing bacterial motion on striped surfaces with different slip lengths, which implies a transformation of the circular motion into a snaking motion along the stripe boundaries. The feasibility of this approach is demonstrated by a simulation of active Brownian rods, which also reveals a dependence of directional motion on the stripe width.
Project description:Hydrodynamic stability is the ability to resist recoil motions of the body produced by destabilizing forces. Previous studies have suggested that recoil motions can decrease locomotor performance, efficiency and sensory perception and that swimming animals might utilize kinematic strategies or possess morphological adaptations that reduce recoil motions and produce more stable trajectories. We used high-speed video to assess hydrodynamic stability during rectilinear swimming in the freshwater painted turtle (Chrysemys picta). Parameters of vertical stability (heave and pitch) were non-cyclic and variable, whereas measures of lateral stability (sideslip and yaw) showed repeatable cyclic patterns. In addition, because freshwater and marine turtles use different swimming styles, we tested the effects of propulsive mode on hydrodynamic stability during rectilinear swimming, by comparing our data from painted turtles with previously collected data from two species of marine turtle (Caretta caretta and Chelonia mydas). Painted turtles had higher levels of stability than both species of marine turtle for six of the eight parameters tested, highlighting potential disadvantages associated with 'aquatic flight'. Finally, available data on hydrodynamic stability of other rigid-bodied vertebrates indicate that turtles are less stable than boxfish and pufferfish.
Project description:Disease, pest control, and environmental factors such as water quality and carrying capacity limit growth of salmon production in existing farm areas. One way to circumvent such problems is to move production into more exposed locations with greater water exchange. Farming in exposed locations is better for the environment, but may carry unforeseen costs for the fish in those farms. Currents may be too strong, and waves may be too large with a negative impact on growth and profit for farmers and on fish welfare. This study employed two major fish monitoring methods to determine the ability of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) to cope with wavy conditions in exposed farms. Echosounders were used to determine vertical distribution and horizontal preference of fish during different wave and current conditions as well as times of day. Video cameras were used to monitor shoal cohesion, swimming effort, and fish prevalence in locations of interest. The results indicate complex interacting effects of wave parameters, currents, and time of day on fish behaviour and vertical distribution. During the day, hydrodynamic conditions had stronger effects on vertical distribution than during the night. In weak currents, fish generally moved further down in taller waves, but stronger currents generally caused fish to move upwards regardless of wave conditions. Long period waves had unpredictable effects on vertical distribution with fish sometimes seeking deeper water and other times moving up to shallower water. It is unclear how much the cage bottom restricted vertical distribution and whether movement upwards in the water columns was related to cage deformation. In extreme cases, waves can reach below the bottom of a salmon cage, preventing fish from moving below the waves and cage deformation could exacerbate this situation. Farmers ought to take into consideration the many interacting effects on salmon behaviour within a cage as well as the potential for cage deformation when they design their farms for highly exposed locations. This will ensure that salmon are able to cope when storms and strong currents hit at the same time.
Project description:Phylogenetic tree reconstruction is usually done by local search heuristics that explore the space of the possible tree topologies via simple rearrangements of their structure. Tree rearrangement heuristics have been used in combination with practically all optimization criteria in use, from maximum likelihood and parsimony to distance-based principles, and in a Bayesian context. Their basic components are rearrangement moves that specify all possible ways of generating alternative phylogenies from a given one, and whose fundamental property is to be able to transform, by repeated application, any phylogeny into any other phylogeny. Despite their long tradition in tree-based phylogenetics, very little research has gone into studying similar rearrangement operations for phylogenetic network-that is, phylogenies explicitly representing scenarios that include reticulate events such as hybridization, horizontal gene transfer, population admixture, and recombination. To fill this gap, we propose "horizontal" moves that ensure that every network of a certain complexity can be reached from any other network of the same complexity, and "vertical" moves that ensure reachability between networks of different complexities. When applied to phylogenetic trees, our horizontal moves-named rNNI and rSPR-reduce to the best-known moves on rooted phylogenetic trees, nearest-neighbor interchange and rooted subtree pruning and regrafting. Besides a number of reachability results-separating the contributions of horizontal and vertical moves-we prove that rNNI moves are local versions of rSPR moves, and provide bounds on the sizes of the rNNI neighborhoods. The paper focuses on the most biologically meaningful versions of phylogenetic networks, where edges are oriented and reticulation events clearly identified. Moreover, our rearrangement moves are robust to the fact that networks with higher complexity usually allow a better fit with the data. Our goal is to provide a solid basis for practical phylogenetic network reconstruction.
Project description:BACKGROUND: On Earth only a few legged species, such as water strider insects, some aquatic birds and lizards, can run on water. For most other species, including humans, this is precluded by body size and proportions, lack of appropriate appendages, and limited muscle power. However, if gravity is reduced to less than Earth's gravity, running on water should require less muscle power. Here we use a hydrodynamic model to predict the gravity levels at which humans should be able to run on water. We test these predictions in the laboratory using a reduced gravity simulator. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We adapted a model equation, previously used by Glasheen and McMahon to explain the dynamics of Basilisk lizard, to predict the body mass, stride frequency and gravity necessary for a person to run on water. Progressive body-weight unloading of a person running in place on a wading pool confirmed the theoretical predictions that a person could run on water, at lunar (or lower) gravity levels using relatively small rigid fins. Three-dimensional motion capture of reflective markers on major joint centers showed that humans, similarly to the Basilisk Lizard and to the Western Grebe, keep the head-trunk segment at a nearly constant height, despite the high stride frequency and the intensive locomotor effort. Trunk stabilization at a nearly constant height differentiates running on water from other, more usual human gaits. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results showed that a hydrodynamic model of lizards running on water can also be applied to humans, despite the enormous difference in body size and morphology.
Project description:Knowledge of the ecology of N2-fixing (diazotrophic) plankton is mainly limited to oligotrophic (sub)tropical oceans. However, diazotrophs are widely distributed and active throughout the global ocean. Likewise, relatively little is known about the temporal dynamics of diazotrophs in productive areas. Between February 2014 and December 2015, we carried out 9 one-day samplings in the temperate northwestern Iberian upwelling system to investigate the temporal and vertical variability of the diazotrophic community and its relationship with hydrodynamic forcing. In downwelling conditions, characterized by deeper mixed layers and a homogeneous water column, non-cyanobacterial diazotrophs belonging mainly to nifH clusters 1G (Gammaproteobacteria) and 3 (putative anaerobes) dominated the diazotrophic community. In upwelling and relaxation conditions, affected by enhanced vertical stratification and hydrographic variability, the community was more heterogeneous vertically but less diverse, with prevalence of UCYN-A (unicellular cyanobacteria, subcluster 1B) and non-cyanobacterial diazotrophs from clusters 1G and 3. Oligotyping analysis of UCYN-A phylotype showed that UCYN-A2 sublineage was the most abundant (74%), followed by UCYN-A1 (23%) and UCYN-A4 (2%). UCYN-A1 oligotypes exhibited relatively low frequencies during the three hydrographic conditions, whereas UCYN-A2 showed higher abundances during upwelling and relaxation. Our findings show the presence of a diverse and temporally variable diazotrophic community driven by hydrodynamic forcing in an upwelling system.
Project description:The ability of marine invertebrate larvae to control their vertical position shapes their dispersal pattern. In species characterized by large variations in population density, like many echinoderm species, larval dispersal may contribute to outbreak and die-off phenomena. A proliferation of the ophiuroid Ophiocomina nigra was observed for several years in western Brittany (France), inducing drastic changes on the benthic communities. We here studied the larval vertical distribution in this species and two co-occurring ophiuroid species, Ophiothrix fragilis and Amphiura filiformis, in two contrasting hydrodynamic environments: stratified in the bay of Douarnenez and well-mixed in the bay of Brest. Larvae were collected at 3 depths during 25 h within each bay. In the bay of Brest, all larvae were evenly distributed in the water column due to the intense vertical mixing. Conversely, in the bay of Douarnenez, a diel vertical migration was observed for O. nigra, with a night ascent of young larvae, and ontogenetic differences. These different patterns in the two bays mediate the effects of tidal currents on larval fluxes. O. fragilis larvae were mainly distributed above the thermocline which may favour larval retention within the bay, while A. filiformis larvae, mostly concentrated near the bottom, were preferentially exported. This study highlighted the complex interactions between coastal hydrodynamics and specific larval traits, e.g. larval morphology, in the control of larval vertical distribution and larval dispersal.