Integrin ?5?1 and p53 convergent pathways in the control of anti-apoptotic proteins PEA-15 and survivin in high-grade glioma.
ABSTRACT: Integrin ?5?1 expression is correlated with a worse prognosis in high-grade glioma. We previously unraveled a negative crosstalk between integrin ?5?1 and p53 pathway, which was proposed to be part of the resistance of glioblastoma to chemotherapies. The restoration of p53 tumor-suppressor function is under intensive investigations for cancer therapy. However, p53-dependent apoptosis is not always achieved by p53-reactivating compounds such as Nutlin-3a, although full transcriptional activity of p53 could be obtained. Here we investigated whether integrin ?5?1 functional inhibition or repression could sensitize glioma cells to Nutlin-3a-induced p53-dependent apoptosis. We discovered that ?5?1 integrin-specific blocking antibodies or small RGD-like antagonists in association with Nutlin-3a triggered a caspase (Casp) 8/Casp 3-dependent strong apoptosis in glioma cells expressing a functional p53. We deciphered the molecular mechanisms involved and we showed the crucial role of two anti-apoptotic proteins, phosphoprotein enriched in astrocytes 15 (PEA-15) and survivin in glioma cell apoptotic outcome. PEA-15 is under ?5?1 integrin/AKT (protein kinase B) control and survivin is a p53-repressed target. Moreover, interconnections between integrin and p53 pathways were revealed. Indeed PEA-15 repression by specific small-interfering RNA (siRNA)-activated p53 pathway to repress survivin and conversely survivin repression by specific siRNA decreased ?5?1 integrin expression. This pro-apoptotic loop could be generalized to several glioma cell lines, whatever their p53 status, inasmuch PEA-15 and survivin protein levels were decreased. Our findings identify a novel mechanism whereby inhibition of ?5?1 integrin and activation of p53 modulates two anti-apoptotic proteins crucially involved in the apoptotic answer of glioma cells. Importantly, our results suggest that high-grade glioma expressing high level of ?5?1 integrin may benefit from associated therapies including integrin antagonists and repressors of survivin expression.
Project description:Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and aggressive primary brain tumor in adults. Despite concerted efforts to improve current therapies and develop novel clinical approaches, patient survival remains poor. As such, increasing attention has focused on developing new therapeutic strategies that specifically target the apoptotic pathway in order to improve treatment responses. Recently, nutlins, small-molecule antagonists of MDM2, have been developed to inhibit p53-MDM2 interaction and activate p53 signaling in cancer cells. Glioma cell lines and primary cultured glioblastoma cells were treated with nutlin-3a. Nutlin-3a induced p53-dependent G1- and G2-M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in glioma cell lines with normal TP53 status. In addition, nutlin-arrested glioma cells show morphological features of senescence and persistent induction of p21 protein. Furthermore, senescence induced by nutlin-3a might be depending on mTOR pathway activity. In wild-type TP53 primary cultured cells, exposure to nutlin-3a resulted in variable degrees of apoptosis as well as cellular features of senescence. Nutlin-3a-induced apoptosis and senescence were firmly dependent on the presence of functional p53, as revealed by the fact that glioblastoma cells with knockdown p53 with specific siRNA, or cells with mutated or functionally impaired p53 pathway, were completely insensitive to the drug. Finally, we also found that nutlin-3a increased response of glioma cells to radiation therapy. The results provide a basis for the rational use of MDM2 antagonists as a novel treatment option for glioblastoma patients.
Project description:MDM2 (mouse double minute 2) inhibitors that activate p53 and induce apoptosis in a non-genotoxic manner are in clinical development for treatment of leukemias. P53 can modulate other programmed cell death pathways including autophagy both transcriptionally and non-transcriptionally. We investigated autophagy induction in acute leukemia by Nutlin 3a, a first-in-class MDM2 inhibitor. Nutlin 3a induced autophagy in a p53 dependent manner and transcriptional activation of AMP kinase (AMPK) is critical, as this effect is abrogated in AMPK -/- mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Nutlin 3a induced autophagy appears to be pro-apoptotic as pharmacological (bafilomycin) or genetic inhibition (BECLIN1 knockdown) of autophagy impairs apoptosis induced by Nutlin 3a.
Project description:Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma (MPM) is a chemoresistant tumor characterized by low rate of p53 mutation and upregulation of Murine Double Minute 2 (MDM2), suggesting that it may be effectively targeted using MDM2 inhibitors. In the present study, we investigated the anticancer activity of the MDM2 inhibitors Nutlin 3a (in vitro) and RG7112 (in vivo), as single agents or in combination with rhTRAIL.In vitro studies were performed using MPM cell lines derived from epithelioid (ZL55, M14K), biphasic (MSTO211H) and sarcomatoid (ZL34) MPMs. In vivo studies were conducted on a sarcomatoid MPM mouse model.In all the cell lines tested (with the exception of ZL55, which carries a biallelic loss-of-function mutation of p53), Nutlin 3a enhanced p21, MDM2 and DR5 expression, and decreased survivin expression. These changes were associated to cell cycle arrest but not to a significant induction of apoptosis. A synergistic pro-apoptotic effect was obtained through the association of rhTRAIL in all the cell lines harboring functional p53. This synergistic interaction of MDM2 inhibitor and TRAIL agonist was confirmed using a mouse preclinical model. Our results suggest that the combined targeting of MDM2 and TRAIL might provide a novel therapeutic option for treatment of MPM patients, particularly in the case of sarcomatoid MPM with MDM2 overexpression and functional inactivation of wild-type p53.
Project description:Multiple myeloma (MM) is an incurable plasma cell malignancy in which p53 is rarely mutated. Thus, activation of the p53 pathway by a small molecule inhibitor of the p53-MDM2 interaction, nutlin, in MM cells retaining wild type p53 is an attractive therapeutic strategy. Recently we reported that nutlin plus velcade (a proteasome inhibitor) displayed a synergistic response in MM. However, the mechanism of the p53-mediated apoptosis in MM has not been fully understood. Our data show that nutlin-induced apoptosis correlated with reduction in cell viability, upregulation of p53, p21 and MDM2 protein levels with a simultaneous increase in pro-apoptotic targets PUMA, Bax and Bak and downregulation of anti-apoptotic targets Bcl2 and survivin and activation of caspase in MM cells harboring wild type p53. Nutlin-induced apoptosis was inhibited when activation of caspase was blocked by the caspase inhibitor. Nutlin caused mitochondrial translocation of p53 where it binds with Bcl2, leading to cytochrome C release. Moreover, blocking the transcriptional arm of p53 by the p53-specific transcriptional inhibitor, pifithrin-?, not only inhibited nutlin-induced upregulation of p53-transcriptional targets but also augmented apoptosis in MM cells, suggesting an association of transcription-independent pathway of apoptosis. However, inhibitor of mitochondrial translocation of p53, PFT-?, did not prevent nutlin-induced apoptosis, suggesting that the p53 transcription-dependent pathway was also operational in nutlin-induced apoptosis in MM. Our study provides the evidence that nutlin-induced apoptosis in MM cells is mediated by transcription-dependent and -independent pathways and supports further clinical evaluation of nutlin as a novel therapeutic agent in MM.
Project description:Nutlin-3a is a preclinical drug that stabilizes p53 by blocking the interaction between p53 and MDM2. In our previous study, Nutlin-3a promoted a tetraploid G(1) arrest in two p53 wild-type cell lines (HCT116 and U2OS), and both cell lines underwent endoreduplication after Nutlin-3a removal. Endoreduplication gave rise to stable tetraploid clones resistant to therapy-induced apoptosis. Prior knowledge of whether cells are susceptible to Nutlin-induced endoreduplication and therapy resistance could help direct Nutlin-3a-based therapies. In the present study, Nutlin-3a promoted a tetraploid G(1) arrest in multiple p53 wild-type cell lines. However, some cell lines underwent endoreduplication to relatively high extents after Nutlin-3a removal whereas other cell lines did not. The resistance to endoreduplication observed in some cell lines was associated with a prolonged 4N arrest after Nutlin-3a removal. Knockdown of either p53 or p21 immediately after Nutlin-3a removal could drive endoreduplication in otherwise resistant 4N cells. Finally, 4N-arrested cells retained persistent p21 expression; expressed senescence-associated beta-galactosidase; displayed an enlarged, flattened phenotype; and underwent a proliferation block that lasted at least 2 weeks after Nutlin-3a removal. These findings demonstrate that transient Nutlin-3a treatment can promote an apparently permanent proliferative block in 4N cells of certain cell lines associated with persistent p21 expression and resistance to endoreduplication.
Project description:p53 Activity is controlled in large part by MDM2, an E3 ubiquitin ligase that binds p53 and promotes its degradation. The MDM2 antagonist Nutlin-3a stabilizes p53 by blocking its interaction with MDM2. Several studies have supported the potential use of Nutlin-3a in cancer therapy. Two different p53 wild-type cancer cell lines (U2OS and HCT116) treated with Nutlin-3a for 24 hours accumulated 2N and 4N DNA content, suggestive of G(1) and G(2) phase cell cycle arrest. This coincided with increased p53 and p21 expression, hypophosphorylation of pRb, and depletion of Cyclin B1, Cyclin A, and CDC2. Upon removal of Nutlin-3a, 4N cells entered S phase and re-replicated their DNA without an intervening mitotic division, a process known as endoreduplication. p53-p21 pathway activation was required for the depletion of Cyclin B1, Cyclin A, and CDC2 in Nutlin-3a-treated cells and for endoreduplication after Nutlin-3a removal. Stable tetraploid clones could be isolated from Nutlin-3a treated cells, and these tetraploid clones were more resistant to ionizing radiation and cisplatin-induced apoptosis than diploid counterparts. These data indicate that transient Nutlin-3a treatment of p53 wild-type cancer cells can promote endoreduplication and the generation of therapy-resistant tetraploid cells. These findings have important implications regarding the use of Nutlin-3a in cancer therapy
Project description:Activated p53 can promote apoptosis or cell cycle arrest. Differences in energy metabolism can influence cell fate in response to activated p53. Nutlin-3a is a preclinical drug and small molecule activator of p53. Alpha-ketoglutarate (αKG) levels were reduced in cells sensitive to Nutlin-3a-induced apoptosis and increased in cells resistant to this apoptosis. Add-back of a cell-permeable αKG analog (DMKG) rescued cells from apoptosis in response to Nutlin-3a. OGDH is a component of the αKGDH complex that converts αKG to succinate. OGDH knockdown increased endogenous αKG levels and also rescued cells from Nutlin-3a-induced apoptosis. We previously showed reduced autophagy and ATG gene expression contributes to Nutlin-3a-induced apoptosis. DMKG and OGDH knockdown restored autophagy and ATG gene expression in Nutlin-3a-treated cells. These studies indicate αKG levels, regulated by p53 and OGDH, determine autophagy and apoptosis in response to Nutlin-3a.
Project description:Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) plays important roles in single strand DNA repair. PARP1 inhibitors enhance the effects of DNA damaging drugs in homologous recombination-deficient tumors including tumors with breast cancer susceptibility gene (BRCA1) mutation. Nutlin-3a, an analog of cis-imidazoline, inhibits degradation of murine double minute 2 (MDM2) and stabilizes p53. We previously reported that nutlin-3a induces PARP1 degradation in p53-dependent manner in mouse fibroblasts, suggesting nutlin-3a may be a PARP1 suppressor. Here, we investigated the effects of nutlin-3a on PARP1 in MCF-7, a human breast cancer cell line. Consistent with our previous results, nutlin-3a reduced PARP1 levels in dose- and time-dependent manners in MCF-7 cells, but this reduction was suppressed in p53 knockdown cells. RITA, a p53 stabilizer that binds to p53 itself, failed to reduce PARP1 protein levels. Moreover, transient MDM2 knockdown repressed nutlin-3a-mediated PARP1 reduction. The MG132 proteasome inhibitor, and knockdown of checkpoint with forkhead and ring finger domains (CHFR) and ring finger protein 146 (RNF146), E3 ubiquitin ligases targeting PARP1, suppressed nutlin-3a-induced PARP1 reduction. Short-term nutlin-3a treatment elevated the levels of PARylated PARP1, suggesting nutlin-3a promoted PARylation of PARP1, thereby inducing its proteasomal degradation. Furthermore, nutlin-3a-induced PARP1 degradation enhanced DNA-damaging effects of cisplatin in BRCA1 knockdown cells. Our study revealed that nutlin-3a is a PARP1 suppressor that induces PARP1 proteasomal degradation by binding to MDM2 and promoting autoPARylation of PARP1. Further analysis of the mechanisms in nutlin-3a-induced PARP1 degradation may lead to the development of novel PARP1 suppressors applicable for cancers with BRCA1 mutation.
Project description:A better understanding of how p53 differentially activates cell cycle arrest or cell death is important to maximize benefits of therapeutic strategies dependant by wild-type p53. Here, we report that activation of pro-apoptotic p53 transcriptional targets in colorectal cancer cells imposes a critical, targetable dependence on the long splice form of the caspase-8 regulator FLIP (FLIPL) for survival. Upon Nutlin-3A induced stabilisation p53 directly upregulates FLIPL expression in a manner dependent on Class-I HDAC activity. Preventing FLIPL upregulation with the clinically relevant Class-I selective inhibitor Entinostat promotes apoptosis in response to Nutlin-3A , which predominantly induces growth arrest despite upregulating a range of pro-apoptotic target genes. Cell death in response to Nutlin-3A in FLIPL-depleted cells is mediated through two of p53's canonical transcriptional targets TRAIL-R2 and BAX and is caspase-8-dependent. This work uncovers novel, clinically relevant biology that identifies FLIPL as a key target for overcoming resistance to p53-activating agents. Overall design: mRNA-seq analysis of treatment of HCT116 colorectal cancer cell line models isogenic for p53 treated with Nutlin-3A or Entinostat or their combination
Project description:Transient induction of p53 can cause reversible quiescence and irreversible senescence. Using nutlin-3a (a small molecule that activates p53 without causing DNA damage), we have previously identified cell lines in which nutlin-3a caused quiescence. Importantly, nutlin-3a caused quiescence by actively suppressing the senescence program (while still causing cell cycle arrest). Noteworthy, in these cells nutlin-3a inhibited the mTOR (mammalian Target of Rapamycin) pathway, which is known to be involved in the senescence program. Here we showed that shRNA-mediated knockdown of TSC2, a negative regulator of mTOR, partially converted quiescence into senescence in these nutlin-arrested cells. In accord, in melanoma cell lines and mouse embryo fibroblasts, which easily undergo senescence in response to p53 activation, nutlin-3a failed to inhibit mTOR. In these senescence-prone cells, the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin converted nutlin-3a-induced senescence into quiescence. We conclude that status of the mTOR pathway can determine, at least in part, the choice between senescence and quiescence in p53-arrested cells.