Mechanistic Studies and Radiofluorination of Structurally Diverse Pharmaceuticals with Spirocyclic Iodonium(III) Ylides.
ABSTRACT: Synthesis of non-activated electron-rich and sterically hindered 18F-arenes remains a major challenge due to limitations of existing radiofluorination methodologies. Herein, we report on our mechanistic investigations of spirocyclic iodonium(III) ylide precursors for arene radiofluorination, including their reactivity, selectivity, and stability with no-carrier-added [18F]fluoride. Benchmark calculations at the G2[ECP] level indicate that pseudorotation and reductive elimination at iodine(III) can be modeled well by appropriately selected dispersion-corrected density functional methods. Modeling of the reaction pathways show that fluoride-iodonium(III) adduct intermediates are strongly activated and highly regioselective for reductive elimination of the desired [18F]fluoroarenes (difference in barriers, ??G‡ > 25 kcal·mol-1). The advantage of spirocyclic auxiliaries is further supported by NMR spectroscopy studies, which bolster evidence for underlying decomposition processes which can be overcome for radiofluorination of iodonium(III) precursors. Using a novel adamantyl auxiliary, sterically hindered iodonium ylides have been developed to enable highly efficient radiofluorination of electron-rich arenes, including fragments of pharmaceutically relevant nitrogen-containing heterocycles and tertiary amines. Furthermore, this methodology has been applied for the syntheses of the radiopharmaceuticals 6-[18F]fluoro-meta-tyrosine ([18F]FMT, 11 ± 1% isolated radiochemical yield, non-decay-corrected (RCY, n.d.c.; n = 3), and meta-[18F]fluorobenzylguanidine ([18F]mFBG, 14 ± 1% isolated RCY, n.d.c., n = 3) which cannot be directly radiolabeled using conventional nucleophilic aromatic substitution with [18F]fluoride.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Copper-mediated radiofluorination is a straightforward method to produce a variety of [18F]fluoroarenes and [18F]fluoroheteroarenes. To minimize the number of steps in the production of 18F-labelled radiopharmaceuticals, we have developed a short and efficient azeotropic drying-free 18F-labelling method using copper-mediated fluorination. Our goal was to improve the copper-mediated method to achieve wide substrate scope with good radiochemical yields with short synthesis time. RESULTS:Solid phase extraction with Cu (OTf)2 in dimethylacetamide is a suitable activation method for [18F]fluoride. Elution efficiency with Cu (OTf)2 is up to 79% and radiochemical yield (RCY) of a variety of model molecules in the crude reaction mixture has reached over 90%. Clinically relevant molecules, norepinephrine transporter tracer [18F]NS12137 and monoamine transporter tracer [18F]CFT were produced with 16.5% RCY in 98 min and 5.3% RCY in 64 min, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:Cu (OTf)2 is a suitable elution agent for releasing [18F]fluoride from an anion exchange cartridge. The method is fast and efficient and the Cu-complex is customizable after the release of [18F]fluoride. Alterations in the [18F]fluoride elution techniques did not have a negative effect on the subsequent labelling reactions. We anticipate this improved [18F]fluoride elution technique to supplant the traditional azeotropic drying of [18F]fluoride in the long run and to concurrently enable the variations of the copper-complex.
Project description:This communication describes a method for the nucleophilic radiofluorination of electron-rich arenes. The reaction involves the initial C(sp2)-H functionalization of an electron-rich arene with MesI(OH)OTs to form a (mesityl)(aryl)iodonium salt. This salt is then used in situ in a Cu-mediated radiofluorination with [18F]KF. This approach leverages the stability and availability of electron-rich arene starting materials to enable mild late-stage radiofluorination of toluene, anisole, aniline, pyrrole, and thiophene derivatives. The radiofluorination has been automated to access a 41 mCi dose of an 18F-labeled nimesulide derivative in high (2800 ± 700 Ci/mmol) specific activity.
Project description:In a recent contribution of Scott et al., the substrate scope of Cu-mediated nucleophilic radiofluorination with [18F]KF for the preparation of 18F-labeled arenes was extended to aryl- and vinylstannanes. Based on these findings, the potential of this reaction for the production of clinically relevant positron emission tomography (PET) tracers was investigated. To this end, Cu-mediated radiofluorodestannylation using trimethyl(phenyl)tin as a model substrate was re-evaluated with respect to different reaction parameters. The resulting labeling protocol was applied for 18F-fluorination of different electron-rich, -neutral and -poor arylstannyl substrates in RCCs of 16-88%. Furthermore, this method was utilized for the synthesis of 18F-labeled aromatic amino acids from additionally N-Boc protected commercially available stannyl precursors routinely applied for electrophilic radiohalogenation. Finally, an automated synthesis of 6-[18F]fluoro-l-m-tyrosine (6-[18F]FMT), 2-[18F]fluoro-l-tyrosine (2-[18F]F-Tyr), 6-[18F]fluoro-l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (6-[18F]FDOPA) and 3-O-methyl-6-[18F]FDOPA ([18F]OMFD) was established furnishing these PET probes in isolated radiochemical yields (RCYs) of 32-54% on a preparative scale. Remarkably, the automated radiosynthesis of 6-[18F]FDOPA afforded an exceptionally high RCY of 54 ± 5% (n = 5).
Project description:Spirocyclic hypervalent iodine(III) ylides have proven to be synthetically versatile precursors for efficient radiolabelling of a diverse range of non-activated (hetero)arenes, highly functionalised small molecules, building blocks and radiopharmaceuticals from [(18)F]fluoride ion. Herein, we report the implementation of these reactions onto a continuous-flow microfluidic platform, thereby offering an alterative and automated synthetic procedure of a radiopharmaceutical, 3-[(18)F]fluoro-5-[(pyridin-3-yl)ethynyl]benzonitrile ([(18)F]FPEB) and a routinely used building block for click-radiochemistry, 4-[(18)F]fluorobenzyl azide. This new protocol was applied to the synthesis of [(18)F]FPEB (radiochemical conversion (RCC) = 68 ± 5%) and 4-[(18)F]fluorobenzyl azide (RCC=68 ± 5%; isolated radiochemical yield = 24±0%). We anticipate that the high throughput microfluidic platform will accelerate the discovery and applications of (18)F-labelled building blocks and labelled compounds prepared by iodonium ylide precursors as well as the production of radiotracers for preclinical imaging studies.
Project description:[<sup>18</sup>F]FPEB is a positron emission tomography (PET) radiopharmaceutical used for imaging the abundance and distribution of mGluR5 in the central nervous system (CNS). Efficient radiolabeling of the aromatic ring of [<sup>18</sup>F]FPEB has been an ongoing challenge. Herein, five metal-free precursors for the radiofluorination of [<sup>18</sup>F]FPEB were compared, namely, a chloro-, nitro-, sulfonium salt, and two spirocyclic iodonium ylide (SCIDY) precursors bearing a cyclopentyl (SPI5) and a new adamantyl (SPIAd) auxiliary. The chloro- and nitro-precursors resulted in a low radiochemical yield (<10% RCY), whereas both SCIDY precursors and the sulfonium salt precursor produced [<sup>18</sup>F]FPEB in the highest RCYs of 25% and 36%, respectively. Preliminary PET/CT imaging studies with [<sup>18</sup>F]FPEB were conducted in a transgenic model of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) using B6C3-Tg(APPswe,PSEN1dE9)85Dbo/J (APP/PS1) mice, and data were compared with age-matched wild-type (WT) B6C3F1/J control mice. In APP/PS1 mice, whole brain distribution at 5 min post-injection showed a slightly higher uptake (SUV = 4.8 ± 0.4) than in age-matched controls (SUV = 4.0 ± 0.2). Further studies to explore mGluR5 as an early biomarker for AD are underway.
Project description:The radiofluorination of diaryliodonium salts is of value for producing radiotracers for positron emission tomography. We report crystal structures for two diaryliodonium fluorides. Whereas diphenyliodonium fluoride (1?a) exists as a tetramer bridged by four fluoride ions, 2-methylphenyl(phenyl)iodonium fluoride (2?a) forms a fluoride-bridged dimer that is further halogen bonded to two other monomers. We discuss the topological relationships between the two and their implications for fluorination in solution. Both radiofluorination and NMR spectroscopy show that thermolysis of 2?a gives 2-fluorotoluene and fluorobenzene in a 2 to 1 ratio that is in good agreement with the ratio observed from the radiofluorination of 2-methylphenyl(phenyl)iodonium chloride (2?b). The constancy of the product ratio affirms that the fluorinations occur via the same two rapidly interconverting transition states whose energy difference dictates chemoselectivity. From quantum chemical studies with density functional theory we attribute the "ortho-effect" to the favorable electrostatic interaction between the incoming fluoride and the o-methyl in the transition state. By utilizing the crystal structures of 1?a and 2?a, the mechanisms of fluoroarene formation from diaryliodonium fluorides in their monomeric, homodimeric, heterodimeric, and tetrameric states were also investigated. We propose that oligomerization energy dictates whether the fluorination occurs through a monomeric or an oligomeric pathway.
Project description:GluN2B is the most studied subunit of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) and implicated in the pathologies of various central nervous system disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. As pan NMDAR antagonists often produce debilitating side effects, new approaches in drug discovery have shifted to subtype-selective NMDAR modulators, especially GluN2B-selective antagonists. While positron emission tomography (PET) studies of GluN2B-selective NMDARs in the living brain would enable target engagement in drug development and improve our understanding in the NMDAR signaling pathways between normal and disease conditions, a suitable PET ligand is yet to be identified. Herein we developed an 18F-labeled potent antagonist, 2-((1-(4-[18F]fluoro-3-methylphenyl)-1 H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)methoxy)-5-methoxypyrimidine ([18F]13; also called [18F]N2B-0518) as a PET tracer for imaging the GluN2B subunit. The radiofluorination of [18F]13 was efficiently achieved by our spirocyclic iodonium ylide (SCIDY) method. In in vitro autoradiography studies, [18F]13 displayed highly region-specific binding in brain sections of rat and nonhuman primate, which was in accordance with the expression of GluN2B subunit. Ex vivo biodistribution in mice revealed that [18F]13 could penetrate the blood-brain barrier with moderate brain uptake (3.60% ID/g at 2 min) and rapid washout. Altogether, this work provides a GluN2B-selective PET tracer bearing a new chemical scaffold and shows high specificity to GluN2B subunit in vitro, which may pave the way for the development of a new generation of GluN2B PET ligands.
Project description:PURPOSE:The aim of this study was the automated synthesis of the mitochondrial membrane potential sensor 4-[18F]fluorobenzyl-triphenylphosphonium ([18F]FBnTP) on a commercially available synthesizer in activity yields (AY) that allow for imaging of multiple patients. PROCEDURES:A three-pot, four-step synthesis was implemented on the ELIXYS FLEX/CHEM radiosynthesizer (Sofie Biosciences) and optimized for radiochemical yield (RCY), radiochemical purity (RCP) as well as chemical purity during several production runs (n = 24). The compound was purified by solid-phase extraction (SPE) with a Sep-Pak Plus Accell CM cartridge, thereby avoiding HPLC purification. RESULTS:Under optimized conditions, AY of 1.4-2.2 GBq of [18F]FBnTP were obtained from 9.4 to 12.0 GBq [18F]fluoride in 90-92 min (RCY = 28.6 ± 5.1 % with n = 3). Molar activities ranged from 80 to 99 GBq/?mol at the end of synthesis. RCP of final formulations was >?99 % at the end of synthesis and >?95 % after 8 h. With starting activities of 23.2-33.0 GBq, RCY decreased to 16.1 ± 0.4 % (n = 3). The main cause of the decline in RCY when high amounts of [18F]fluoride are used is radiolytic decomposition of [18F]FBnTP during SPE purification. CONCLUSIONS:In initial attempts, the probe was synthesized with RCY <?0.6 % when starting activities up to 44.6 GBq were used. Rapid radiolysis of the intermediate 4-[18F]fluorobenzaldehyde and the final product [18F]FBnTP during purification was identified as the main cause for low yields in high-activity runs. Radiolytic decomposition was hindered by the addition of radical scavengers during synthesis, purification, and formulation, thereby improving AY and RCP. The formulated probe in injectable form was synthesized without the use of HPLC and passed all applicable quality control tests.
Project description:Here we aimed to explore the feasibility of enhancing the fluorination of organosilanes by appending potassium-chelating groups to the substrates. For this purpose, eight organosilanes were prepared in which a linear or cyclic leaving group, with putative potassium-chelating ability, was attached covalently to a congested silicon atom via an ether linkage to serve as a potential nucleophilic assisting leaving group (NALG). Organosilicon-NALGs with expected strong potassium-chelating capability enhanced reactions with potassium fluoride in acetonitrile to produce organofluorosilanes without any need to separately add phase transfer reagent. Similar rate enhancements were also observed with cyclotron-produced [18F]fluoride ion (t1/2 = 109.7 min, ?+ = 97%) in the presence of potassium carbonate in MeCN-0.5% H2O. This study found that metal-chelating NALG units can accelerate fluorination and radiofluorination reactions at sterically crowded silicon atoms.
Project description:A suitable TSPO PET ligand may visualize and quantify neuroinflammation in a living brain. Herein we report a 18F-ligand, [18F]2 ([18F]FDPA), is radiolabeled in high yield and high specific activity based on our spirocyclic iodonium ylide (SCIDY) strategy. [18F]2 demonstrated saturable specific binding to TSPO, substantially elevated brain uptake, and slow washout of bound PET signal in the preclinical models of brain neuroinflammation (cerebral ischemia and Alzheimer's disease).