Multidrug-resistant organisms in refugees: prevalences and impact on infection control in hospitals.
ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION:The refugee crisis is a great challenge to the social and healthcare system in European countries, especially in Germany. An abundance of data has been published on the refugees' health problems (infections as well as physical diseases and psychiatric problems) and their prevention (i.e., sanitary and vaccination programs). However, data on prevalences of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDRO) in refugees are scarce, although it is known that most refugees are from or travelled through countries with high prevalences of MDRO. This paper presents current data on MDRO colonization of refugees admitted to hospitals, and the impact of screening upon admission and infection control in hospitals is discussed. METHODS:Anonymous data obtained by screening upon hospital admission were reported by hospitals in the Rhine-Main region of Germany to the local public health department. Screening and microbiological analyses were performed from December 2015 to March 2016 according to standardized and validated methods. RESULTS:9.8% of the refugees screened (32/325) exhibited colonization with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and 23.3% of the refugees (67/290) were colonized with Gram-negative bacteria with extended spectrum beta-lactamases, and/or enterobacteria with resistance against 3 or 4 groups of antibacterials, so-called 3MRGN (multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria with resistance against penicillins, cephalosporins and quinolones) and 4MRGN (with additional resistance against carbapenems). Carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (CRGN) were detected in 2.1% (6/290) of the refugees. CONCLUSION:The data confirms the studies published between 2014 and 2016, encompassing refugees tested in Germany, the Netherlands and Israel, with prevalences of MRSA and CRGN up to 13.5% and 5.6%. The MDRO prevalences are higher than those of "risk groups" for MRSA, such as hemodialysis patients and patients depending on outpatient home-nursing care or residing in nursing homes. Therefore, screening and special infection control in hospitals is strongly suggested when refugees are admitted to hospitals, in order to ensure best medical practice and safety for all hospital patients regardless of their country of origin.
Project description:Background: Refugees have a significant risk of carrying multidrug-resistant organisms (MDRO), including multidrug-resistant gram-negative organisms (MDRGN) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Since the duration of MDRGN colonization has been shown to last for several months, we hypothesize that the prevalence of MDRO in refugees gradually declines during their stay in Germany to the level of MDRO prevalence in non-refugee patients. Knowledge about the dynamics of refugees' MDRO prevalence might provide the basis for appropriate infection control measures for refugees in hospitals as well as refugees' MDRO epidemiology in general. Material and methods: MDRO prevalence in 109 refugees admitted to the University Hospital Frankfurt, Germany, were compared to 819 adult controls and 224 pediatric patients admitted to the intensive care unit between June 2016 and May 2017. Results: 41.3% (95% confidence interval=31.9-51.1) of the refugees, 5.7% (4.2-7.6) of the adult controls and 8.9% (5.5-13.5) of the pediatric controls were positive for at least one MDRGN. The highest MDRGN prevalence was found in refugees who recently arrived (?3 months) in Germany (72.4%; 52.8-87.3). Refugees' MDRGN prevalence declined continuously over time, reaching the adult and pediatric controls' MDRGN prevalence 18 months at the earliest after their arrival in Germany, i.e., 14.9% (1.8-42.8). Conclusion: This study demonstrates that refugees' MDRGN prevalence is declining over time since their arrival in Germany. 18 months after their arrival, refugees' and locals' MDRGN prevalence no longer differs significantly, although the refugees' MDRGN prevalence is still higher. A decline of MRSA prevalence was found 18 months after refugees' arrival. However, MRSA prevalence was still 14%, and thus 8 times higher than that of controls, indicating that precautionary measures continue to be necessary to prevent MRSA transmission.
Project description:The prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) varies significantly among different patient populations. We aimed to summarise AMR prevalence data from screening studies in different patient settings in Switzerland and to identify surveillance gaps. We performed a systematic review, searching Pubmed, MEDLINE, Embase (01/2000-05/2017) and conference proceedings for Swiss studies reporting on carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE), extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL), mobilised colistin-resistance, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE) within different patient settings. We identified 2345 references and included 46 studies. For acute care patients, most screening data come from admission screenings, whereas AMR prevalence among hospitalised patients is largely unknown. Universal admission screenings showed ESBL-prevalences of 5-8% and MRSA-prevalences of 2-5%. For targeted screening, ESBL-prevalence ranged from 14-21%; MRSA-prevalence from 1-4%. For refugees, high ESBL (9-24%) and MRSA (16-24%) carriage rates were reported; returning travellers were frequently (68-80%) colonised with ESBL. Screening data for other pathogens, long-term care facility (LTCF) residents and pediatric populations were scarce. This review confirms high ESBL- and MRSA-carriage rates for risk populations in Switzerland. Emerging pathogens (CPE and VRE) and certain populations (inpatients, LTCF residents and children) are understudied. We encourage epidemiologists and public health authorities to consider these findings in the planning of future surveillance studies.
Project description:IntroductionAntimicrobial resistance is increasing rapidly in countries with low hygiene levels and poorly controlled antimicrobial use. The spread of resistant bacteria poses a threat to healthcare worldwide. Refugees and migrants from high-prevalence countries may add to a rise in multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria in low-prevalence countries. However, respective data are scarce.MethodsWe retrospectively collected microbiological and clinical data from asylum seekers and refugees treated at Helsinki University Hospital between January 2010 and August 2017.ResultsOf 447 asylum seekers and refugees (Iraq: 46.5%; Afghanistan: 10.3%; Syria: 9.6%, Somalia: 6.9%); 45.0% were colonised by MDR bacteria: 32.9% had extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE), 21.3% meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), 0.7% carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE), 0.4% multiresistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MRPA), 0.4% multiresistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MRAB); no vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) were found. Two or more MDR bacteria strains were recorded for 12.5% of patients. Multivariable analysis revealed geographical region and prior surgery outside Nordic countries as risk factors of MRSA colonisation. Young age (<?6 years old), short time from arrival to first sample, and prior hospitalisation outside Nordic countries were risk factors of ESBL-PE colonisation.ConclusionWe found MDR bacterial colonisation to be common among asylum seekers and refugees arriving from current conflict zones. In particular we found a high prevalence of MRSA. Refugees and migrants should, therefore, be included among risk populations requiring MDR screening and infection control measures at hospitals.
Project description:The Netherlands and Germany are neighbouring countries within the European Union but are differently affected by multidrug-resistant microorganisms (MDRO). In this narrative review, we summarize data about antibiotic use, the occurrence of MDRO and healthcare-associated infections in these two countries, as well as data about organizational and structural differences between the Dutch and German healthcare systems. These results are discussed with a focus on whether or how the organization of healthcare influences MDRO prevention. We found that from the point of view of MDRO prevention, a higher density of inpatient care, a higher number of hospitals, a longer length of stay and lower staffing ratios might facilitate MDRO dissemination in German hospitals.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Antibiotic resistance of bacterial pathogens is an emerging problem worldwide. To combat multidrug resistant organisms (MRDOs) networks of care providers have been established in all states in Germany. The HICARE-network, a project to combat MRDOs, founded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research, has published data from 2010 of a voluntary, German-wide, multicenter point-prevalence survey in 2011 conducted in collaboration with the German Society of Hospital Hygiene. The aim of the present survey was the re-evaluation of the situation in 2012. METHOD: The survey was conducted as a voluntary, anonymous, point-prevalence in May 2012 using routine data of microbiological diagnostics of the hospitals. As in the former survey of 2010 it was differentiated between primary, secondary and tertiary care hospitals and only data from intensive care units, surgical and medical wards were collected. Based on the survey form used in 2010, an updated version was used including more pathogens and corrected issues observed in the former survey. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (total as well as separated in hospital-acquired (HA), community-acquired (CA) and lifestock-associated (LA) MRSA), vancomycin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA/GRSA), vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecalis resp. Enterococcus faecium (VR-E. faecalis resp. VR-E. faecium), extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-building (ESBL) E. coli (ESBL-EC) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (ESBL-KP), multiresistant Acinetobacter spp. (MAB), multiresistant Pseudomonas spp. (MRP), carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) as well as Clostridium difficile (CD) infections and severe infections requiring ICU-treatment were included in the survey along with additional data on screening strategy, the equipment with infection control staff and possible confounders. RESULTS: Out of 1,550 hospitals asked to participate, 62 returned data (4%). Data from 56 hospitals including primary (26), secondary (20) and tertiary (10) care hospitals were analyzable (3.6%). The most frequently reported organisms were MRSA 1.53% [CI95: 1.32-1.75], followed by CDAD 1.30% [CI95: 1.11-1.50], ESBL-EC 0.97% [CI95: 0.80-1.14], and ESBL-KP 0.27% [CI95: 0.18-0.36], regardless of the level of care. Prevalence of MRDOs depended on the level of care and on the type of ward, as expected. Overall prevalence was highest on intensive care wards, and prevalences were remarkably high on medical wards compared to surgical wards. All tertiary care providers employed their own infection control nurse, while only ~70% of the secondary and primary care hospitals did. Surprisingly, in two of the ten participating tertiary care providers neither an internal nor an external infection control doctor was available. DISCUSSION: With more than 13,000 patients in 56 hospitals distributed all over Germany, the survey included more than three times as many patients as the first survey and therefore not only adds valuable information about the epidemiology of emerging nosocomial pathogens, but also helps to raise awareness of the problem of antibacterial resistance in Germany. The prevalences reported seem to be comparable to the results of the former survey and of other surveys published. Some hospitals reported to have no infection control personnel available at all. This statement is in line with another survey published in this issue.
Project description:With high numbers of refugees arriving in Europe uncertainty exists as to whether multidrug-resistant organisms are imported into the healthcare system. In our study, we identified 383 refugee-inpatients admitted to the University Hospital Münster, Germany between September 2015 and September 2016. For this patient cohort screening for Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (MDR-GNB) and Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) was recommended in our institution. Until May 2016 pre-emptive isolation was applied to all refugee-inpatients until the exclusion of these multidrug-resistant organisms. MRSA were found in 34 refugee-patients (9.8%), MDR-GNB in 25 refugee-patients (12.9%) and VRE in none of the refugee patients. We did not find any strains carrying carbapenemases. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) data demonstrated that the respective isolates were genetically heterogeneous and revealed no transmission of refugee-patient isolates to other patients. We therefore omitted pre-emptive isolation as an infection control measure for this group of patients. Furthermore, molecular typing did not show evidence for nosocomial transmission from refugee-patients to other patients. Standard hygiene measures successfully prevented the transmission of refugee-patient isolates to other patients and as a result introduction into the healthcare system. This underlines that any multidrug-resistant organisms present within this cohort are not of any extraordinary concern for health systems.
Project description:Population-based studies on Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization are scarce. We examined the prevalence, resistance, and molecular diversity of S. aureus in the general population in Northeast Germany. Nasal swabs were obtained from 3,891 adults in the large-scale population-based Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-TREND). Isolates were characterized using spa genotyping, as well as antibiotic resistance and virulence gene profiling. We observed an S. aureus prevalence of 27.2%. Nasal S. aureus carriage was associated with male sex and inversely correlated with age. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) accounted for 0.95% of the colonizing S. aureus strains. MRSA carriage was associated with frequent visits to hospitals, nursing homes, or retirement homes within the previous 24 months. All MRSA strains were resistant to multiple antibiotics. Most MRSA isolates belonged to the pandemic European hospital-acquired MRSA sequence type 22 (HA-MRSA-ST22) lineage. We also detected one livestock-associated MRSA ST398 (LA-MRSA-ST398) isolate, as well as six livestock-associated methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (LA-MSSA) isolates (clonal complex 1 [CC1], CC97, and CC398). spa typing revealed a diverse but also highly clonal S. aureus population structure. We identified a total of 357 spa types, which were grouped into 30 CCs or sequence types. The major seven CCs (CC30, CC45, CC15, CC8, CC7, CC22, and CC25) included 75% of all isolates. Virulence gene patterns were strongly linked to the clonal background. In conclusion, MSSA and MRSA prevalences and the molecular diversity of S. aureus in Northeast Germany are consistent with those of other European countries. The detection of HA-MRSA and LA-MRSA within the general population indicates possible transmission from hospitals and livestock, respectively, and should be closely monitored.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The impact of healthcare personnel hand contamination in multidrug-resistant organism (MDRO) transmission is important and well studied; however, the role of patient hand contamination needs to be characterized further. METHODS:Patients from 2 hospitals in southeast Michigan were recruited within 24 hours of arrival to their room and followed prospectively using microbial surveillance of nares, dominant hand, and 6 high-touch environmental surfaces. Sampling was performed on admission, days 3 and 7, and weekly until discharge. Paired samples of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolated from the patients' hand and room surfaces were evaluated for relatedness using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec, and Panton-Valentine leukocidin typing. RESULTS:A total of 399 patients (mean age, 60.8 years; 49% male) were enrolled and followed for 710 visits. Fourteen percent (n = 56/399) of patients were colonized with an MDRO at baseline; 10% (40/399) had an MDRO on their hands. Twenty-nine percent of rooms harbored an MDRO. Six percent (14/225 patients with at least 2 visits) newly acquired an MDRO on their hands during their stay. New MDRO acquisition in patients occurred at a rate of 24.6/1000 patient-days, and in rooms at a rate of 58.6/1000 patient-days. Typing demonstrated a high correlation between MRSA on patient hands and room surfaces. CONCLUSIONS:Our data suggest that patient hand contamination with MDROs is common and correlates with contamination on high-touch room surfaces. Patient hand hygiene protocols should be considered to reduce transmission of pathogens and healthcare-associated infections.
Project description:The recent crisis of refugees seeking asylum in European countries challenges public health on many levels. Most refugees currently arrive from Syria, Afghanistan, or Eritrea. Data about multidrug resistant bacteria (MDR) prevalence are not present for these countries. However, when entering the European heath care systems, data about colonisation rates regarding highly resistant bacterial pathogens are important.We performed a cross-sectional screening in four Swiss refugee centres to determine the colonization rates for MRSA and ESBL- and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae. We used pharyngeal, nasal, and inguinal swabs for MRSA and rectal swabs and urine for ESBL and carbapenemase screening using standard microbiological procedures. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) was used to determine the relatedness of MRSA isolates with high resolution due to a suspected outbreak.41/261(15.7%) refugees were colonized with MRSA. No differences regarding the country of origin were observed. However, in a single centre significantly more were colonized, which was confirmed to be a recent local outbreak. 57/241 (23.7%) refugees were colonized with ESBL with significantly higher colonisation in persons originating from the Middle East (35.1%, p<0.001). No carbapenemase producers were detected.The colonisation rate of the refugees was about 10 times higher for MRSA and 2-5 times higher for ESBL compared to the Swiss population. Contact precaution is warranted for these persons if they enter medical care. In cases of infections, MRSA and ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae should be considered regarding antibiotic treatment choices.
Project description:As emergence and spread of multi-drug resistant organisms (MDRO) requires a standardized preventive approach, we aimed to evaluate current MDRO admission screening practices in Swiss hospitals and to identify potential barriers impeding their implementation. In early 2018, all Swiss public and private healthcare institutions providing inpatient care were contacted with a 34-item questionnaire to investigate current MDRO admission screening policies. Among 139 respondents representing 180 institutions (response rate, 79%), 83% (149) of institutions implemented MDRO admission screening, while 28% of private and 9% of public institutions did not perform any screening. Targeted high-risk screening included carbapenemase producers, extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producers and methicillin-resistant <i>Staphylococcus aureus</i> at the institutional level for respectively 78% (115), 81% (118) and 98% (145) of screening institutions. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (44% of institutions), multi-resistant <i>Acinetobacter baumanii</i> (41%) and <i>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</i> (37%) were systematically searched only by a minority of screening institutions. A large diversity of risk factors for targeted screening and some heterogeneity in body sites screened were also observed. Admission-screening practices were mostly impeded by a difficulty to identify high-risk patients (44%) and non-compliance of healthcare workers (35%). Heterogeneous practices and gaps in small and privately-owned institutions, as well as a mismatch between current epidemiologic MDRO trends and screening practices were noticed. These results highlight the need for uniform national MDRO screening standards.