Tranexamic acid for traumatic brain injury: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
ABSTRACT: The antifibrinolytic agent tranexamic acid (TXA) has demonstrated clinical benefit in trauma patients with severe bleeding, but its effectiveness in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) is unclear. We conducted a systematic review to evaluate the following research question: In ED patients with or at risk of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) secondary to TBI, does TXA compared to placebo improve patients' outcomes?MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and other databases were searched for randomized controlled trial (RCT) or quasi-RCT studies that compared the effect of TXA to placebo on outcomes of TBI patients. The main outcomes of interest included mortality, neurologic function, hematoma expansion, and adverse effects. We used "Grading quality of evidence and strength of recommendations" to assess the quality of trials. Two authors independently abstracted data using a data collection form. Results from studies were pooled when appropriate.Of 1030 references identified through the search, 2 high-quality RCTs met inclusion criteria. The effect of TXA on mortality had a pooled relative risk of 0.64 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.41-1.02); on unfavorable functional status, a relative risk of 0.77 (95% CI, 0.59-1.02); and on ICH progression, a relative risk of 0.76 (95% CI, 0.58-0.98). No serious adverse effects (such as thromboembolic events) associated with TXA group were reported in the included trials.Pooled results from the 2 RCTs demonstrated statistically significant reduction in ICH progression with TXA and a nonstatistically significant improvement of clinical outcomes in ED patients with TBI. Further evidence is required to support its routine use in patients with TBI.
Project description:This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to synthesize the latest evidence on the efficacy and safety of tranexamic acid (TXA) on traumatic brain injury (TBI). We performed a systematic literature search on topics that compared intravenous TXA to placebo in patients with TBI up until January 2020 from several electronic databases. There were 30.522 patients from 7 studies. Meta-analysis showed that TXA was associated with reduced mortality (RR 0.92 [0.88, 0.97], p?=?0.002; I2: 0%) and hemorrhagic expansion (RR 0.79 [0.64, 0.97], p?=?0.03; I2: 0%). Both TXA and control group has a similar need for neurosurgical intervention (p?=?0.87) and unfavourable Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) (p?=?0.59). The rate for vascular occlusive events (p?=?0.09), and its deep vein thrombosis subgroup (p?=?0.23), pulmonary embolism subgroup (p?=?1), stroke subgroup (p?=?0.38), and myocardial infarction subgroup (p?=?0.15) were similar in both groups. Subgroup analysis on RCTs with low risk of bias showed that TXA was associated with reduced mortality and hemorrhagic expansion. TXA was associated with reduced vascular occlusive events (RR 0.85 [0.73, 0.99], p?=?0.04; I2: 4%). GRADE was performed for the RCT with low risk of bias subgroup, it showed a high certainty of evidence for lower mortality, less hemorrhage expansion, and similar need for neurosurgical intervention in TXA group compared to placebo group. TXA was associated with reduced mortality and hemorrhagic expansion but similar need for neurosurgical intervention and unfavorable GOS. Vascular occlusive events were slightly lower in TXA group on subgroup analysis of RCTs with low risk of bias.
Project description:BackgroundThe exacerbation of intracranial bleeding is critical in traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients. Tranexamic acid (TXA) has been used to improve outcomes in TBI patient. However, the effectiveness of TXA treatment remains unclear. This study aimed to assess the effect of administration of TXA on clinical outcomes in patients with TBI by systematically reviewing the literature and synthesizing evidence of randomized controlled trials (RCTs).MethodsMEDLINE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Igaku Chuo Zasshi (ICHUSHI) Web were searched. Selection criteria included randomized controlled trials with clinical outcomes of adult TBI patients administered TXA or placebo within 24?h after admission. Two investigators independently screened citations and conducted data extraction. The primary “critical” outcome was all-cause mortality. The secondary “important” outcomes were good neurological outcome rates, enlargement of bleeding, incidence of ischemia, and hemorrhagic intracranial complications. Random effect estimators with weights calculated by the inverse variance method were used to report risk ratios (RRs).ResultsA total of 640 records were screened. Seven studies were included for quantitative analysis. Of 10,044 patients from seven of the included studies, 5076 were randomly assigned to the TXA treatment group, and 4968 were assigned to placebo. In the TXA treatment group, 914 patients (18.0%) died, while 961 patients (19.3%) died in the placebo group. There was no significant difference between groups (RR, 0.93; 95% confidence interval, 0.86–1.01). No significant differences between the groups in other important outcomes were also observed.ConclusionsTXA treatment demonstrated a tendency to reduce head trauma-related deaths in the TBI population, with no significant incidence of thromboembolic events. TXA treatment may therefore be suggested in the initial TBI care.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Early identification of traumatic intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) has implications for triage and intervention. Blood-based biomarkers were recently approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for prediction of ICH in patients with mild traumatic brain injury (TBI). We sought to determine if biomarkers measured early after injury improve prediction of mortality and clinical/radiologic outcomes compared with Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) alone in patients with moderate or severe TBI (MS-TBI). METHODS:We measured glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCH-L1), and microtubule-associated protein-2 (MAP-2) on arrival to the emergency department (ED) in patients with blunt TBI enrolled in the placebo arm of the Prehospital TXA for TBI Trial (prehospital GCS score, 3-12; SPB, > 90). Biomarkers were modeled individually and together with prehospital predictor variables [PH] (GCS score, age, sex). Data were divided into a training data set and test data set for model derivation and evaluation. Models were evaluated for prediction of ICH, mass lesion, 48-hour and 28-day mortality, and 6-month Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended (GOS-E) and Disability Rating Scale (DRS). Area under the curve (AUC) was evaluated in test data for PH alone, PH + individual biomarkers, and PH + three biomarkers. RESULTS:Of 243 patients with baseline samples (obtained a median of 84 minutes after injury), prehospital GCS score was 8 (interquartile range, 5-10), 55% had ICH, and 48-hour and 28-day mortality were 7% and 13%, respectively. Poor neurologic outcome at 6 months was observed in 34% based on GOS-E of 4 or less, and 24% based on DRS greater than or equal to7. Addition of each biomarker to PH improved AUC in the majority of predictive models. GFAP+PH compared with PH alone significantly improved AUC in all models (ICH, 0.82 vs. 0.64; 48-hour mortality, 0.84 vs. 0.71; 28-day mortality, 0.84 vs. 0.66; GOS-E, 0.78 vs. 0.69; DRS, 0.84 vs. 0.81, all p < 0.001). CONCLUSION:Circulating blood-based biomarkers may improve prediction of neurological outcomes and mortality in patients with MS-TBI over prehospital characteristics alone. Glial fibrillary acidic protein appears to be the most promising. Future evaluation in the prehospital setting is warranted. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:Prospective, Prognostic and Epidemiological, level II.
Project description:Moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains a major global challenge, with rising incidence, unchanging mortality and lifelong impairments. State-of-the-science reviews are important for research planning and clinical decision support. This review aimed to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating interventions for acute management of moderate/severe TBI, synthesize key RCT characteristics and findings, and determine their implications on clinical practice and future research. RCTs were identified through comprehensive database and other searches. Key characteristics, outcomes, risk of bias, and analysis approach were extracted. Data were narratively synthesized, with a focus on robust (multi-center, low risk of bias, n?>?100) RCTs, and three-dimensional graphical figures also were used to explore relationships between RCT characteristics and findings. A total of 207 RCTs were identified. The 191 completed RCTs enrolled 35,340 participants (median, 66). Most (72%) were single center and enrolled less than 100 participants (69%). There were 26 robust RCTs across 18 different interventions. For 74% of 392 comparisons across all included RCTs, there was no significant difference between groups. Positive findings were broadly distributed with respect to RCT characteristics. Less than one-third of RCTs demonstrated low risk of bias for random sequence generation or allocation concealment, less than one-quarter used covariate adjustment, and only 7% employed an ordinal analysis approach. Considerable investment of resources in producing 191 completed RCTs for acute TBI management has resulted in very little translatable evidence. This may result from broad distribution of research effort, small samples, preponderance of single-center RCTs, and methodological shortcomings. More sophisticated RCT design, large multi-center RCTs in priority areas, increased focus on pre-clinical research, and alternatives to RCTs, such as comparative effectiveness research and precision medicine, are needed to fully realize the potential of acute TBI research to benefit patients.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Outcome after spontaneous (non-traumatic) intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) is influenced by haematoma volume; up to one-third of ICHs enlarge within 24 hours of onset. Early haemostatic therapy might improve outcome by limiting haematoma growth. This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2006, and last updated in 2009. OBJECTIVES:To examine 1) the effectiveness and safety of individual classes of haemostatic therapies, compared against placebo or open control, in adults with acute spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage, and 2) the effects of each class of haemostatic therapy according to the type of antithrombotic drug taken immediately before ICH onset (i.e. anticoagulant, antiplatelet, or none). SEARCH METHODS:We searched the Cochrane Stroke Trials Register, CENTRAL; 2017, Issue 11, MEDLINE Ovid, and Embase Ovid on 27 November 2017. In an effort to identify further published, ongoing, and unpublished randomised controlled trials (RCT), we scanned bibliographies of relevant articles and searched international registers of RCTs in November 2017. SELECTION CRITERIA:We sought randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of any haemostatic intervention (i.e. pro-coagulant treatments such as coagulation factors, antifibrinolytic drugs, or platelet transfusion) for acute spontaneous ICH, compared with placebo, open control, or an active comparator, reporting relevant clinical outcome measures. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS:Two authors independently extracted data, assessed risk of bias, and contacted corresponding authors of eligible RCTs for specific data if they were not provided in the published report of an RCT. MAIN RESULTS:We included 12 RCTs involving 1732 participants. There were seven RCTs of blood clotting factors versus placebo or open control involving 1480 participants, three RCTs of antifibrinolytic drugs versus placebo or open control involving 57 participants, one RCT of platelet transfusion versus open control involving 190 participants, and one RCT of blood clotting factors versus fresh frozen plasma involving five participants. We were unable to include two eligible RCTs because they presented aggregate data for adults with ICH and other types of intracranial haemorrhage. We identified 10 ongoing RCTs. Across all seven criteria in the 12 included RCTs, the risk of bias was unclear in 37 (44%), high in 16 (19%), and low in 31 (37%). Only one RCT was at low risk of bias in all criteria.In one RCT of platelet transfusion versus open control for acute spontaneous ICH associated with antiplatelet drug use, there was a significant increase in death or dependence (modified Rankin Scale score 4 to 6) at day 90 (70/97 versus 52/93; risk ratio (RR) 1.29, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04 to 1.61, one trial, 190 participants, moderate-quality evidence). All findings were non-significant for blood clotting factors versus placebo or open control for acute spontaneous ICH with or without surgery (moderate-quality evidence), for antifibrinolytic drugs versus placebo (moderate-quality evidence) or open control for acute spontaneous ICH (moderate-quality evidence), and for clotting factors versus fresh frozen plasma for acute spontaneous ICH associated with anticoagulant drug use (no evidence). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS:Based on moderate-quality evidence from one trial, platelet transfusion seems hazardous in comparison to standard care for adults with antiplatelet-associated ICH.We were unable to draw firm conclusions about the efficacy and safety of blood clotting factors for acute spontaneous ICH with or without surgery, antifibrinolytic drugs for acute spontaneous ICH, and clotting factors versus fresh frozen plasma for acute spontaneous ICH associated with anticoagulant drug use.Further RCTs are warranted, and we await the results of the 10 ongoing RCTs with interest.
Project description:We conducted the present meta-analysis to assess the efficacy and safety of tranexamic acid (TXA) plus diluted-epinephrine (DEP) for patients with total joint arthroplasty (TJA, including total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and total hip arthroplasty (THA)).Electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Chinese Wanfang databases, and Google databases) were systematically searched up to December 2016. Only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included. The primary outcomes were total blood loss and need for transfusion. The secondary outcomes were hemoglobin drop and the incidence of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and hematoma. Continuous outcomes and discontinuous outcomes were compiled as the weighted mean difference (WMD) and relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI), respectively.A total of 5 RCTs with a total of 493 patients were eligible and ultimately included in the meta-analysis. Compared with the TXA group, TXA plus DEP yielded a significant reduction in total blood loss (WMD = -244.78; 95% CI -290.12 to -199.44; P?<?.001), need for transfusion (RR = 0.27; 95% CI 0.15-0.48; P?<?.001) and hemoglobin drop (WMD = -0.81; 95% CI -1.22 to -0.40; P?<?.001). There was no significant difference in incidence of DVT (RR=0.67; 95% CI 0.27-1.64; P = .382) or hematoma (RR=0.89; 95% CI 0.30-2.61; P = .831) between the TXA plus DEP group and the TXA group.TXA plus DEP can decrease perioperative blood loss without increasing the incidence of DVT compared with TXA alone. However, considering the limited number of included RCTs, this conclusion should be interpreted cautiously, and more high-quality RCTs are needed to verify the efficacy and safety of TXA plus DEP for TJA patients.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:This study aimed to compare the effects of intravenous, topical and combined routes of tranexamic acid (TXA) administration on blood loss and transfusion requirements in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and total hip arthroplasty (THA). DESIGN:This was a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCT) wherein the weighted mean difference (WMD) and relative risk (RR) were used for data synthesis applied in the random effects model. Stratified analyses based on the surgery type, region, intravenous and topical TXA dose and transfusion protocol were also conducted. The main outcomes included intraoperative and total blood loss volume, transfusion rate, low postoperative haemoglobin (Hb) level and postoperative Hb decline. However, the secondary outcomes included length of hospital stay (LOS) and/or occurrence of venous thromboembolism (VTE). SETTING:We searched the PubMed, Embase and Cochrane CENTRAL databases for RCTs that compared different routes of TXA administration. PARTICIPANTS:Patients undergoing TKA or THA. INTERVENTIONS:Intravenous, topical or combined intravenous and topical TXA. RESULTS:Twenty-six RCTs were selected, and the intravenous route did not differ substantially from the topical route with respect to the total blood loss volume (WMD=30.92, p=0.31), drain blood loss (WMD=-34.53, p=0.50), postoperative Hb levels (WMD=-0.01, p=0.96), Hb decline (WMD=-0.39, p=0.08), LOS (WMD=0.15, p=0.38), transfusion rate (RR=1.08, p=0.75) and VTE occurrence (RR=1.89, p=0.15). Compared with the combined-delivery group, the single-route group had significantly increased total blood loss volume (WMD=198.07, p<0.05), greater Hb decline (WMD=0.56, p<0.05) and higher transfusion rates (RR=2.51, p<0.05). However, no significant difference was noted in the drain blood loss, postoperative Hb levels and VTE events between the two groups. The intravenous and topical routes had comparable efficacy and safety profiles. CONCLUSIONS:The combination of intravenous and topical TXA was relatively more effective in controlling bleeding without increased risk of VTE.
Project description:Background: The publication of high-quality observational studies (OSs) has fueled reassessment of the treatment effects of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) in the elderly with atrial fibrillation (AF). Methods: The MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases were systematically searched (through July 1, 2019) for eligible OSs and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that reported effectiveness outcomes [stroke or systemic embolism (SE)] or safety outcomes [intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), major bleeding, gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB), myocardial infarction (MI), and all-cause mortality] for DOACs and vitamin-K antagonists (VKAs) in elderly AF patients. A random-effects model was applied to calculate adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for OSs and relative risks (RRs) for RCTs. Interaction analyses and the ratio of HR (RHR) were used to assess and compare OSs and RCTs. Results: A total of 32 studies involving 547,419 patients were included. No significant difference in treatment effect estimates was found between 27 OSs and 5 RCTs [P interaction > 0.05 for each and all 95% confidence interval (CI) of RHR crossed 1.0]. Compared with VKAs, DOACs significantly reduced risk for stroke/SE (OSs, HR: 0.87, 95% CI: 0.81-0.94; RCT, RR: 0.82, 95% CI: 0.67-0.96), and ICH (OSs: 0.47 [0.37-0.57]; RCTs: 0.47 [0.31-0.63]), without increasing risk for GIB (OSs: 1.21 [0.98-1.43]; RCTs: 1.34 [0.91-1.77]), and all-cause mortality (OSs: 1.01 [0.92-1.11]; RCTs: 0.94 [0.87-1.00]). Among OSs, DOACs significantly decreased risk for major bleeding (0.87 [0.77-0.98]) and MI (0.89 [0.79-0.99]). It was found that dabigatran, but not other DOACs, significantly increased risk for GIB (1.48 [1.23-1.72]). Conclusions: DOACs were demonstrated to be more effective and safer than VKAs in elderly AF patients, whereas dabigatran users had a 48% increase in risk for GIB.
Project description:Intracranial/intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a leading cause of death and disability in people with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and stroke. No proven drug is available for ICH. Panax notoginseng (total saponin extraction, PNS) is one of the most valuable herb medicines for stroke and cerebralvascular disorders in China. We searched for randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) involving PNS injection to treat cerebral hemorrhage for meta-analysis from various databases including the Chinese Stroke Trials Register, the trials register of the Cochrane Complementary Medicine Field, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, Chinese BioMedical disk, and China Doctorate/Master Dissertations Databases. The quality of the eligible trials was assessed by Jadad's scale. Twenty (20) of the 24 identified randomized controlled trials matched the inclusive criteria including 984 ICH patients with PNS injection and 907 ICH patients with current treatment (CT). Compared to the CT groups, PNS-treated patients showed better outcomes in the effectiveness rate (ER), neurological deficit score, intracranial hematoma volume, intracerebral edema volume, Barthel index, the number of patients died, and incidence of adverse events.PNS injection is superior to CT for acute ICH. A review of the literature shows that PNS may exert multiple protective mechanisms against ICH-induced brain damage including hemostasis, anti-coagulation, anti-thromboembolism, cerebral vasodilation, invigorated blood dynamics, anti-inflammation, antioxidation, and anti-hyperglycemic effects. Since vitamin C and other brain cell activators (BCA) that are not considered common practice were also used as parts of the CT in several trials, potential PNS and BCA interactions could exist that may have made the effect of PNS therapy less or more impressive than by PNS therapy alone. Future PNS trials with and without the inclusion of such controversial BCAs as part of the CT could clarify the situation. As PNS has a long clinical track record in Asia, it could potentially become a therapy option to treat ICH in the US and Europe. Further clinical trials with better experimental design could determine the long-term effects of PNS treatment for TBI and stroke.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>To evaluate the efficacy and safety of progesterone administrated in patients with acute traumatic brain injury (TBI).<h4>Methods</h4>PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Clinicaltrials.gov, ISRCTN registry and WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing progesterone and placebo administrated in acute TBI patients. The primary outcome was mortality and the secondary outcomes were unfavorable outcomes and adverse events. A meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of progesterone administrated in patients with acute TBI.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 6 studies met inclusion criteria, involving 2,476 patients. The risk of bias was considered to be low in 4 studies but high in the other 2 studies. The results of meta-analysis indicated progesterone did not reduce the mortality (RR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.57-1.20) or unfavorable outcomes (RR = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.78-1.02) of acute TBI patients in comparison with placebo. Sensitivity analysis yielded consistent results. Progesterone was basically safe and well tolerated in TBI patients with the exception of increased risk of phlebitis or thrombophlebitis (RR = 3.03, 95% CI = 1.96-4.66).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Despite some modest bias, present evidence demonstrated that progesterone was well tolerated but did not reduce the mortality or unfavorable outcomes of adult patients with acute TBI.