Taxonomic re-evaluation of species in Talaromyces section Islandici, using a polyphasic approach.
ABSTRACT: The taxonomy of Talaromyces rugulosus, T. wortmannii and closely related species, classified in Talaromyces sect. Islandici, is reviewed in this paper. The species of Talaromyces sect. Islandici have restricted growth on MEA and CYA, generally have yellow mycelia and produce rugulosin and/or skyrin. They are important in biotechnology (e.g. T. rugulosus, T. wortmannii) and in medicine (e.g. T. piceus, T. radicus). The taxonomy of sect. Islandici was resolved using a combination of morphological, extrolite and phylogenetic data, using the Genealogical Concordance Phylogenetic Species Recognition (GCPSR) concept, with special focus on the T. rugulosus and T. wortmannii species complexes. In this paper, we synonymise T. variabilis, Penicillium concavorugulosum and T. sublevisporus with T. wortmannii, and introduce four new species as T. acaricola, T. crassus, T. infraolivaceus and T. subaurantiacus. Finally, we provide a synoptic table for the identification of the 19 species classified in the section.
Project description:During the course of mold surveys, a set of Talaromyces isolates were obtained that did not fit any described species. Phenotypic examination of these isolates showed that they were similar to T. piceus but differed in some growth characteristics. Multilocus DNA sequence data were obtained for the new isolates and some related species in the broader, more inclusive clade, and the data were analyzed using genealogical concordance. The new isolates are described as Talaromyces columbinus. From analysis of the related species, Penicillium rugulosum var. atricolum is given species status in Talaromyces as T. atricola. Penicillium tardum and P. chrysitis were showed to be synonyms of T. rugulosus. Penicillium scorteum and T. phialosporus were showed to be conspecific and under the rule of priority T. scorteus is the proper name for isolates previously known as T. phialosporus. Talaromyces wortmanii was showed to be distinct from Penicillium concavorugulosum and T. variabilis but the relationship of the latter two species remains unresolved. Examination of ITS sequences from GenBank showed that T. columbinus has previously been reported from human lung infections under the name Penicillium piceum.
Project description:Penicillium and Talaromyces species have a worldwide distribution and are isolated from various materials and hosts, including insects and their substrates. The aim of this study was to characterize the Penicillium and Talaromyces species obtained during a survey of honey, pollen and the inside of nests of Melipona scutellaris. A total of 100 isolates were obtained during the survey and 82% of those strains belonged to Penicillium and 18% to Talaromyces. Identification of these isolates was performed based on phenotypic characters and ?-tubulin and ITS sequencing. Twenty-one species were identified in Penicillium and six in Talaromyces, including seven new species. These new species were studied in detail using a polyphasic approach combining phenotypic, molecular and extrolite data. The four new Penicillium species belong to sections Sclerotiora (Penicillium fernandesiae sp. nov., Penicillium mellis sp. nov., Penicillium meliponae sp. nov.) and Gracilenta (Penicillium apimei sp. nov.) and the three new Talaromyces species to sections Helici (Talaromyces pigmentosus sp. nov.), Talaromyces (Talaromyces mycothecae sp. nov.) and Trachyspermi (Talaromyces brasiliensis sp. nov.). The invalidly described species Penicillium echinulonalgiovense sp. nov. was also isolated during the survey and this species is validated here.
Project description:A survey of the fynbos biome in South Africa resulted in the isolation of 61 Penicillium species from Protea repens infructescences, air, and soil samples. Fourteen of these belong to Penicillium sect. Exilicaulis and therefore we considered it an opportunity to re-evaluate the taxonomy of the section. Phylogenetic comparisons of the ITS, ?-tubulin, calmodulin and RPB2 gene regions of the 76 section Exilicaulis species, revealed 52 distinct species, including nine new species from fynbos. Morphological comparisons confirmed the novelty for most of these, however, new species closely related to P. rubefaciens did not show significant or consistent morphological differences and we thus placed a bias on phylogenetic data applying the Genealogical Concordance Phylogenetic Species Recognition (GCPSR) concept. In this paper we describe the nine new species and update the accepted species list and resolve synonyms in the section. Importantly, we reveal that P. citreosulfuratum is the correct name for the clade previously considered to represent P. toxicarium fide Serra et al. (2008). The nine new species are: Penicillium atrolazulinum, P. consobrinum, P. cravenianum, P. hemitrachum, P. pagulum, P. repensicola, P. momoii, P. subturcoseum, and P. xanthomelinii spp. nov.
Project description:Talaromyces contains both asexual and sexually reproducing species. This genus is divided in seven sections and currently has 105 accepted species. In this study we investigated the Talaromyces isolates that were obtained during a study of indoor air collected in Beijing, China. These indoor Talaromyces strains are resolved in four sections, seven of them are identified as T. islandicus, T. aurantiacus, T. siamensis and T. albobiverticillius according to BenA sequences, while 14 isolates have divergent sequences and are described here as nine new species. The new species are placed in four sections, namely sections Helici, Islandici, Talaromyces and Trachyspermi. They are described based on sequence data (ITS, BenA, CaM and RPB2) in combination with phenotypic and extrolite characters. Morphological descriptions and notes for distinguishing similar species are provided for each new species. The recently described T. rubrifaciens is synonymised with T. albobiverticillius based on presented phylogenetic results.
Project description:Species classified in Penicillium sect. Chrysogena are primary soil-borne and the most well-known members are P. chrysogenum and P. nalgiovense. Penicillium chrysogenum has received much attention because of its role in the production on penicillin and as a contaminant of indoor environments and various food and feedstuffs. Another biotechnologically important species is P. nalgiovense, which is used as a fungal starter culture for the production of fermented meat products. Previous taxonomic studies often had conflicting species circumscriptions. Here, we present a multigene analysis, combined with phenotypic characters and extrolite data, demonstrating that sect. Chrysogena consists of 18 species. Six of these are newly described here (P. allii-sativi, P. desertorum, P. goetzii, P. halotolerans, P. tardochrysogenum, P. vanluykii) and P. lanoscoeruleum was found to be an older name for P. aethiopicum. Each species produces a unique extrolite profile. The species share phenotypic characters, such as good growth on CYA supplemented with 5 % NaCl, ter- or quarterverticillate branched conidiophores and short, ampulliform phialides (< 9 ?m). Conidial colours, production of ascomata and ascospores, shape and ornamentation of conidia and growth rates on other agar media are valuable for species identification. Eight species (P. allii-sativi, P. chrysogenum, P. dipodomyis, P. flavigenum, P. nalgiovense, P. rubens, P. tardochrysogenum and P. vanluykii) produce penicillin in culture.
Project description:The phylogenetic relationship among Geosmithia argillacea, Talaromyces emersonii, Talaromyces byssochlamydoides and other members of the Trichocomaceae was studied using partial RPB2 (RNA polymerase II gene, encoding the second largest protein subunit), Tsr1 (putative ribosome biogenesis protein) and Cct8 (putative chaperonin complex component TCP-1) gene sequences. The results showed that these species form a distinct clade within the Trichocomaceae and Trichocoma paradoxa is phylogenetically most closely related. Based on phenotypic and physiological characters and molecular data, we propose Rasamsonia gen. nov. to accommodate these species. This new genus is distinct from other genera of the Trichocomaceae in being thermotolerant or thermophilic and having conidiophores with distinctly rough walled stipes, olive-brown conidia and ascomata, if present, with a scanty covering. Species within the genus Rasamsonia were distinguished using a combination of phenotypic characters, extrolite patterns, ITS and partial calmodulin and ?-tubulin sequences. Rasamsonia brevistipitata sp. nov. is described and five new combinations are proposed.
Project description:Hypericum perforatum and related species (Hypericaceae) are a reservoir of pharmacologically important secondary metabolites, including the well-known naphthodianthrone hypericin. However, the exact biosynthetic steps in the hypericin biosynthetic pathway, vis-à-vis the essential precursors and their localization in plants, remain unestablished. Recently, we proposed a novel biosynthetic pathway of hypericin, not through emodin and emodin anthrone, but skyrin. However, the localization of skyrin and its precursors in Hypericum plants, as well as the correlation between their spatial distribution with the hypericin pathway intermediates and the produced naphthodianthrones, are not known. Herein, we report the spatial distribution of skyrin and its precursors in leaves of five in vitro cultivated Hypericum plant species concomitant to hypericin, its analogs, as well as its previously proposed precursors emodin and emodin anthrone, using MALDI-HRMS imaging. Firstly, we employed HPLC-HRMS to confirm the presence of skyrin in all analyzed species, namely H. humifusum, H. bupleuroides, H. annulatum, H. tetrapterum, and H. rumeliacum. Thereafter, MALDI-HRMS imaging of the skyrin-containing leaves revealed a species-specific distribution and localization pattern of skyrin. Skyrin is localized in the dark glands in H. humifusum and H. tetrapterum leaves together with hypericin but remains scattered throughout the leaves in H. annulatum, H. bupleuroides, and H. rumeliacum. The distribution and localization of related compounds were also mapped and are discussed concomitant to the incidence of skyrin. Taken together, our study establishes and correlates for the first time, the high spatial distribution of skyrin and its precursors, as well as of hypericin, its analogs, and previously proposed precursors emodin and emodin anthrone in the leaves of Hypericum plants.
Project description:The taxonomy of Aspergillus section Fumigati with its teleomorph genus Neosartorya is revised. The species concept is based on phenotypic (morphology and extrolite profiles) and molecular (beta-tubulin and calmodulin gene sequences) characters in a polyphasic approach. Four new taxa are proposed: N. australensis N. ferenczii, N. papuaensis and N. warcupii. All newly described and accepted species are illustrated. The section consists of 33 taxa: 10 strictly anamorphic Aspergillus species and 23 Neosartorya species. Four other Neosartorya species described previously were not available for this monograph, and consequently are relegated to the category of doubtful species.
Project description:The genus Monascus was described by van Tieghem (1884) to accommodate M. ruber and M. mucoroides, two species with non-ostiolate ascomata. Species delimitation in the genus is still mainly based on phenotypic characters, and taxonomic studies that include sequence data are limited. The genus is of economic importance. Species are used in fermented Asian foods as food colourants (e.g. 'red rice' (ang-kak, angka)) and found as spoilage organisms, and recently Monascus was found to be essential in the lifecycle of stingless bees. In this study, a polyphasic approach was applied combining morphological characters, ITS, LSU, ?-tubulin, calmodulin and RNA polymerase II second largest subunit sequences and extrolite data, to delimit species and to study phylogenetic relationships in Monascus. Furthermore, 30 Monascus isolates from honey, pollen and nests of stingless bees in Brazil were included. Based on this polyphasic approach, the genus Monascus is resolved in nine species, including three new species associated with stingless bees (M. flavipigmentosus sp. nov., M. mellicola sp. nov., M. recifensis sp. nov., M. argentinensis, M. floridanus, M. lunisporas, M. pallens, M. purpureus, M. ruber), and split in two new sections (section Floridani sect. nov., section Rubri sect. nov.). Phylogenetic analysis showed that the xerophile Monascus eremophilus does not belong in Monascus and monophyly in Monascus is restored with the transfer of M. eremophilus to Penicillium (P. eremophilum comb. nov.). A list of accepted and excluded Monascus and Basipetospora species is given, together with information on (ex-)types cultures and barcode sequence data.