Complete genome sequence of the novel duck hepatitis B virus strain SCP01 from Sichuan Cherry Valley duck.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:The duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) strain, designated SCP01, was isolated and identified from a Sichuan Cherry Valley duck in Southwestern China. To determine the origination and evolution of this isolated strain, we carried out complete genome sequencing of this strain. FINDINGS:Sequencing of the nucleotide sequence of DHBV strain SCP01 revealed a genome size of 3021 bp that contained three open reading frames, designated as C, S, and P, which were consistent with those of other duck hepatitis B viruses nucleotide sequences available in the GenBank of NCBI. Sequence comparisons based on the full-length genomic sequences showed that the DHBV SCP01 strain had the highest similarity (99.64 %) with the sequence of strain DHBV-XY, but had a lower similarity (90.04 %) with the sequence of strain DHBV CH5 isolated from Southwestern China. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the DHBV-XY and DHBV SCP01 formed a branch that was clearly distinct from the other strains. CONCLUSION:This study show that the DHBV SCP01 strain from Sichuan belonged to "Western" isolates, while the DHBV CH5 from Sichuan belonged to "Chinese" isolates. These data will promote further research into the evolutionary biology, epidemiology and pathobiology of hepadnavirus infections. In addition, continuing duck hepatitis B virus surveillance in poultry is critical to understand the patterns of DHBV infection, and to find further animal infection models to study HBV infection.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The human hepatitis B virus (HBV), a member of the hepadna viridae, causes acute or chronic hepatitis B, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) infection, a dependable and reproducible model for hepadna viral studies, does not result in HCC unlike chronic HBV infection. Information on differential gene expression in DHBV infection might help to compare corresponding changes during HBV infection, and to delineate the reasons for this difference. FINDINGS: A subtractive hybridization cDNA library screening of in vitro DHBV infected, cultured primary duck hepatocytes (PDH) identified cDNAs of 42 up-regulated and 36 down-regulated genes coding for proteins associated with signal transduction, cellular respiration, transcription, translation, ubiquitin/proteasome pathway, apoptosis, and membrane and cytoskeletal organization. Those coding for both novel as well as previously reported proteins in HBV/DHBV infection were present in the library. An inverse modulation of the cDNAs of ten proteins, reported to play role in human HCC, such as that of Y-box binding protein1, Platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase isoform 1B, ribosomal protein L35a, Ferritin, ?-enolase, Acid ?-glucosidase and Caspase 3, copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD), Filamin and Pyruvate dehydrogenase, was also observed in this in vitro study. CONCLUSIONS: The present study identified cDNAs of a number of genes that are differentially modulated in in vitro DHBV infection of primary duck hepatocytes. Further correlation of this differential gene expression in in vivo infection models would be valuable to understand the little known aspects of the hepadnavirus biology.
Project description:The entry mechanism of hepatitis B virus (HBV) has not been defined, and this impedes development of antiviral therapies aimed at an early step in the viral life cycle. HBV infection has both host and tissue specificities. For the related duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV), duck carboxypeptidase D (DCPD) has been proposed as the species-specific docking receptor, while glycine decarboxylase (DGD) may serve as a tissue-specific cofactor or secondary receptor. DGD binds to several truncated versions of the viral large envelope protein but not to the full-length protein, suggesting a need for proteolytic cleavage of the envelope protein by a furin-like proprotein convertase. In the present study, we found that transfected DCPD could confer DHBV binding to non-duck cell lines but that this was followed by rapid virus release from cells. Coexpression of furin led to DCPD cleavage and increased virus retention. Treatment of DHBV particles with endosome prepared from duck liver led to cleavage of the large envelope protein, and such viral preparation could generate a small amount of covalently closed circular DNA in LMH cells, a chicken hepatoma cell line resistant to DHBV infection. A furin inhibitor composed of decanoyl-RVKR-chloromethylketone blocked endosomal cleavage of the large envelope protein in vitro and suppressed DHBV infection of primary duck hepatocytes in vivo. These findings suggest that furin or a furin-like proprotein convertase facilitates DHBV infection by cleaving both the docking receptor and the viral large envelope protein.
Project description:Infection by human and animal hepadnaviruses displays remarkable host and tissue tropism. The infection cycle probably initiates with binding of the pre-S domain of viral envelope protein to surface receptors present on the hepatocyte. Three types of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies against duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) have their binding sites clustered within residues 83 to 107 of the pre-S protein, suggesting that this region may constitute a major receptor binding site. A 170- or 180-kDa duck protein (p170 or gp180) which binds DHBV particles through this part of the pre-S sequence has been identified recently. Although the p170 binding protein is host (duck) specific, its distribution is not restricted to DHBV-infectible tissues. Using the pre-S protein fused to glutathione S-transferase and immobilized on Sepharose beads, we have now identified an additional binding protein with a size of 120 kDa (p120). p120 expression is restricted to the liver, kidney, and pancreas, the three major organs of DHBV replication. While optimal p170 binding requires an intact pre-S protein, binding to p120 occurs much more efficiently with a few N- or C-terminally truncated forms. The p120 binding site was mapped to residues 98 to 102 of the pre-S region, which overlaps with a cluster of known virus-neutralizing epitopes. Site-directed mutagenesis revealed residues 100 to 102 (Phe-Arg-Arg) as the critical p120 contact site; nonconservative substitution in any of the three positions abolished p120 binding. Double mutations at positions 100 to 102 markedly reduced DHBV infectivity in cell culture. Short pre-S peptides covering the clustered neutralizing epitopes (also p170 and p120 binding sites) reduced DHBV infectivity in primary duck hepatocyte cultures. Thus, p120 represents a candidate component of the DHBV receptor complex.
Project description:Interferon gamma (IFN-gamma), which has been cloned in several mammalian species and recently in birds, plays a critical role in modulating immune system function. IFN-gamma and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) have been shown to be crucial in the pathogenesis of viral hepatitis and in the transient disappearance of hepatitis B virus (HBV) from the liver after adoptive transfer of HBV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes into HBV-transgenic mice. Similar studies in the natural animal hosts of related hepadnaviruses have been limited because the corresponding probes and recombinant cytokines were not available. For this reason, we initiated studies to clone and characterize cytokines from the duck, the natural host of the duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV). We describe here the cDNA cloning and initial characterization of the IFN-gamma homologue of ducks (DuIFN-gamma). The DuIFN-gamma cDNA codes for a predicted mature protein of 145 amino acids with a molecular mass of 16.6 kDa. The precursor protein has 67% identity with the previously cloned chicken IFN-gamma and 21 to 34% identity with mammalian IFN-gamma. Recombinant DuIFN-gamma induces the transcription of several IFN-inducible genes including IFN regulatory factor 1 and guanylate-binding protein, and it exhibits antiviral activity that protects duck cells from vesicular stomatitis virus-mediated lysis. Importantly, treatment of primary duck hepatocytes with recombinant DuIFN-gamma inhibits DHBV replication in a dose-dependent fashion. Time course analysis revealed that IFN-gamma treatment does not affect initial covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) conversion but inhibits the synthesis of progeny cccDNA by amplification.
Project description:Current therapeutic strategies cannot eradicate hepatitis B virus covalently closed circular DNA (HBV cccDNA), which accounts for the persistence of HBV infection. Very recently, the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR?associated protein 9 (Cas9) system has been used as an efficient and powerful tool for viral genome editing. Given that the primary duck hepatocyte (PDH) infected with duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) has been widely used to study human HBV infection in vitro, the present study aimed to demonstrate the targeted inhibition of DHBV DNA, especially cccDNA, by the CRISPR/Cas9 system using this model. We designed six single?guide RNAs (sgRNA1?6) targeting the DHBV genome. The sgRNA/Cas9 plasmid was transfected into DHBV?infected PDHs, and then DHBV total DNA (in culture medium and PDHs) and cccDNA were quantified by reverse transcription?quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The combined inhibition of CRISPR/Cas9 system and entecavir (ETV) was also assessed. Two sgRNAs, sgRNA4 and sgRNA6, exhibited efficient inhibition on DHBV total DNA (77.23 and 86.51%, respectively), cccDNA (75.67 and 85.34%, respectively) in PDHs, as well as DHBV total DNA in the culture medium (62.17 and 59.52%, respectively). The inhibition remained or enhanced from day 5 to day 9 following transfection. The combination of the CRISPR/Cas9 system and ETV further increased the inhibitory effect on DHBV total DNA in PDHs and culture medium, but not cccDNA. The CRISPR/Cas9 system has the potential to be a useful tool for the suppression of DHBV DNA.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major cause of liver infection in human. Because of the lack of an appropriate cell culture system for supporting HBV infection efficiently, the cellular and molecular mechanisms of hepadnavirus infection remain incompletely understood. Duck heptatitis B virus (DHBV) can naturally infect primary duck hepatocytes (PDHs) that provide valuable model systems for studying hepadnavirus infection in vitro. In this report, we explored global changes in cellular protein expression in DHBV infected PDHs by two-dimension gel electrophoresis (2-DE) combined with MALDI-TOF/TOF tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS).<h4>Results</h4>The effects of hepadnavirus infection on hepatocytes were investigated in DHBV infected PDHs by the 2-DE analysis. Proteomic profile of PDHs infected with DHBV were analyzed at 24, 72 and 120 h post-infection by comparing with uninfected PDHs, and 75 differentially expressed protein spots were revealed by 2-DE analysis. Among the selected protein spots, 51 spots were identified corresponding to 42 proteins by MS/MS analysis; most of them were matched to orthologous proteins of Gallus gallus, Anas platyrhynchos or other avian species, including alpha-enolase, lamin A, aconitase 2, cofilin-2 and annexin A2, etc. The down-regulated expression of beta-actin and annexin A2 was confirmed by Western blot analysis, and potential roles of some differentially expressed proteins in the virus-infected cells have been discussed.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Differentially expressed proteins of DHBV infected PDHs revealed by 2-DE, are involved in carbohydrate metabolism, amino acid metabolism, stress responses and cytoskeleton processes etc, providing the insight to understanding of interactions between hepadnavirus and hepatocytes and molecular mechanisms of hepadnavirus pathogenesis.
Project description:The identity and functionality of biological membranes are determined by cooperative interaction between their lipid and protein constituents. Cholesterol is an important structural lipid that modulates fluidity of biological membranes favoring the formation of detergent-resistant microdomains. In the present study, we evaluated the functional role of cholesterol and lipid rafts for entry of hepatitis B viruses into hepatocytes. We show that the duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) attaches predominantly to detergent-soluble domains on the plasma membrane. Cholesterol depletion from host membranes and thus disruption of rafts does not affect DHBV infection. In contrast, depletion of cholesterol from the envelope of both DHBV and human HBV strongly reduces virus infectivity. Cholesterol depletion increases the density of viral particles and leads to changes in the ultrastructural appearance of the virus envelope. However, the dual topology of the viral envelope protein L is not significantly impaired. Infectivity and density of viral particles are partially restored upon cholesterol replenishment. Binding and entry of cholesterol-deficient DHBV into hepatocytes are not significantly impaired, in contrast to their release from endosomes. We therefore conclude that viral but not host cholesterol is required for endosomal escape of DHBV.
Project description:Superinfection exclusion is the phenomenon whereby a virus prevents the subsequent infection of an already infected host cell. The Pekin duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) model was used to investigate superinfection exclusion in hepadnavirus infections. Superinfection exclusion was shown to occur both in vivo and in vitro with a genetically marked DHBV, DHBV-ClaI, which was unable to establish an infection in either DHBV-infected ducklings or DHBV-infected primary duck hepatocytes (PDHs). In addition, exclusion occurred in vivo even when the second virus had a replicative advantage. Superinfection exclusion appears to be restricted to DHBV, as adenovirus, herpes simplex virus type 1, and vesicular stomatitis virus were all capable of efficiently infecting DHBV-infected PDHs. Exclusion was dependent on gene expression by the original infecting virus, since UV-irradiated DHBV was unable to mediate the exclusion of DHBV-ClaI. Using recombinant adenoviruses expressing DHBV proteins, we determined that the large surface antigen mediated exclusion. The large surface antigen is known to cause down-regulation of a DHBV receptor, carboxypeptidase D (CPD). Receptor down-regulation is a mechanism of superinfection exclusion seen in other viral infections, and so it was investigated as a possible mechanism of DHBV-mediated exclusion. However, a mutant large surface antigen which did not down-regulate CPD was still capable of inhibiting DHBV infection of PDHs. In addition, exclusion of DHBV-ClaI did not correlate with a decrease in CPD levels. Finally, virus binding assays and confocal microscopy analysis of infected PDHs indicated that the block in infection occurs after internalization of the second virus. We suggest that superinfection exclusion may result from the role of the L surface antigen as a regulator of intracellular trafficking.
Project description:The duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) pregenomic RNA is a bicistronic mRNA encoding the core and polymerase proteins. Thirteen AUGs (C2 to C14) and 10 stop codons (S1 to S10) are located between the C1 AUG for the core protein and the P1 AUG that initiates polymerase translation. We previously found that the translation of the DHBV polymerase is initiated by ribosomal shunting. Here, we assessed the biosynthetic events after shunting. Translation of the polymerase open reading frame was found to initiate at the C13, C14, and P1 AUGs. Initiation at the C13 AUG occurred through ribosomal shunting because translation from this codon was cap dependent but was insensitive to blocking ribosomal scanning internally in the message. C13 and C14 are in frame with P1, and translation from these upstream start codons led to the production of larger isoforms of P. We named these isoforms "pre-P" by analogy to the pre-C and pre-S regions of the core and surface antigen open reading frames. Pre-P was produced in DHBV16 and AusDHBV-infected duck liver and was predicted to exist in 80% of avian hepadnavirus strains. Pre-P was not encapsidated into DHBV core particles, and the viable strain DHBV3 cannot make pre-P, so it is not essential for viral replication. Surprisingly, we found that pre-P is an N-linked glycoprotein that is secreted into the medium of cultured cells. These data indicate that DHBV produces an additional protein that has not been previously reported. Identifying the role of pre-P may improve our understanding of the biology of DHBV infection.
Project description:Identification of cell surface viral binding proteins is important for understanding viral attachment and internalization. We have fused the pre-S domain of the duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) large envelope protein to glutathione S-transferase and demonstrated a 170-kDa binding protein (p170) in [35S]methionine-labeled duck hepatocyte lysates. This glycoprotein was found abundantly in all extrahepatic tissues infectible with DHBV and in some noninfectible tissues, though it is not secreted into the blood. The interaction of pre-S fusion protein with p170 was competitively inhibited by wild-type DHBV in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, infection of hepatocytes with DHBV blocked the binding of pre-S fusion protein to p170, which suggests a biological role for p170 during natural infection. The p170 binding site was mapped to a conserved sequence of 16 amino acid residues (positions 87 to 102) by using 24 pre-S deletion mutants; this binding domain coincides with a major virus-neutralizing antibody epitope. Furthermore, site-directed mutagenesis revealed that an arginine residue at position 97 is critical for p170 binding. p170 was purified by a combination of ion-exchange and affinity chromatographies, and four peptide sequences were obtained. Two peptides showed significant similarities to human and animal carboxypeptides H, M, and N. Taken together, these results raise the possibility that the p170 binding protein is important during the replication cycle of DHBV.