Cloning and expression of mouse integrin beta p(beta 7): a functional role in Peyer's patch-specific lymphocyte homing.
ABSTRACT: Lymphocytes express integrin receptors, termed lymphocyte Peyer's patch high endothelial venule (HEV) adhesion molecules (LPAMs), that mediate their organ-specific adhesion to specialized HEVs found in mucosal lymphoid organs (Peyer's patches). LPAM-1 consists of a murine integrin alpha 4 noncovalently associated with integrin beta p. Here, we describe the cloning and expression of a mouse cDNA encoding beta p, which is an 806-amino acid transmembrane glycoprotein. The genomic Southern blot analysis indicates that beta p is the murine homologue of human beta 7. The function of alpha 4 beta 7 as a Peyer's patch-specific adhesion molecule was tested directly by expression of the murine beta 7 cDNA in an alpha 4+ beta 7-B-cell line or coexpression of the alpha 4 and beta 7 cDNAs in an alpha 4-beta 7-T-cell line. The transfected cells exhibited a new Peyer's patch-specific adhesive phenotype that could be specifically blocked by monoclonal antibodies against alpha 4 and beta 7. Moreover, an anti-beta 7 monoclonal antibody specifically blocked binding of normal lymphocytes to Peyer's patch HEV but did not inhibit their binding to peripheral lymph node HEVs, indicating that beta 7 is a unique component of the Peyer's patch-specific homing receptor.
Project description:cDNA clones encoding the alpha chain of the murine lymphocyte-Peyer's patch adhesion molecule (LPAM), which is associated with lymphocyte homing, have been isolated by screening with the human VLA-4 (alpha 4h) probe. Several alpha 4 antigenic determinants were identified on COS-7 cells after transfection. From overlapping clones, approximately 5 kb of contiguous nucleotide sequence have been determined, encoding a protein sequence of 1039 amino acids for the LPAM alpha chain (alpha 4m). LPAM is a member of the integrin family of cell-surface heterodimers, and alpha 4m is the murine homologue of the human alpha 4 h chain. The two proteins have a total sequence similarity of 84%, with an almost perfect conservation (31/32 amino acids) in the cytoplasmic domain. Like alpha 4h, alpha 4m is distinct from other integrin alpha chains because it has neither an I-domain nor a COOH-terminal cleavage site. The positions of the characteristic Cysteine residues are conserved, and a putative protease cleavage site is located near the middle of the protein sequence. The NH2-terminal part of the protein contains seven homologous repeats, and three of them include putative divalent cation-binding sites. These sites are among the most conserved between the alpha 4m sequence and other alpha chains, and may therefore be involved in the binding of integrin alpha and beta chains. An additional cDNA clone was isolated which shares a sequence of perfect homology with the alpha 4m encoding cDNAs, but has a unique 3' poly-A end. This observation correlates with the fact that three discrete murine RNA bands are observed in Northern blot experiments using alpha 4m as a probe, whereas only two human RNA species are described for alpha 4h, indicating a higher complexity for murine than for human sequences.
Project description:The mechanism of nasal-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT) development is incompletely understood with regard to the roles of cytokines, chemokines, and vascular addressins. Development of the wild-type NALT continued in the immediate postnatal period with gradual increases in cellularity, compartmentalization into T- and B-cell zones, and expression of lymphotoxin (LT)-alpha, LT-beta, and lymphoid chemokines (CCL21, CCL19, CXCL13). High endothelial venules (HEVs) developed that expressed GlyCAM-1, HEC-6ST [an enzyme crucial for expression of luminal peripheral node addressin (PNAd)], and PNAd itself. LT-beta(-/-) and LT-alpha(-/-) NALTs had fewer cells than those of wild-type mice, reduced (LT-beta(-/-)) or absent (LT-alpha(-/-)) lymphoid chemokines, and no T- and B-cell compartmentalization. LT-beta(-/-) HEVs expressed only abluminal PNAd and no HEC-6ST or GlyCAM-1. LT-alpha(-/-) HEVs had no PNAd, HEC-6ST, or GlyCAM-1. Because intranasal immunization gives rise to vaginal IgA, immunization of LT-beta(-/-) mice, which retain cervical lymph nodes, might generate such a response. Intranasal immunization with ovalbumin and cholera toxin revealed lower cytokine levels in the LT-alpha(-/-) and LT-beta(-/-) NALTs, and undetectable vaginal IgA. In contrast, splenic cytokines and serum IgG titers, although reduced, were detectable. These data indicate that LT-alpha(3) and LT-alpha(1)beta(2) cooperatively contribute to NALT development and function through regulation of lymphoid chemokines and adhesion molecules; they are the first to implicate LT-alpha(1)beta(2) in GlyCAM-1 regulation in NALT HEV development.
Project description:Lymphocyte trafficking to lymph nodes (LNs) is initiated by the interaction between lymphocyte L-selectin and certain sialomucins, collectively termed peripheral node addressin (PNAd), carrying specific carbohydrates expressed by LN high endothelial venules (HEVs). Here, we identified a novel HEV-associated sialomucin, nepmucin (mucin not expressed in Peyer's patches [PPs]), that is expressed in LN HEVs but not detectable in PP HEVs at the protein level. Unlike conventional sialomucins, nepmucin contains a single V-type immunoglobulin (Ig) domain and a mucin-like domain. Using materials affinity-purified from LN lysates with soluble L-selectin, we found that two higher molecular weight species of nepmucin (75 and 95 kD) were decorated with oligosaccharides that bind L-selectin as well as an HEV-specific MECA-79 monoclonal antibody. Electron microscopic analysis showed that nepmucin accumulates in the extended luminal microvillus processes of LN HEVs. Upon appropriate glycosylation, nepmucin supported lymphocyte rolling via its mucin-like domain under physiological flow conditions. Furthermore, unlike most other sialomucins, nepmucin bound lymphocytes via its Ig domain, apparently independently of lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 and very late antigen 4, and promoted shear-resistant lymphocyte binding in combination with intercellular adhesion molecule 1. Collectively, these results suggest that nepmucin may serve as a dual-functioning PNAd in LN HEVs, mediating both lymphocyte rolling and binding via different functional domains.
Project description:alpha(4) integrins play a pivotal role in leukocyte migration and tissue-specific homing. The ability of integrins to bind ligand is dynamically regulated by activation-dependent conformational changes triggered in the cytoplasmic domain. An NMR solution structure defined a putative membrane-proximal salt bridge between the alpha(IIb)beta(3) integrin cytoplasmic tails, which restrains integrins in their low-affinity state. However, the physiological importance of this salt bridge in alpha(4) integrin regulation remains to be elucidated. To address this question, we disrupted the salt bridge in murine germ line by mutating the conserved cytoplasmic arginine R(GFFKR) in alpha(4) integrins. In lymphocytes from knock-in mice (alpha(4)-R/A(GFFKR)), alpha(4)beta(1) and alpha(4)beta(7) integrins exhibited constitutively up-regulated ligand binding. However, transmigration of these cells across VCAM-1 and MAdCAM-1 substrates, or across endothelial monolayers, was reduced. Perturbed detachment of the tail appeared to cause the reduced cell migration of alpha(4)-R/A(GFFKR) lymphocytes. In vivo, alpha(4)-R/A(GFFKR) cells exhibited increased firm adhesion to Peyer patch venules but reduced homing to the gut. Our results demonstrate that the membrane-proximal salt bridge plays a critical role in supporting proper alpha(4) integrin adhesive dynamics. Loss of this interaction destabilizes the nonadhesive conformation, and thereby perturbs the properly balanced cycles of adhesion and deadhesion required for efficient cell migration.
Project description:Naive lymphocytes continuously migrate from the blood into lymph nodes (LNs) via high endothelial venules (HEVs). To extravasate from the HEVs, lymphocytes undergo multiple adhesion steps, including tethering, rolling, firm adhesion and transmigration. We previously showed that autotaxin (ATX), an enzyme that generates lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), is highly expressed in HEVs, and that the ATX/LPA axis plays an important role in the lymphocyte transmigration across HEVs. However, the detailed mechanism underlying this axis's involvement in lymphocyte transmigration has remained ill-defined. Here, we show that two LPA receptors, LPA4 and LPA6, are selectively expressed on HEV endothelial cells (ECs) and that LPA4 plays a major role in the lymphocyte transmigration across HEVs in mice. In the absence of LPA4 expression, lymphocytes accumulated heavily within the HEV EC layer, compared to wild-type (WT) mice. This accumulation was also observed in the absence of LPA6 expression, but it was less pronounced. Adoptive transfer experiments using WT lymphocytes revealed that the LPA4 deficiency in ECs specifically compromised the lymphocyte transmigration process, whereas the effect of LPA6 deficiency was not significant. These results indicate that the signals evoked in HEV ECs via the LPA4 and LPA6 differentially regulate lymphocyte extravasation from HEVs in the peripheral LNs.
Project description:The integrin alpha 8 beta 1 has been reported to bind to fibronectin, vitronectin, and tenascin-C in cell adhesion or neurite outgrowth assays. Here, we describe cDNA cloning of the murine alpha 8 subunit, purification of a recombinant soluble heterodimer consisting of the extracellular domains of the murine alpha 8 and beta1 subunits, and development of a sensitive binding assay using a modified form of this heterodimer fused to alkaline phosphatase (AP). In binding assays, the purified alpha 8 beta 1-AP chimera exhibited the same divalent ion requirements for activation and binding specificity as cell surface alpha 8 beta 1: in the presence of Mn2+ it bound to fibronectin and vitronectin in an RGDS-peptide inhibitable manner. Contrary to previous reports, we found no evidence that alpha 8 beta 1, expressed on K562 cells or as an AP chimera, interacts strongly with native tenascin-C. In binding, adhesion, and spreading assays, significant interactions were observed only to short fragments of tenascin-C containing the third fibronectin type III repeat which contains an RGD sequence. Full length tenascin-C and longer fragments containing this repeat did not appear to serve as ligands, implying that the RGD site in native tenascin-C is a cryptic binding site for this integrin, exposed by removal of adjacent domains. Soluble integrin-AP chimeras should be generally useful for identifying and characterizing integrin interactions with ligands.
Project description:Platelet adhesion has been measured to type-I monomeric collagen, collagen fibres, alpha 1(I) and alpha 2(I) chains and the chain fragments alpha 1(I)CB3, alpha 1(I)CB6, alpha 1(I)CB7 and alpha 1(I)CB8, and alpha 2(I)CB3,5 and alpha 2(I)CB4. Little if any adhesion occurred to any denatured species at 37 degrees C, demonstrating the importance of the collagen helix. However, on coating at 4 degrees C to promote helix formation, and assaying at room temperature to avoid denaturation, adhesion was observed to both alpha-chain types and all fragments, the exact level of which depended on the identity of the species in question. Adhesion was strongly Mg(2+)-dependent. Antibodies against the integrin alpha 2 beta 1 partially inhibited adhesion to alpha-chains and all fragments except alpha 1(I)CB6, indicating a wide distribution of alpha 2 beta 1-binding sites in the collagen molecule. 'Activation-dependent' adhesion to monomeric collagen, totally secondary to alpha 2 beta 1-mediated adhesion, involved at least two mechanisms, one mediated by integrin alpha IIb beta 3 and insensitive to prostaglandin E1, the other inhibitable by prostaglandin E1 but independent of integrin alpha IIb beta 3. alpha IIb beta 3-mediated adhesion to fragments was, at least in part, independent of the alpha 2 beta 1-mediated adhesion. Adhesion to fibres was largely bivalent-cation-independent with only minor involvement of integrin alpha 2 beta 1. Some alpha IIb beta 3-mediated adhesion occurred but was independent of any alpha 2 beta 1-initiated adhesion. Total 'activation-dependent' adhesion to fibres was less than to monomeric collagen. Affinity chromatography revealed bivalent-cation-independent binding to fibres of three main platelet surface proteins, 90, 150 and 190 kDa in size.
Project description:Lymphocytes are recruited from blood by high-endothelial venules (HEVs). We performed transcriptomic analyses and identified molecular signatures that distinguish HEVs from capillary endothelium and that define tissue-specific HEV specialization. Capillaries expressed gene programs for vascular development. HEV-expressed genes showed enrichment for genes encoding molecules involved in immunological defense and lymphocyte migration. We identify capillary and HEV markers and candidate mechanisms for regulated recruitment of lymphocytes, including a lymph node HEV-selective transmembrane mucin; transcriptional control of functionally specialized carbohydrate ligands for lymphocyte L-selectin; HEV expression of molecules for transendothelial migration; and metabolic programs for lipid mediators of lymphocyte motility and chemotaxis. We also elucidate a carbohydrate-recognition pathway that targets B cells to intestinal lymphoid tissues, defining CD22 as a lectin-homing receptor for mucosal HEVs.
Project description:A key molecular link between cells and the extracellular matrix is the binding between fibronectin and integrins alpha(5)beta(1) and alpha(v)beta(3). However, the roles of these different integrins in establishing adhesion remain unclear. We tested the adhesion strength of fibronectin-integrin-cytoskeleton linkages by applying physiological nanonewton forces to fibronectin-coated magnetic beads bound to cells. We report that the clustering of fibronectin domains within 40 nm led to integrin alpha(5)beta(1) recruitment, and increased the ability to sustain force by over six-fold. This force was supported by alpha(5)beta(1) integrin clusters. Importantly, we did not detect a role of either integrin alpha(v)beta(3) or talin 1 or 2 in maintaining adhesion strength. Instead, these molecules enabled the connection to the cytoskeleton and reinforcement in response to an applied force. Thus, high matrix forces are primarily supported by clustered alpha(5)beta(1) integrins, while less stable links to alpha(v)beta(3) integrins initiate mechanotransduction, resulting in reinforcement of integrin-cytoskeleton linkages through talin-dependent bonds.
Project description:Integrins regulate adhesion-dependent growth, survival and invasion of tumor cells. In particular, expression of integrin alpha(v)beta(3) is associated with progression of a variety of human tumors. Here we reveal a previously undescribed adhesion-independent role for integrin alpha(v)beta(3) in pancreatic cancer and other carcinomas. Specifically, alpha(v)beta(3) expressed in carcinoma cells enhanced anchorage-independent tumor growth in vitro and increased lymph node metastases in vivo. These effects required recruitment of c-Src to the beta(3) integrin cytoplasmic tail, leading to c-Src activation, Crk-associated substrate (CAS) phosphorylation and tumor cell survival that, unexpectedly, was independent of cell adhesion or focal adhesion kinase (FAK) activation. Pharmacological blockade of c-Src kinase activity or decreased expression of endogenous alpha(v)beta(3) integrin or c-Src not only inhibited anchorage-independent growth but also suppressed metastasis in vivo, yet these manipulations did not affect tumor cell migration or invasion. These data define an unexpected role for an integrin as a mediator of anchorage independence, suggesting that an alpha(v)beta(3)-c-Src signaling module may account for the aggressive behavior of integrin alpha(v)beta(3)-expressing tumors in humans.